2013

  • A., L. K., Mossey, S., Montgomery, P., & E., K. T.. (2013). First year nursing students’ viewpoints about compromised clinical safety. Nurse education today, 33(5), 475-480.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Summary: Objective: Undergraduate nursing students must uphold patient safety as a professional and moral obligation across all clinical learning experiences. This expectation commences at entry into the nursing program. As part of a larger study exploring undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students’ understanding of clinical safety, this paper specifically focuses on first year students’ viewpoints about unsafe clinical learning situations. Methods: Q-methodology was used. Sixty-eight first year nursing students participated in the ranking of 43 statements indicative of unsafe clinical situations and practices. Data was entered into a Q-program for factor analysis. Results: The results revealed a typology of four discrete viewpoints of unsafe clinical situations for first year students. These viewpoints included an overwhelming sense of inner discomfort, practicing contrary to conventions, lacking in professional integrity and disharmonizing relations. Overall, a consensus viewpoint described exonerating the clinical educator as not being solely responsible for clinical safety. Discussion: This information may assist students and educators to cooperatively and purposefully construct a clinical learning milieu conducive to safety.

    @article{RefWorks:241,
      author={Laura Killam  A. and Sharolyn Mossey and Phyllis Montgomery and Katherine Timmermans  E.},
      year={2013},
      month={05},
      title={First year nursing students' viewpoints about compromised clinical safety},
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={33},
      number={5},
      pages={475-480},
      note={ID: 2012203477},
      abstract={Summary: Objective: Undergraduate nursing students must uphold patient safety as a professional and moral obligation across all clinical learning experiences. This expectation commences at entry into the nursing program. As part of a larger study exploring undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students' understanding of clinical safety, this paper specifically focuses on first year students' viewpoints about unsafe clinical learning situations. Methods: Q-methodology was used. Sixty-eight first year nursing students participated in the ranking of 43 statements indicative of unsafe clinical situations and practices. Data was entered into a Q-program for factor analysis. Results: The results revealed a typology of four discrete viewpoints of unsafe clinical situations for first year students. These viewpoints included an overwhelming sense of inner discomfort, practicing contrary to conventions, lacking in professional integrity and disharmonizing relations. Overall, a consensus viewpoint described exonerating the clinical educator as not being solely responsible for clinical safety. Discussion: This information may assist students and educators to cooperatively and purposefully construct a clinical learning milieu conducive to safety.},
      keywords={Students, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Student Attitudes; Patient Safety; Education, Clinical; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Human; Ontario; Student Attitudes -- Evaluation; Factor Analysis; Q-Sort; Convenience Sample},
      isbn={0260-6917},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012203477&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • A., M. D., Druschel, K., Helba, M., & Courtney, K.. (2013). Nursing Student Medication Errors: A Case Study Using Root Cause Analysis. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(2), 102-108.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Root cause analysis (RCA) has been used widely as a means to understand factors contributing to medication errors and to move beyond blame of an individual to identify system factors that contribute to these errors. Nursing schools respond to student medication errors seriously, and many choose to discipline the student without taking into consideration both personal and system factors. The purpose of this article is to present a case study that highlights an undergraduate nursing student medication error and the application of an RCA. The use of this method was a direct result of our nursing program implementation of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses competencies. The RCA included a critical evaluation of the incident and a review of the literature. Factors identified were environmental, personal, unit communication and culture, and education. The process of using the RCA provided an opportunity to identify improvement strategies to prevent future errors. The use of the RCA promotes a fair and just culture in nursing education and helps nursing students and faculty identify problems and solutions both in their performance and the systems in which they work.

    @article{RefWorks:270,
      author={Mary Dolansky  A. and Kalina Druschel and Maura Helba and Kathleen Courtney},
      year={2013},
      month={2013},
      title={Nursing Student Medication Errors: A Case Study Using Root Cause Analysis},
      journal={Journal of Professional Nursing},
      volume={29},
      number={2},
      pages={102-108},
      note={ID: 2012088394},
      abstract={Root cause analysis (RCA) has been used widely as a means to understand factors contributing to medication errors and to move beyond blame of an individual to identify system factors that contribute to these errors. Nursing schools respond to student medication errors seriously, and many choose to discipline the student without taking into consideration both personal and system factors. The purpose of this article is to present a case study that highlights an undergraduate nursing student medication error and the application of an RCA. The use of this method was a direct result of our nursing program implementation of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses competencies. The RCA included a critical evaluation of the incident and a review of the literature. Factors identified were environmental, personal, unit communication and culture, and education. The process of using the RCA provided an opportunity to identify improvement strategies to prevent future errors. The use of the RCA promotes a fair and just culture in nursing education and helps nursing students and faculty identify problems and solutions both in their performance and the systems in which they work.},
      keywords={Students, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Medication Errors; Education, Nursing; Root Cause Analysis; Midwestern United States; Medical-Surgical Nursing; Communication; Organizational Culture; Medication Errors -- Etiology},
      isbn={8755-7223},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012088394&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • A., M. D., Druschel, K., Helba, M., & Courtney, K.. (2013). Nursing Student Medication Errors: A Case Study Using Root Cause Analysis. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(2), 102-108.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Root cause analysis (RCA) has been used widely as a means to understand factors contributing to medication errors and to move beyond blame of an individual to identify system factors that contribute to these errors. Nursing schools respond to student medication errors seriously, and many choose to discipline the student without taking into consideration both personal and system factors. The purpose of this article is to present a case study that highlights an undergraduate nursing student medication error and the application of an RCA. The use of this method was a direct result of our nursing program implementation of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses competencies. The RCA included a critical evaluation of the incident and a review of the literature. Factors identified were environmental, personal, unit communication and culture, and education. The process of using the RCA provided an opportunity to identify improvement strategies to prevent future errors. The use of the RCA promotes a fair and just culture in nursing education and helps nursing students and faculty identify problems and solutions both in their performance and the systems in which they work.

    @article{RefWorks:271,
      author={Mary Dolansky  A. and Kalina Druschel and Maura Helba and Kathleen Courtney},
      year={2013},
      month={2013},
      title={Nursing Student Medication Errors: A Case Study Using Root Cause Analysis},
      journal={Journal of Professional Nursing},
      volume={29},
      number={2},
      pages={102-108},
      note={ID: 2012088394},
      abstract={Root cause analysis (RCA) has been used widely as a means to understand factors contributing to medication errors and to move beyond blame of an individual to identify system factors that contribute to these errors. Nursing schools respond to student medication errors seriously, and many choose to discipline the student without taking into consideration both personal and system factors. The purpose of this article is to present a case study that highlights an undergraduate nursing student medication error and the application of an RCA. The use of this method was a direct result of our nursing program implementation of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses competencies. The RCA included a critical evaluation of the incident and a review of the literature. Factors identified were environmental, personal, unit communication and culture, and education. The process of using the RCA provided an opportunity to identify improvement strategies to prevent future errors. The use of the RCA promotes a fair and just culture in nursing education and helps nursing students and faculty identify problems and solutions both in their performance and the systems in which they work.},
      keywords={Students, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Medication Errors; Education, Nursing; Root Cause Analysis; Midwestern United States; Medical-Surgical Nursing; Communication; Organizational Culture; Medication Errors -- Etiology},
      isbn={8755-7223},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012088394&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Andrew, S., & Mansour, M.. (2013). Safeguarding in medication administration: understanding pre-registration nursing students’ survey response to patient safety and peer reporting issues. Journal of nursing management.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    AIM: To explore nursing students’ experiences of patient safety and peer reporting using hypothetical medication administration scenarios. BACKGROUND: Pre-registration nurse training is tasked with the preparation of students able to provide safe, high quality nursing care. How students’ contextualise teaching related to patient safety, risk recognition and management in the clinical setting is less clear. METHOD: A total of 321 third year students enrolled in the final semester of an adult branch pre-registration nursing programme in 2011 in a UK university were surveyed. Using free texts, the questionnaire contained hypothetical medication administration scenarios where patient safety could potentially be at risk. Students’ qualitative responses were analysed using thematic analysis. FINDINGS: The response rate was 58% (n = 186). Four themes were identified from the scenarios: (1) Protecting patient safety (2) Willingness to compromise; (3) Avoiding responsibility; (4) Consequences from my actions. CONCLUSION: The findings underscore the importance of contextual teaching about risk management, practical techniques for error management and leadership for optimal patient safety in nursing curricula. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nurse managers are role models for nursing students in the clinical setting. Nursing management must lead, by example, the patient safety agenda in the clinical setting.

    @article{RefWorks:279,
      author={S. Andrew and M. Mansour},
      year={2013},
      month={Aug 7},
      title={Safeguarding in medication administration: understanding pre-registration nursing students' survey response to patient safety and peer reporting issues},
      journal={Journal of nursing management},
      note={CI: (c) 2013; JID: 9306050; OTO: NOTNLM; 2013/05/26 [accepted]; aheadofprint},
      abstract={AIM: To explore nursing students' experiences of patient safety and peer reporting using hypothetical medication administration scenarios. BACKGROUND: Pre-registration nurse training is tasked with the preparation of students able to provide safe, high quality nursing care. How students' contextualise teaching related to patient safety, risk recognition and management in the clinical setting is less clear. METHOD: A total of 321 third year students enrolled in the final semester of an adult branch pre-registration nursing programme in 2011 in a UK university were surveyed. Using free texts, the questionnaire contained hypothetical medication administration scenarios where patient safety could potentially be at risk. Students' qualitative responses were analysed using thematic analysis. FINDINGS: The response rate was 58% (n = 186). Four themes were identified from the scenarios: (1) Protecting patient safety (2) Willingness to compromise; (3) Avoiding responsibility; (4) Consequences from my actions. CONCLUSION: The findings underscore the importance of contextual teaching about risk management, practical techniques for error management and leadership for optimal patient safety in nursing curricula. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nurse managers are role models for nursing students in the clinical setting. Nursing management must lead, by example, the patient safety agenda in the clinical setting.},
      keywords={nurse administrators; patient safety; student nurse; whistleblowing},
      isbn={1365-2834; 0966-0429},
      language={ENG}
    }

  • Anest, R. C.. (2013). Teaching patient safety with a functional electronic medication record. The Journal of nursing education, 52(5), 303-20130422-11.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{RefWorks:280,
      author={R. C. Anest},
      year={2013},
      month={May},
      title={Teaching patient safety with a functional electronic medication record},
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={52},
      number={5},
      pages={303-20130422-11},
      note={JID: 7705432; ppublish},
      keywords={Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods/organization & administration; Electronic Health Records; Humans; Microcomputers; Nursing Education Research; Safety Management/methods; School Admission Criteria},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Armstron, G., & Barton, A.. (2013). Fundamentally Updating Fundamentals. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(2), 82-87.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recent educational research indicates that the six competencies of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses initiative are best introduced in early prelicensure clinical courses. Content specific to quality and safety has traditionally been covered in senior level courses. This article illustrates an effective approach to using quality and safety as an organizing framework for any prelicensure fundamentals of nursing course. Providing prelicensure students a strong foundation in quality and safety in an introductory clinical course facilitates early adoption of quality and safety competencies as core practice values

    @article{RefWorks:259,
      author={Gail Armstron and Amy Barton},
      year={2013},
      month={2013},
      title={Fundamentally Updating Fundamentals},
      journal={Journal of Professional Nursing},
      volume={29},
      number={2},
      pages={82-87},
      note={ID: 2012088391},
      abstract={Recent educational research indicates that the six competencies of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses initiative are best introduced in early prelicensure clinical courses. Content specific to quality and safety has traditionally been covered in senior level courses. This article illustrates an effective approach to using quality and safety as an organizing framework for any prelicensure fundamentals of nursing course. Providing prelicensure students a strong foundation in quality and safety in an introductory clinical course facilitates early adoption of quality and safety competencies as core practice values},
      keywords={Education, Nursing; Curriculum; Nursing Skills -- Education; Patient Safety; Quality Improvement; Student Attitudes},
      isbn={8755-7223},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012088391&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Cleary-Holdforth, J., & Leufer, T.. (2013). The strategic role of education in the prevention of medication errors in nursing: Part 2. Nurse Education in Practice, 13(3), 217-220.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    It has been established that medication errors are a significant cause for concern in healthcare settings. In Part 1 of this paper the gravity of this problem in addition to the some of the contributing factors were discussed. The shared nature of the problem across disciplines was highlighted in addition to the potential benefits of multi-disciplinary collaboration in resolution of the problem. The contribution that education can make in this regard is unquestionable both at pre-registration (undergraduate) and postregistration level. A variety of pragmatic proposals will be presented for consideration. In addition, clinical and educational measures that have been shown to reduce medication errors will also be proffered and the way(s) forward to ensure optimal medication management and patient safety will be explored from a nursing perspective. The specific aim of this paper is to illuminate the significant role that education, in both academic and clinical settings, can play in the preparation of nurses for their roles in medication management and the marked reduction in errors and improved patient outcomes in this area of practice that they can yield.

    @article{RefWorks:255,
      author={Joanne Cleary-Holdforth and Therese Leufer},
      year={2013},
      month={05},
      title={The strategic role of education in the prevention of medication errors in nursing: Part 2},
      journal={Nurse Education in Practice},
      volume={13},
      number={3},
      pages={217-220},
      note={ID: 2012069279},
      abstract={It has been established that medication errors are a significant cause for concern in healthcare settings. In Part 1 of this paper the gravity of this problem in addition to the some of the contributing factors were discussed. The shared nature of the problem across disciplines was highlighted in addition to the potential benefits of multi-disciplinary collaboration in resolution of the problem. The contribution that education can make in this regard is unquestionable both at pre-registration (undergraduate) and postregistration level. A variety of pragmatic proposals will be presented for consideration. In addition, clinical and educational measures that have been shown to reduce medication errors will also be proffered and the way(s) forward to ensure optimal medication management and patient safety will be explored from a nursing perspective. The specific aim of this paper is to illuminate the significant role that education, in both academic and clinical settings, can play in the preparation of nurses for their roles in medication management and the marked reduction in errors and improved patient outcomes in this area of practice that they can yield.},
      keywords={Medication Errors -- Prevention and Control; Drug Administration -- Education; Education, Nursing, Continuing; Nursing Practice; Patient Rounds; Patient Safety; Medication Errors -- Etiology; Education, Nursing; Student Placement; Education, Clinical; Dosage Calculation -- Education; Mathematics -- Education},
      isbn={1471-5953},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012069279&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Cleary-Holdforth, J., & Leufer, T.. (2013). The strategic role of education in the prevention of medication errors in nursing: part 2. Nurse education in practice, 13(3), 217-220.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    It has been established that medication errors are a significant cause for concern in healthcare settings. In Part 1 of this paper the gravity of this problem in addition to the some of the contributing factors were discussed. The shared nature of the problem across disciplines was highlighted in addition to the potential benefits of multi-disciplinary collaboration in resolution of the problem. The contribution that education can make in this regard is unquestionable both at pre-registration (undergraduate) and post-registration level. A variety of pragmatic proposals will be presented for consideration. In addition, clinical and educational measures that have been shown to reduce medication errors will also be proffered and the way(s) forward to ensure optimal medication management and patient safety will be explored from a nursing perspective. The specific aim of this paper is to illuminate the significant role that education, in both academic and clinical settings, can play in the preparation of nurses for their roles in medication management and the marked reduction in errors and improved patient outcomes in this area of practice that they can yield.

    @article{RefWorks:283,
      author={J. Cleary-Holdforth and T. Leufer},
      year={2013},
      month={May},
      title={The strategic role of education in the prevention of medication errors in nursing: part 2},
      journal={Nurse education in practice},
      volume={13},
      number={3},
      pages={217-220},
      note={CI: Copyright (c) 2013; JID: 101090848; 2013/01/18 [received]; 2013/01/30 [accepted]; 2013/03/06 [aheadofprint]; ppublish},
      abstract={It has been established that medication errors are a significant cause for concern in healthcare settings. In Part 1 of this paper the gravity of this problem in addition to the some of the contributing factors were discussed. The shared nature of the problem across disciplines was highlighted in addition to the potential benefits of multi-disciplinary collaboration in resolution of the problem. The contribution that education can make in this regard is unquestionable both at pre-registration (undergraduate) and post-registration level. A variety of pragmatic proposals will be presented for consideration. In addition, clinical and educational measures that have been shown to reduce medication errors will also be proffered and the way(s) forward to ensure optimal medication management and patient safety will be explored from a nursing perspective. The specific aim of this paper is to illuminate the significant role that education, in both academic and clinical settings, can play in the preparation of nurses for their roles in medication management and the marked reduction in errors and improved patient outcomes in this area of practice that they can yield.},
      keywords={Clinical Competence; Education, Nursing; Humans; Medication Errors/prevention & control; Nursing Care/standards; Nursing Education Research; Nursing Evaluation Research},
      isbn={1873-5223; 1471-5953},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Cohen, N. L.. (2013). Using the ABCs of situational awareness for patient safety. Nursing, 43(4), 64-65.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{RefWorks:282,
      author={N. L. Cohen},
      year={2013},
      month={Apr},
      title={Using the ABCs of situational awareness for patient safety},
      journal={Nursing},
      volume={43},
      number={4},
      pages={64-65},
      note={JID: 7600137; ppublish},
      keywords={Awareness; Curriculum; Education, Nursing/organization & administration; Humans; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Nursing Education Research; Nursing Evaluation Research; Nursing Methodology Research; Patient Safety; Safety Management/methods; Terminology as Topic},
      isbn={1538-8689; 0360-4039},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Cooper, E.. (2013). From the School of Nursing Quality and Safety Officer: Nursing Students’ Use of Safety Reporting Tools and Their Perception of Safety Issues in Clinical Settings. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(2), 109-116.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Improved patient safety and quality are priority goals for nurses and schools of nursing. This article describes the innovative new role of quality and safety officer (QSO) developed by one university in response to the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses challenge to increase quality and safety education for prelicensure nursing students. The article also describes the results of a study conducted by the QSO, obtaining information from prelicensure nursing students about the use of safety tools and identifying the students’ perceptions of safety issues, communication, and safety reporting in the clinical setting. Responses of 145 prelicensure nursing students suggest that it is difficult to get all errors and near-miss events reported. Barriers for nursing students are similar to the barriers nurses and physicians identify in reporting errors and near-miss events. The survey reveals that safety for the patient is the primary concern of the student nurse.

    @article{RefWorks:242,
      author={Elizabeth Cooper},
      year={2013},
      month={2013},
      title={From the School of Nursing Quality and Safety Officer: Nursing Students' Use of Safety Reporting Tools and Their Perception of Safety Issues in Clinical Settings},
      journal={Journal of Professional Nursing},
      volume={29},
      number={2},
      pages={109-116},
      note={ID: 2012088395},
      abstract={Improved patient safety and quality are priority goals for nurses and schools of nursing. This article describes the innovative new role of quality and safety officer (QSO) developed by one university in response to the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses challenge to increase quality and safety education for prelicensure nursing students. The article also describes the results of a study conducted by the QSO, obtaining information from prelicensure nursing students about the use of safety tools and identifying the students' perceptions of safety issues, communication, and safety reporting in the clinical setting. Responses of 145 prelicensure nursing students suggest that it is difficult to get all errors and near-miss events reported. Barriers for nursing students are similar to the barriers nurses and physicians identify in reporting errors and near-miss events. The survey reveals that safety for the patient is the primary concern of the student nurse.},
      keywords={Education, Nursing; Patient Safety; Student Attitudes; Voluntary Reporting; Students, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Students, Nursing, Graduate; Quality of Nursing Care; Human; Student Attitudes -- Evaluation; Faculty, Nursing; Faculty Role; Exploratory Research; Questionnaires; Convenience Sample; Electronic Mail; Documentation -- Utilization; Descriptive Statistics; Descriptive Research; Summated Rating Scaling; Adult; Communication},
      isbn={8755-7223},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012088395&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • D., A. J.. (2013). The impact of integrating Quality and Safety Education for Nurses’ safety competency in first-year associate degree nursing students. Teaching & Learning in Nursing, 8(4), 140-146.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Abstract: The purpose of this pilot project was to integrate Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) safety competency teaching strategies in first-semester associate degree in nursing (ADN) students and evaluate student learning outcomes. A pretest–posttest design measured the students’ perception of safety awareness. Results suggest a strong correlation between didactic and clinical instruction of QSEN safety competency teaching strategies to enhance students’ awareness of safety, thus fostering quality patient care.

    @article{RefWorks:246,
      author={Angela Jones  D.},
      year={2013},
      month={10},
      title={The impact of integrating Quality and Safety Education for Nurses' safety competency in first-year associate degree nursing students},
      journal={Teaching & Learning in Nursing},
      volume={8},
      number={4},
      pages={140-146},
      note={ID: 2012306289},
      abstract={Abstract: The purpose of this pilot project was to integrate Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) safety competency teaching strategies in first-semester associate degree in nursing (ADN) students and evaluate student learning outcomes. A pretest–posttest design measured the students' perception of safety awareness. Results suggest a strong correlation between didactic and clinical instruction of QSEN safety competency teaching strategies to enhance students' awareness of safety, thus fostering quality patient care.},
      keywords={Education, Nursing, Associate; Patient Safety; Quality of Nursing Care; Curriculum Development; Clinical Competence; Human; Outcomes of Education; Student Performance Appraisal; Pretest-Posttest Design},
      isbn={1557-3087},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012306289&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Didion, J., A., M. K., Koffel, C., & Oneail, K.. (2013). Academic/Clinical Partnership and Collaboration in Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(2), 89-94.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Institute of Medicine and the Carnegie Foundation for Health Education have called for significant changes in nursing education to reduce medical errors and improve health outcomes. In response to this call, a small private Catholic university undertook an innovative bachelor of science in nursing curriculum revision based in large part on the competencies described by the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) initiative. Part of the curriculum revision involved an innovative model of clinical education. The model emphasized integration and application of concepts across multiple didactic courses and envisioned the student as an active member of the health care team. Instead of exposing students to numerous clinical placements, the goal was to increase student exposure to one site to appreciate system issues and effectively work with a stable health care team. Implementation of this model required a strong academic/ clinical partnership between Lourdes University and a large integrated regional health care system, ProMedica. Supported by a program grant from the Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services Nurse Education Practice, Quality and Retention, the practice-based role of the clinical integration partner (CIP) was developed to implement the new clinical education model. This article describes the academic/clinical partnership and the role of the CIP in implementing a QSEN-based clinical education model.

    @article{RefWorks:236,
      author={Judy Didion and Mary Kozy  A. and Chris Koffel and Kristin Oneail},
      year={2013},
      month={2013},
      title={Academic/Clinical Partnership and Collaboration in Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Education},
      journal={Journal of Professional Nursing},
      volume={29},
      number={2},
      pages={89-94},
      note={ID: 2012088392},
      abstract={The Institute of Medicine and the Carnegie Foundation for Health Education have called for significant changes in nursing education to reduce medical errors and improve health outcomes. In response to this call, a small private Catholic university undertook an innovative bachelor of science in nursing curriculum revision based in large part on the competencies described by the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) initiative. Part of the curriculum revision involved an innovative model of clinical education. The model emphasized integration and application of concepts across multiple didactic courses and envisioned the student as an active member of the health care team. Instead of exposing students to numerous clinical placements, the goal was to increase student exposure to one site to appreciate system issues and effectively work with a stable health care team. Implementation of this model required a strong academic/ clinical partnership between Lourdes University and a large integrated regional health care system, ProMedica. Supported by a program grant from the Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services Nurse Education Practice, Quality and Retention, the practice-based role of the clinical integration partner (CIP) was developed to implement the new clinical education model. This article describes the academic/clinical partnership and the role of the CIP in implementing a QSEN-based clinical education model.},
      keywords={Interinstitutional Relations; Education, Nursing; Patient Safety -- Education; Education, Clinical; Collaboration; Schools, Nursing; Curriculum; Multiinstitutional Systems; Teamwork; Ohio},
      isbn={8755-7223},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012088392&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Djukic, M., T., C. K., S., C. B., K., F. F., Bernstein, I., & Aidarus, N.. (2013). Improvements in Educational Preparedness for Quality and Safety. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 4(2), 15-21.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{RefWorks:243,
      author={Maja Djukic and Christine Kovner  T. and Carol Brewer  S. and Farida Fatehi  K. and Ilya Bernstein and Nasra Aidarus},
      year={2013},
      month={07},
      title={Improvements in Educational Preparedness for Quality and Safety},
      journal={Journal of Nursing Regulation},
      volume={4},
      number={2},
      pages={15-21},
      note={ID: 2012195727},
      keywords={Education, Nursing; Patient Safety -- Education; Quality Assurance -- Education; Quality Improvement -- Evaluation; New Graduate Nurses -- United States; Human; Cross Sectional Studies -- United States; Registered Nurses; United States; Repeated Measures; Nursing Practice, Evidence-Based; Data Analysis; Program Implementation; Comparative Studies -- United States; Questionnaires; Chi Square Test; T-Tests; Post Hoc Analysis; Descriptive Statistics},
      isbn={2155-8256},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012195727&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • E., P. J., Petersson, Gö., & C., G. N.. (2013). Nursing students’ experience of using a personal digital assistant (PDA) in clinical practice — An intervention study. Nurse education today, 33(10), 1246-1251.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Summary: Background: A personal digital assistant (PDA) is a multifunctional information and communication tool allowing nursing students to keep up to date with expanding health related knowledge. Objectives: This study was aimed at exploring nursing students’ experience of using a PDA in clinical practice. Method: In this intervention study, nursing students (n=67) used PDAs during a period of 15weeks, replied to questionnaires, and participated in focus group interviews. Results: The PDA was found to support nursing students in clinical practice and to have the potential to be a useful tool with benefits for both the patients and for the students. The PDA was regarded as useful, and was presumed to imply increased confidence and time savings, and contribute to improved patient safety and quality of care. Conclusions: With available mobile technology, nursing students would be able to access necessary information, independent of time and place. Therefore, it is important that stakeholders and educators facilitate the use of PDAs to support nursing students during their clinical practice, in order to prepare them for their future work, and to continuously improve the safety and quality of healthcare.

    @article{RefWorks:251,
      author={Pauline Johansson  E. and Gö Petersson and Gunilla Nilsson  C.},
      year={2013},
      month={10},
      title={Nursing students' experience of using a personal digital assistant (PDA) in clinical practice — An intervention study},
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={33},
      number={10},
      pages={1246-1251},
      note={ID: 2012299001},
      abstract={Summary: Background: A personal digital assistant (PDA) is a multifunctional information and communication tool allowing nursing students to keep up to date with expanding health related knowledge. Objectives: This study was aimed at exploring nursing students' experience of using a PDA in clinical practice. Method: In this intervention study, nursing students (n=67) used PDAs during a period of 15weeks, replied to questionnaires, and participated in focus group interviews. Results: The PDA was found to support nursing students in clinical practice and to have the potential to be a useful tool with benefits for both the patients and for the students. The PDA was regarded as useful, and was presumed to imply increased confidence and time savings, and contribute to improved patient safety and quality of care. Conclusions: With available mobile technology, nursing students would be able to access necessary information, independent of time and place. Therefore, it is important that stakeholders and educators facilitate the use of PDAs to support nursing students during their clinical practice, in order to prepare them for their future work, and to continuously improve the safety and quality of healthcare.},
      keywords={Student Attitudes; Computers, Hand-Held; Students, Nursing; Education, Nursing; Human; Experimental Studies; Questionnaires; Focus Groups; Time Factors; Patient Safety; Quality of Nursing Care; Student Attitudes -- Evaluation},
      isbn={0260-6917},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012299001&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • E., J. S.. (2013). High-Fidelity Simulation and Safety: An Integrative Review. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(1), 39-45.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Previous reviews of simulation relating to critical thinking and efficacy called for more research on the effects of simulation and safety. Safety, as a skill performance outcome of high-fidelity simulation, is reviewed. Data included studies of nursing education that linked safety dimensions with high-fidelity simulation at all student levels. Only primary sources published since 2007 were included. This integrative review evaluates data using scores to assign value to the evidence, analyzes data within categories defined as safety behaviors, and compares evidence using a matrix of factors and outcomes. Definitions of safety and measurement tools are critiqued. Findings reveal that simulation-enhanced clinical experiences may decrease medication errors. Any evidence about perceived improvement in safer communication has not been translated into practice. Knowledge and attitudes of safety may be improved with simulation, depending on the students’ educational levels. More comparative studies are needed to support theoretical models of simulation.

    @article{RefWorks:256,
      author={Jennifer Shearer  E.},
      year={2013},
      title={High-Fidelity Simulation and Safety: An Integrative Review},
      journal={Journal of Nursing Education},
      volume={52},
      number={1},
      pages={39-45},
      note={ID: 2011796263},
      abstract={Previous reviews of simulation relating to critical thinking and efficacy called for more research on the effects of simulation and safety. Safety, as a skill performance outcome of high-fidelity simulation, is reviewed. Data included studies of nursing education that linked safety dimensions with high-fidelity simulation at all student levels. Only primary sources published since 2007 were included. This integrative review evaluates data using scores to assign value to the evidence, analyzes data within categories defined as safety behaviors, and compares evidence using a matrix of factors and outcomes. Definitions of safety and measurement tools are critiqued. Findings reveal that simulation-enhanced clinical experiences may decrease medication errors. Any evidence about perceived improvement in safer communication has not been translated into practice. Knowledge and attitudes of safety may be improved with simulation, depending on the students' educational levels. More comparative studies are needed to support theoretical models of simulation.},
      keywords={Computer Simulation; Patient Safety; Education, Nursing; Human; CINAHL Database},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011796263&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Evans, W.. (2013). "If they can’t tell the difference between duphalac and digoxin you’ve got patient safety issues". Nurse Lecturers’ constructions of students’ dyslexic identities in nurse education. Nurse education today.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    AIM: The paper explores how student nurses with a dyslexic identity were discursively constructed by lecturing staff in nurse education. BACKGROUND: An increasing number of students completing programmes of study in higher education are registering and disclosing one or more disabilities to their respective institutional support services. As students with dyslexia enter the nursing profession, they bring with them their own unique identity that situates their disability in a specific light. Nurse lecturers play an integral role in supporting all students including those with a disability; however no previous research has attempted to examine the language they use to construct students with a dyslexic identity. Critically, the internalised views of those with teaching and learning responsibilities who directly interact with students with disabilities have a critical influence on the nature of the supports provided, as well as decisions about students’ professional competence. DESIGN: Discussions that centre on the inclusion of individuals with disability in healthcare education are shaped by language and diverse ways of understanding, therefore, an exploratory discursive design, examining how dyslexic identities are socially constructed by nurse lecturers is an overarching focus of the paper. Using narrative interviewing, twelve nurse lecturers from two higher education institutions in the Republic of Ireland were interviewed during the period February to July 2012. RESULTS: Discourse analysis was guided by a narrative-discursive approach. Nurse lecturers identified ‘Getting the work done’ as a critical component to becoming a nurse, where expectations associated with efficiency and independence superseded students’ right to accommodation. An implicit mild-severe binary existed amongst lecturers while categorising students with dyslexia, with those placed in the latter considered professionally unsuitable. These concerns are individually critiqued. CONCLUSION: Critically, policy leaders must continue to consider wider sociocultural as well as individualised understandings of dyslexic identities in order to enhance inclusion prerogatives.

    @article{RefWorks:272,
      author={W. Evans},
      year={2013},
      month={Nov 12},
      title={"If they can't tell the difference between duphalac and digoxin you've got patient safety issues". Nurse Lecturers' constructions of students' dyslexic identities in nurse education},
      journal={Nurse education today},
      note={CI: Copyright (c) 2013; JID: 8511379; OTO: NOTNLM; 2013/07/29 [received]; 2013/11/01 [revised]; 2013/11/07 [accepted]; aheadofprint},
      abstract={AIM: The paper explores how student nurses with a dyslexic identity were discursively constructed by lecturing staff in nurse education. BACKGROUND: An increasing number of students completing programmes of study in higher education are registering and disclosing one or more disabilities to their respective institutional support services. As students with dyslexia enter the nursing profession, they bring with them their own unique identity that situates their disability in a specific light. Nurse lecturers play an integral role in supporting all students including those with a disability; however no previous research has attempted to examine the language they use to construct students with a dyslexic identity. Critically, the internalised views of those with teaching and learning responsibilities who directly interact with students with disabilities have a critical influence on the nature of the supports provided, as well as decisions about students' professional competence. DESIGN: Discussions that centre on the inclusion of individuals with disability in healthcare education are shaped by language and diverse ways of understanding, therefore, an exploratory discursive design, examining how dyslexic identities are socially constructed by nurse lecturers is an overarching focus of the paper. Using narrative interviewing, twelve nurse lecturers from two higher education institutions in the Republic of Ireland were interviewed during the period February to July 2012. RESULTS: Discourse analysis was guided by a narrative-discursive approach. Nurse lecturers identified 'Getting the work done' as a critical component to becoming a nurse, where expectations associated with efficiency and independence superseded students' right to accommodation. An implicit mild-severe binary existed amongst lecturers while categorising students with dyslexia, with those placed in the latter considered professionally unsuitable. These concerns are individually critiqued. CONCLUSION: Critically, policy leaders must continue to consider wider sociocultural as well as individualised understandings of dyslexic identities in order to enhance inclusion prerogatives.},
      keywords={Disability; Disclosure; Discourse; Dyslexia; Identity; Narrative; Nurse education; Reasonable adjustments},
      isbn={1532-2793; 0260-6917},
      language={ENG}
    }

  • Hicks, B. R., J., M. G., & House, J. M.. (2013). SAFETY: An Integrated Clinical Reasoning and Reflection Framework for Undergraduate Nursing Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(1), 59-62.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nurse educators can no longer focus on imparting to students knowledge that is merely factual and content specific. Activities that provide students with opportunities to apply concepts in real-world scenarios can be powerful tools. Nurse educators should take advantage of student-patient interactions to model clinical reasoning and allow students to practice complex decision making throughout the entire curriculum. In response to this change in nursing education, faculty in a pediatric course designed a reflective clinical reasoning activity based on the SAFETY template, which is derived from the National Council of State Boards of Nursing RN practice analysis. Students were able to prioritize key components of nursing care, as well as integrate practice issues such as delegation, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act violations, and questioning the accuracy of orders. SAFETY is proposed as a framework for integration of content knowledge, clinical reasoning, and reflection on authentic professional nursing concerns.

    @article{RefWorks:253,
      author={Bedelia Russell  Hicks and Melissa Geist  J. and Jenny Maffett  House},
      year={2013},
      title={SAFETY: An Integrated Clinical Reasoning and Reflection Framework for Undergraduate Nursing Students},
      journal={Journal of Nursing Education},
      volume={52},
      number={1},
      pages={59-62},
      note={ID: 2011796269},
      abstract={Nurse educators can no longer focus on imparting to students knowledge that is merely factual and content specific. Activities that provide students with opportunities to apply concepts in real-world scenarios can be powerful tools. Nurse educators should take advantage of student-patient interactions to model clinical reasoning and allow students to practice complex decision making throughout the entire curriculum. In response to this change in nursing education, faculty in a pediatric course designed a reflective clinical reasoning activity based on the SAFETY template, which is derived from the National Council of State Boards of Nursing RN practice analysis. Students were able to prioritize key components of nursing care, as well as integrate practice issues such as delegation, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act violations, and questioning the accuracy of orders. SAFETY is proposed as a framework for integration of content knowledge, clinical reasoning, and reflection on authentic professional nursing concerns.},
      keywords={Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Students, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Teaching Methods; Diagnostic Reasoning; Reflection},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011796269&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Jamile, M. Y., Elisa, S. B., Angélica, Denise, M. K., Gonçalves, M. P., & Ferreira. (2013). Comprehension of undergraduate students in nursing and medicine on patient safety. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, 26(1), 21-29.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Objective: Identify the understanding of graduate students in nursing and medicine at a public university in São Paulo on human error and patient safety. Methods: Prospective and exploratory study in which were investigated variables related with the characterization of students and attitudinal and conceptual aspects about the theme. The sample consisted of 109 students who responded to a research electronic form. Results: Most students received formal training on the subject and had attitudes that demonstrated uncertainty in what would be correct for some practices. Conclusion: Students demonstrated being able to relate some of the aspects surveyed about patient safety with the experience they had during internship programs.

    @article{RefWorks:239,
      author={ Mika Yoshikawa  Jamile and Sousa Bruna Elisa and Angélica and Miyuki Kusahara  Denise and Mavilde Pedreira  Gonçalves and Ferreira},
      year={2013},
      title={Comprehension of undergraduate students in nursing and medicine on patient safety},
      journal={Acta Paulista de Enfermagem},
      volume={26},
      number={1},
      pages={21-29},
      note={ID: 2012165249},
      abstract={Objective: Identify the understanding of graduate students in nursing and medicine at a public university in São Paulo on human error and patient safety. Methods: Prospective and exploratory study in which were investigated variables related with the characterization of students and attitudinal and conceptual aspects about the theme. The sample consisted of 109 students who responded to a research electronic form. Results: Most students received formal training on the subject and had attitudes that demonstrated uncertainty in what would be correct for some practices. Conclusion: Students demonstrated being able to relate some of the aspects surveyed about patient safety with the experience they had during internship programs.},
      keywords={Students, Nursing; Students, Medical; Education, Nursing; Education, Medical; Student Knowledge; Student Attitudes; Patient Safety; Risk Management; Funding Source; Schools, Nursing; Schools, Medical; Colleges and Universities; Education Research; Brazil; Prospective Studies; Exploratory Research; Uncertainty; Summated Rating Scaling; Scales; Questionnaires; Delphi Technique; Male; Female; Adult; Job Experience; Truth Disclosure; Clinical Competence; Education, Clinical; Student Supervision; Treatment Errors -- Prevention and Control; Human},
      isbn={0103-2100},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012165249&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Judd, M.. (2013). Broken Communication in Nursing Can Kill: Teaching Communication Is Vital. Creative nursing, 19(2), 101-104.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{RefWorks:260,
      author={Maureen Judd},
      year={2013},
      month={04},
      title={Broken Communication in Nursing Can Kill: Teaching Communication Is Vital},
      journal={Creative nursing},
      volume={19},
      number={2},
      pages={101-104},
      note={ID: 2012123965},
      keywords={Patient Safety; Communication Skills Training; Communication Skills; Education, Nursing; Teaching Methods; Students, Nursing; New Graduate Nurses; Intraprofessional Relations; Interprofessional Relations; Curriculum; Nonverbal Communication; Role Playing; Vignettes; Games},
      isbn={1078-4535},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012123965&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • L., G. S., J., M. O., & J., T. K.. (2013). Simulation: Linking Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Competencies to the Observer Role. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(9), e407-10.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{RefWorks:263,
      author={Gina Schaar  L. and Marilyn Ostendorf  J. and Tracy Kinner  J.},
      year={2013},
      month={09},
      title={Simulation: Linking Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Competencies to the Observer Role},
      journal={Clinical Simulation in Nursing},
      volume={9},
      number={9},
      pages={e407-10},
      note={ID: 2012224241},
      keywords={Simulations; Faculty, Nursing; Patient Safety -- Education; Quality of Nursing Care -- Education; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Education, Clinical},
      isbn={1876-1399},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012224241&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Lee, T., & Lin, F.. (2013). The effectiveness of an e-learning program on pediatric medication safety for undergraduate students: A pretest–post-test intervention study. Nurse education today, 33(4), 378-383.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Summary: Background: Safe medication management is a major competency taught in the nursing curriculum. However, administering pediatric medications is considered a common clinical stressor for Taiwanese students. A supplemental e-learning program that helps students fill the gap between basic nursing skills and pediatric knowledge on medication safety was developed. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an e-learning program to increase pediatric medication management among students who take pediatric nursing courses. Design: This intervention study used a historical comparison design. Setting: A university in Northern Taiwan. Participants: A total of 349 undergraduate nursing students who took pediatric nursing courses participated. Eighty students in the comparison group received regular pediatric courses, including the lectures and clinical practicum; 269 students in the intervention group received an e-learning program, in addition to the standard pediatric courses. Methods: Between February 2011 and July 2012 pediatric medication management, including pediatric medication knowledge and calculation ability, was measured at the beginning of the first class, at the completion of the lectures, and at the completion of the clinical practicum. The program was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: The intervention group had significantly higher pediatric medication management scores at completion of the lecture course and at the completion of the clinical practicum than the comparison group based on the first day of the lecture course, after adjusting for age, nursing program, and having graduated from a junior college in nursing. Overall, the students appreciated the program that included various teaching modalities content that related to the administration of medication. Conclusion: Using an e-learning program on pediatric medication management is an effective learning method in addition to sitting in a regular lecture course. The different emphases in each module, provided by experienced instructors, enabled the students to be more aware of their role in pediatric medication safety.

    @article{RefWorks:249,
      author={Tzu-Ying Lee and Fang-Yi Lin},
      year={2013},
      month={04},
      title={The effectiveness of an e-learning program on pediatric medication safety for undergraduate students: A pretest–post-test intervention study},
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={33},
      number={4},
      pages={378-383},
      note={ID: 2012203460},
      abstract={Summary: Background: Safe medication management is a major competency taught in the nursing curriculum. However, administering pediatric medications is considered a common clinical stressor for Taiwanese students. A supplemental e-learning program that helps students fill the gap between basic nursing skills and pediatric knowledge on medication safety was developed. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an e-learning program to increase pediatric medication management among students who take pediatric nursing courses. Design: This intervention study used a historical comparison design. Setting: A university in Northern Taiwan. Participants: A total of 349 undergraduate nursing students who took pediatric nursing courses participated. Eighty students in the comparison group received regular pediatric courses, including the lectures and clinical practicum; 269 students in the intervention group received an e-learning program, in addition to the standard pediatric courses. Methods: Between February 2011 and July 2012 pediatric medication management, including pediatric medication knowledge and calculation ability, was measured at the beginning of the first class, at the completion of the lectures, and at the completion of the clinical practicum. The program was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: The intervention group had significantly higher pediatric medication management scores at completion of the lecture course and at the completion of the clinical practicum than the comparison group based on the first day of the lecture course, after adjusting for age, nursing program, and having graduated from a junior college in nursing. Overall, the students appreciated the program that included various teaching modalities content that related to the administration of medication. Conclusion: Using an e-learning program on pediatric medication management is an effective learning method in addition to sitting in a regular lecture course. The different emphases in each module, provided by experienced instructors, enabled the students to be more aware of their role in pediatric medication safety.},
      keywords={Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Drug Administration -- Education; Drug Administration -- In Infancy and Childhood; Computer Assisted Instruction; Patient Safety -- In Infancy and Childhood; Human; Education Research; Infant; Child, Preschool; Child; Experimental Studies; Colleges and Universities -- Taiwan; Taiwan; Evaluation Research; Computer Assisted Instruction -- Evaluation; Convenience Sample; Course Content; Pretest-Posttest Design; Educational Measurement; T-Tests; Chi Square Test; Adult; Male; Female; Student Attitudes -- Evaluation; Funding Source},
      isbn={0260-6917},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012203460&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Pauly-O’Neill, S., Prion, S., & Nguyen, H.. (2013). Comparison of Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN)-Related Student Experiences During Pediatric Clinical and Simulation Rotations. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(9), 534-538.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nurse educators are challenged with providing meaningful clinical experiences for students. However, patient safety regulations constrain what nursing students are able to accomplish in the pediatric setting. So, what are students actually doing in their clinical rotation? This pilot observational study was undertaken to provide a snapshot of the experiences available to nursing students that develop the six Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies. Students were directly observed during pediatric clinical and pediatric simulation rotations, and their time-on-task was calculated and categorized. Three of the six QSEN competencies were observed more often than the others during both the simulation and clinical experiences. Much work needs to be done to include all QSEN-related knowledge and skills into prelicensure clinical rotations. Nurse educators are challenged with providing meaningful clinical experiences for students. However, patient safety regulations constrain what nursing students are able to accomplish in the pediatric setting. So, what are students actually doing in their clinical rotation? This pilot observational study was undertaken to provide a snapshot of the experiences available to nursing students that develop the six Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies. Students were directly observed during pediatric clinical and pediatric simulation rotations, and their time-on-task was calculated and categorized. Three of the six QSEN competencies were observed more often than the others during both the simulation and clinical experiences. Much work needs to be done to include all QSEN-related knowledge and skills into prelicensure clinical rotations. J Nurs Educ. 2013;52(9):534-538.]

    @article{RefWorks:238,
      author={Susan Pauly-O'Neill and Susan Prion and Helen Nguyen},
      year={2013},
      month={09},
      title={Comparison of Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN)-Related Student Experiences During Pediatric Clinical and Simulation Rotations},
      journal={Journal of Nursing Education},
      volume={52},
      number={9},
      pages={534-538},
      note={ID: 2012256168},
      abstract={Nurse educators are challenged with providing meaningful clinical experiences for students. However, patient safety regulations constrain what nursing students are able to accomplish in the pediatric setting. So, what are students actually doing in their clinical rotation? This pilot observational study was undertaken to provide a snapshot of the experiences available to nursing students that develop the six Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies. Students were directly observed during pediatric clinical and pediatric simulation rotations, and their time-on-task was calculated and categorized. Three of the six QSEN competencies were observed more often than the others during both the simulation and clinical experiences. Much work needs to be done to include all QSEN-related knowledge and skills into prelicensure clinical rotations. Nurse educators are challenged with providing meaningful clinical experiences for students. However, patient safety regulations constrain what nursing students are able to accomplish in the pediatric setting. So, what are students actually doing in their clinical rotation? This pilot observational study was undertaken to provide a snapshot of the experiences available to nursing students that develop the six Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies. Students were directly observed during pediatric clinical and pediatric simulation rotations, and their time-on-task was calculated and categorized. Three of the six QSEN competencies were observed more often than the others during both the simulation and clinical experiences. Much work needs to be done to include all QSEN-related knowledge and skills into prelicensure clinical rotations. J Nurs Educ. 2013;52(9):534-538.]},
      keywords={Clinical Competence; Safety -- Education; Students, Nursing; Quality of Nursing Care -- Education; Patient Centered Care; Pilot Studies; Nonexperimental Studies; Content Validity; Descriptive Statistics; Effect Size; Exploratory Research; Clinical Assessment Tools; Education Research},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012256168&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Robson, W., Clark, D., Pinnock, D., White, N., & Baxendale, B.. (2013). Teaching patient safety and human factors in undergraduate nursing curricula in England: a pilot survey. British Journal of Nursing, 22(17), 1001-1005.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Patient safety is a key priority for all healthcare systems, and there is growing recognition for the need to educate tomorrow’s nurses about the role of human factors in reducing avoidable harm to patients. A pilot survey was sent to 20 schools of nursing in England to explore the teaching of patient safety and human factors. All 13 schools that responded (65% response rate) stated that patient safety was covered in their curricula and was allocated more than 4 hours; all the classes included human factors. Only two respondents indicated their teaching to be multi-professional. Awareness of the World Health Organization’s multiprofessional patient safety curriculum guide was poor. Faculties also seemed unaware that the Institute for Healthcare Improvement provides free online patient safety modules for students and that there is a global network of student patient safety chapters.

    @article{RefWorks:245,
      author={Wayne Robson and Debbie Clark and David Pinnock and Nick White and Bryn Baxendale},
      year={2013},
      month={09/26},
      title={Teaching patient safety and human factors in undergraduate nursing curricula in England: a pilot survey},
      journal={British Journal of Nursing},
      volume={22},
      number={17},
      pages={1001-1005},
      note={ID: 2012310934},
      abstract={Patient safety is a key priority for all healthcare systems, and there is growing recognition for the need to educate tomorrow's nurses about the role of human factors in reducing avoidable harm to patients. A pilot survey was sent to 20 schools of nursing in England to explore the teaching of patient safety and human factors. All 13 schools that responded (65% response rate) stated that patient safety was covered in their curricula and was allocated more than 4 hours; all the classes included human factors. Only two respondents indicated their teaching to be multi-professional. Awareness of the World Health Organization's multiprofessional patient safety curriculum guide was poor. Faculties also seemed unaware that the Institute for Healthcare Improvement provides free online patient safety modules for students and that there is a global network of student patient safety chapters.},
      keywords={Patient Safety -- Education -- England; Education, Nursing -- England; Human; England; Pilot Studies; Surveys; Schools, Nursing; Curriculum; Literature Review; Convenience Sample; Questionnaires; Exploratory Research},
      isbn={0966-0461},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012310934&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Russell, H. B., Geist, M. J., & Maffett, H. J.. (2013). SAFETY: an integrated clinical reasoning and reflection framework for undergraduate nursing students. The Journal of nursing education, 52(1), 59-62.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Nurse educators can no longer focus on imparting to students knowledge that is merely factual and content specific. Activities that provide students with opportunities to apply concepts in real-world scenarios can be powerful tools. Nurse educators should take advantage of student-patient interactions to model clinical reasoning and allow students to practice complex decision making throughout the entire curriculum. In response to this change in nursing education, faculty in a pediatric course designed a reflective clinical reasoning activity based on the SAFETY template, which is derived from the National Council of State Boards of Nursing RN practice analysis. Students were able to prioritize key components of nursing care, as well as integrate practice issues such as delegation, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act violations, and questioning the accuracy of orders. SAFETY is proposed as a framework for integration of content knowledge, clinical reasoning, and reflection on authentic professional nursing concerns.

    @article{RefWorks:284,
      author={B. Hicks Russell and M. J. Geist and J. House Maffett},
      year={2013},
      month={Jan},
      title={SAFETY: an integrated clinical reasoning and reflection framework for undergraduate nursing students},
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={52},
      number={1},
      pages={59-62},
      note={CI: Copyright 2012; JID: 7705432; 2011/08/31 [received]; 2012/09/12 [accepted]; 2012/12/17 [aheadofprint]; ppublish},
      abstract={Nurse educators can no longer focus on imparting to students knowledge that is merely factual and content specific. Activities that provide students with opportunities to apply concepts in real-world scenarios can be powerful tools. Nurse educators should take advantage of student-patient interactions to model clinical reasoning and allow students to practice complex decision making throughout the entire curriculum. In response to this change in nursing education, faculty in a pediatric course designed a reflective clinical reasoning activity based on the SAFETY template, which is derived from the National Council of State Boards of Nursing RN practice analysis. Students were able to prioritize key components of nursing care, as well as integrate practice issues such as delegation, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act violations, and questioning the accuracy of orders. SAFETY is proposed as a framework for integration of content knowledge, clinical reasoning, and reflection on authentic professional nursing concerns.},
      keywords={Child; Competency-Based Education/methods/organization & administration/standards; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods/organization & administration/standards; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Internship, Nonmedical/methods/organization & administration/standards; Nursing Evaluation Research; Pediatric Nursing/education; Thinking},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Westphal, J., Lancaster, R., & Park, D.. (2013). Work-Arounds Observed by Fourth-Year Nursing Students. Western journal of nursing research.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Much has been written about the need for health care professionals to consistently promote policies and best practices that create safe, high-quality care environments. At times, nurses deviate from established policies and procedures to create work-arounds or changes in work patterns to accomplish patient care goals. The purpose of this study was to identify common work-arounds and describe what influenced the nurse to engage in the work-around as observed by fourth-year baccalaureate students in clinical settings. A descriptive qualitative approach was used to describe the findings from a Quality and Safety Education for Nurses-based assignment. Ninety-six individual student assignments were included in this analysis; the themes of infection prevention and control and medication management emerged. The theme of workload emerged as the reason why students believed nurses engaged in work-arounds. Further studies are needed to determine how work-arounds influence short- and long-term patient outcomes.

    @article{RefWorks:274,
      author={J. Westphal and R. Lancaster and D. Park},
      year={2013},
      month={Nov 26},
      title={Work-Arounds Observed by Fourth-Year Nursing Students},
      journal={Western journal of nursing research},
      note={JID: 7905435; OTO: NOTNLM; aheadofprint},
      abstract={Much has been written about the need for health care professionals to consistently promote policies and best practices that create safe, high-quality care environments. At times, nurses deviate from established policies and procedures to create work-arounds or changes in work patterns to accomplish patient care goals. The purpose of this study was to identify common work-arounds and describe what influenced the nurse to engage in the work-around as observed by fourth-year baccalaureate students in clinical settings. A descriptive qualitative approach was used to describe the findings from a Quality and Safety Education for Nurses-based assignment. Ninety-six individual student assignments were included in this analysis; the themes of infection prevention and control and medication management emerged. The theme of workload emerged as the reason why students believed nurses engaged in work-arounds. Further studies are needed to determine how work-arounds influence short- and long-term patient outcomes.},
      keywords={infection prevention and control; medication management; work-around; workload},
      isbn={1552-8456; 0193-9459},
      language={ENG}
    }

2012

  • (2012). Relationship Between High-Fidelity Simulation and Patient Safety in Prelicensure Nursing Education: A Comprehensive. Journal of Nursing Education, 51(8), 1-1.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{RefWorks:269,
      year={2012},
      month={08},
      title={Relationship Between High-Fidelity Simulation and Patient Safety in Prelicensure Nursing Education: A Comprehensive},
      journal={Journal of Nursing Education},
      volume={51},
      number={8},
      pages={1-1},
      note={ID: 2011624198},
      keywords={Computer Simulation; Patient Safety; Education, Nursing; Learning; Outcomes of Education; CINAHL Database; Human; Nursing Practice, Evidence-Based},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011624198&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • A., G. D.. (2012). Synergy for Patient Safety and Quality: Academic and Service Partnerships to Promote Effective Nurse Education and Clinical Practice. Journal of Professional Nursing, 28(1), 48-61.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Responding to the growing concern about medical error and patient harm, nurse educators are seeking innovative strategies to ensure that nursing students develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that enable them to safely and effectively manage patient care. A nursing school and hospital affiliate engaged in a partnership to increase opportunities for students to acquire these competencies. The Synergy Partnership Model aligns agency safety and quality initiatives with the school’s student outcome competencies. The partnership model establishes participant commitment, clarifies professional actions and accountabilities, and structures the integration of student learning with the clinical practice of agency nurses and physicians. A collection of evidence-based, best-practices resources provides students, faculties, and staff the tools to implement the partnership paradigm. A descriptive pilot study design with a convenience sample of students (N = 24) enrolled in a third-semester, prelicensure clinical nursing course measured students’ safety and quality knowledge and the students’ perceptions of team behaviors and communication effectiveness. Survey data reveal moderate to large effect sizes in gains for safety and quality knowledge and for students’ increased confidence in their impact on patient care outcomes.

    @article{RefWorks:254,
      author={Gregory Debourgh  A.},
      year={2012},
      month={2012},
      title={Synergy for Patient Safety and Quality: Academic and Service Partnerships to Promote Effective Nurse Education and Clinical Practice},
      journal={Journal of Professional Nursing},
      volume={28},
      number={1},
      pages={48-61},
      note={ID: 2011453267},
      abstract={Responding to the growing concern about medical error and patient harm, nurse educators are seeking innovative strategies to ensure that nursing students develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that enable them to safely and effectively manage patient care. A nursing school and hospital affiliate engaged in a partnership to increase opportunities for students to acquire these competencies. The Synergy Partnership Model aligns agency safety and quality initiatives with the school's student outcome competencies. The partnership model establishes participant commitment, clarifies professional actions and accountabilities, and structures the integration of student learning with the clinical practice of agency nurses and physicians. A collection of evidence-based, best-practices resources provides students, faculties, and staff the tools to implement the partnership paradigm. A descriptive pilot study design with a convenience sample of students (N = 24) enrolled in a third-semester, prelicensure clinical nursing course measured students' safety and quality knowledge and the students' perceptions of team behaviors and communication effectiveness. Survey data reveal moderate to large effect sizes in gains for safety and quality knowledge and for students' increased confidence in their impact on patient care outcomes.},
      keywords={Patient Safety; Education, Nursing; Interinstitutional Relations; Education, Clinical; Human; Teamwork; Communication; Adult; Schools, Nursing; Hospitals; Descriptive Research; Pilot Studies; Convenience Sample; Effect Size; Student Knowledge -- Evaluation; Questionnaires; California; Nursing Outcomes; Documentation; Patient Safety -- Education; Descriptive Statistics; Summated Rating Scaling; Quality of Nursing Care; Teaching Methods},
      isbn={8755-7223},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011453267&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • A., G. D., & K., S. P.. (2012). Patient Safety Manifesto: a Professional Imperative for Prelicensure Nursing Education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 28(2), 110-118.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nurses in practice and students in training often fear hurting a patient or doing something wrong. Experienced nurses have developed assessment skills and clinical intuition to recognize and intervene to prevent patient risk and harm. Beginning nursing students have not yet had the opportunity to develop an awareness of patient risk, safety concerns, or a clear sense of their accountability in the nurse role as the primary advocate for patient safety. In this Safety Manifesto, the authors call for educators to critically review their prelicensure curricula for inclusion of teaching and learning activities that are focused on patient safety and offer recommendations for curricular changes with an emphasis on integration of instructional strategies that develop students’ skills for clinical reasoning and judgment.

    @article{RefWorks:252,
      author={Gregory Debourgh  A. and Susan Prion  K.},
      year={2012},
      month={2012},
      title={Patient Safety Manifesto: a Professional Imperative for Prelicensure Nursing Education},
      journal={Journal of Professional Nursing},
      volume={28},
      number={2},
      pages={110-118},
      note={ID: 2011520502},
      abstract={Nurses in practice and students in training often fear hurting a patient or doing something wrong. Experienced nurses have developed assessment skills and clinical intuition to recognize and intervene to prevent patient risk and harm. Beginning nursing students have not yet had the opportunity to develop an awareness of patient risk, safety concerns, or a clear sense of their accountability in the nurse role as the primary advocate for patient safety. In this Safety Manifesto, the authors call for educators to critically review their prelicensure curricula for inclusion of teaching and learning activities that are focused on patient safety and offer recommendations for curricular changes with an emphasis on integration of instructional strategies that develop students' skills for clinical reasoning and judgment.},
      keywords={Patient Safety -- Education; Education, Nursing; Health Care Errors -- Prevention and Control; Teaching Methods; Learning Methods; Nursing Outcomes; Curriculum},
      isbn={8755-7223},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011520502&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • A., A. A., T., K. F., A., K. G., & A., K. P.. (2012). How Baccalaureate Nursing Students Value an Interprofessional Patient Safety Course for Professional Development. ISRN Nursing, 1-7.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nursing students need foundation knowledge and skills to keep patients safe in continuously changing health care environments. A gap exists in our knowledge of the value students place on interprofessional patient safety education. The purpose of this exploratory, mixed methods study was to understand nursing students’ attitudes about the value of an interprofessional patient safety course to their professional development and its role in health professions curricula. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from formative course performance measures, course evaluations, and interviews with six nursing students. The qualitative themes of awareness, ownership, and action emerged and triangulated with the descriptive quantitative results from student performance and course evaluations. Students placed high value on the course and essential nature of interprofessional patient safety content. These findings provide a first step toward integration of interprofessional patient safety education into nursing curricula and in meeting the Institute of Medicine’s goals for the nursing profession.

    @article{RefWorks:250,
      author={Amy Abbott  A. and Kevin Fuji  T. and Kimberly Gait  A. and Karen Paschal  A.},
      year={2012},
      title={How Baccalaureate Nursing Students Value an Interprofessional Patient Safety Course for Professional Development},
      journal={ISRN Nursing},
      pages={1-7},
      note={ID: 2012050588},
      abstract={Nursing students need foundation knowledge and skills to keep patients safe in continuously changing health care environments. A gap exists in our knowledge of the value students place on interprofessional patient safety education. The purpose of this exploratory, mixed methods study was to understand nursing students' attitudes about the value of an interprofessional patient safety course to their professional development and its role in health professions curricula. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from formative course performance measures, course evaluations, and interviews with six nursing students. The qualitative themes of awareness, ownership, and action emerged and triangulated with the descriptive quantitative results from student performance and course evaluations. Students placed high value on the course and essential nature of interprofessional patient safety content. These findings provide a first step toward integration of interprofessional patient safety education into nursing curricula and in meeting the Institute of Medicine's goals for the nursing profession.},
      keywords={Education, Interdisciplinary; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Patient Safety -- Education; Professional Development; Human; Student Attitudes -- Evaluation; Nebraska; Exploratory Research; Qualitative Studies; Quantitative Studies; Thematic Analysis; Triangulation; Descriptive Research; Teaching Methods; Theory; Course Content; Sampling Methods; Course Evaluation; Descriptive Statistics; Semi-Structured Interview; Audiorecording; Knowledge -- Evaluation},
      isbn={2090-5483},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012050588&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Altmiller, G.. (2012). The role of constructive feedback in patient safety and continuous quality improvement. Nursing Clinics of North America, 47(3), 365-374.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Constructive feedback is essential for personal and professional growth. It is an integral part of continuous quality improvement and essential in maintaining patient safety in the clinical environment. The perception of feedback can interfere with professionals giving and receiving feedback, which can have negative consequences on patient outcomes. Delivering and receiving feedback effectively are learned skills that should be introduced early in prelicensure education. Faculty have the opportunity to influence the perception of feedback to be viewed as an opportunity so that students can learn to appreciate its value in maintaining patient safety and high-quality care in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 by Elsevier Inc.

    @article{RefWorks:261,
      author={Gerry Altmiller},
      year={2012},
      month={09},
      title={The role of constructive feedback in patient safety and continuous quality improvement},
      journal={Nursing Clinics of North America},
      volume={47},
      number={3},
      pages={365-374},
      note={ID: 2011687873},
      abstract={Constructive feedback is essential for personal and professional growth. It is an integral part of continuous quality improvement and essential in maintaining patient safety in the clinical environment. The perception of feedback can interfere with professionals giving and receiving feedback, which can have negative consequences on patient outcomes. Delivering and receiving feedback effectively are learned skills that should be introduced early in prelicensure education. Faculty have the opportunity to influence the perception of feedback to be viewed as an opportunity so that students can learn to appreciate its value in maintaining patient safety and high-quality care in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 by Elsevier Inc.},
      keywords={Communication; Education, Nursing; Feedback; Patient Safety; Quality Improvement; Quality of Nursing Care; Teaching Methods},
      isbn={0029-6465},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011687873&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Arieli, D., Friedman, V. J., & Hirschfeld, M. J.. (2012). Challenges on the path to cultural safety in nursing education. International nursing review, 59(2), 187-193.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    ARIELI D., FRIEDMAN V.J. & HIRSCHFELD M.J. (2012) Challenges on the path to cultural safety in nursing education. International Nursing Review 59, 187-193 Aim: The purpose of this study is to identify central challenges to be addressed in cultural safety education. Background: In recent years, the idea of cultural safety has received increased attention as a way of dealing with diversity in the nursing profession, especially in divided societies. The idea of cultural safety goes beyond recognizing and appreciating difference, to an attempt to grappling with deeper issues like inequality, conflict and histories of oppression. Methods: The paper is based on formative evaluation, using action research, of an academic nursing programme in Israel, involving Jewish and Arab students. Part of this research dealt with the integration of cultural safety education into the curriculum. Findings: The study revealed four challenges in cultural safety education: making it safe for minorities to present their culture to the majority group (‘the ambassador’s dilemma’), dealing with tendency of groups to deny the existence of conflict (‘the one big happy family fantasy’), making dynamics of oppression discussable (‘the oppressed and the oppressor’) and creating conditions in which people can freely choose their individual and group identities (‘the threat of identity’). Conclusion: Cultural safety education may be experienced as unsafe for many participants. Better understanding of the challenges of cultural safety education is necessary for making it more effective.

    @article{RefWorks:237,
      author={D. Arieli and V. J. Friedman and M. J. Hirschfeld},
      year={2012},
      month={06},
      title={Challenges on the path to cultural safety in nursing education},
      journal={International nursing review},
      volume={59},
      number={2},
      pages={187-193},
      note={ID: 2011550090},
      abstract={ARIELI D., FRIEDMAN V.J. & HIRSCHFELD M.J. (2012) Challenges on the path to cultural safety in nursing education. International Nursing Review 59, 187-193 Aim: The purpose of this study is to identify central challenges to be addressed in cultural safety education. Background: In recent years, the idea of cultural safety has received increased attention as a way of dealing with diversity in the nursing profession, especially in divided societies. The idea of cultural safety goes beyond recognizing and appreciating difference, to an attempt to grappling with deeper issues like inequality, conflict and histories of oppression. Methods: The paper is based on formative evaluation, using action research, of an academic nursing programme in Israel, involving Jewish and Arab students. Part of this research dealt with the integration of cultural safety education into the curriculum. Findings: The study revealed four challenges in cultural safety education: making it safe for minorities to present their culture to the majority group ('the ambassador's dilemma'), dealing with tendency of groups to deny the existence of conflict ('the one big happy family fantasy'), making dynamics of oppression discussable ('the oppressed and the oppressor') and creating conditions in which people can freely choose their individual and group identities ('the threat of identity'). Conclusion: Cultural safety education may be experienced as unsafe for many participants. Better understanding of the challenges of cultural safety education is necessary for making it more effective.},
      keywords={Education, Nursing -- Israel; Jews -- Israel; Arabs -- Israel; Cultural Values; Conflict (Psychology); Student Attitudes; Interpersonal Relations; Discrimination; Minority Groups -- Israel; Israel; Case Studies; Human; Action Research; Evaluation Research; Teaching Methods; Convenience Sample; Content Analysis; Thematic Analysis; Ethnographic Research; Student Attitudes -- Evaluation; Islam; Culture; Racism; Social Identity; Adult; Male; Female; Participant Observation; Faculty Role},
      isbn={0020-8132},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011550090&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Barnsteiner, J., & Disch, J.. (2012). A just culture for nurses and nursing students. Nursing Clinics of North America, 47(3), 407-416.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This article provides an overview of current safety science related to just cultures, the tracking of errors and near misses, and individual and system responsibilities for promoting safe practice; and applies these principles to schools of nursing. Copyright © 2012 by Elsevier Inc.

    @article{RefWorks:265,
      author={Jane Barnsteiner and Joanne Disch},
      year={2012},
      month={09},
      title={A just culture for nurses and nursing students},
      journal={Nursing Clinics of North America},
      volume={47},
      number={3},
      pages={407-416},
      note={ID: 2011687877},
      abstract={This article provides an overview of current safety science related to just cultures, the tracking of errors and near misses, and individual and system responsibilities for promoting safe practice; and applies these principles to schools of nursing. Copyright © 2012 by Elsevier Inc.},
      keywords={Education, Nursing; Health Care Errors; Organizational Culture; Patient Safety; Students, Nursing; Accountability; Health Facilities; Schools, Nursing},
      isbn={0029-6465},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011687877&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Blum, C. A., & Parcells, D. A.. (2012). Relationship between high-fidelity simulation and patient safety in prelicensure nursing education: a comprehensive review. The Journal of nursing education, 51(8), 429-435.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Advances in nursing simulation technology raise the question "Are educators feeling pressure to accommodate the learning styles of the techno-age studentry?" This integrative review evaluates the current quantitative evidence from preintervention-postintervention and control-experimental research studies related to the use of simulation in prelicensure nursing education directed at enhancing safety in nursing practice. A thorough review of the available literature using truncated search terms in several databases yielded 258 scholarly, peer-reviewed articles, of which 18 articles directly addressed the posed research question related to simulation and safety. Replete with student reports of simulation as an enjoyable learning activity, the literature does not yet support simulation over other approaches to the teaching-learning of safety competencies in nursing. Therefore, nurse educators must continue to select the most appropriate methods based on the specific course, student, or program type, with concentrated focus on competency-based safety education in nursing.

    @article{RefWorks:287,
      author={C. A. Blum and D. A. Parcells},
      year={2012},
      month={Aug},
      title={Relationship between high-fidelity simulation and patient safety in prelicensure nursing education: a comprehensive review},
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={51},
      number={8},
      pages={429-435},
      note={CI: Copyright 2012; JID: 7705432; 2011/08/17 [received]; 2012/03/14 [accepted]; 2012/05/23 [aheadofprint]; ppublish},
      abstract={Advances in nursing simulation technology raise the question "Are educators feeling pressure to accommodate the learning styles of the techno-age studentry?" This integrative review evaluates the current quantitative evidence from preintervention-postintervention and control-experimental research studies related to the use of simulation in prelicensure nursing education directed at enhancing safety in nursing practice. A thorough review of the available literature using truncated search terms in several databases yielded 258 scholarly, peer-reviewed articles, of which 18 articles directly addressed the posed research question related to simulation and safety. Replete with student reports of simulation as an enjoyable learning activity, the literature does not yet support simulation over other approaches to the teaching-learning of safety competencies in nursing. Therefore, nurse educators must continue to select the most appropriate methods based on the specific course, student, or program type, with concentrated focus on competency-based safety education in nursing.},
      keywords={Competency-Based Education/methods; Education, Nursing; Humans; Manikins; Nursing Education Research/methods; Patient Safety; Research Design; United States},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Duhn, L., Karp, S., Oni, O., Edge, D., Ginsburg, L., & VanDenKerkhof, E.. (2012). Perspectives on patient safety among undergraduate nursing students. The Journal of nursing education, 51(9), 526-531.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Incorporating patient safety principles in academic and clinical education for health science professionals is necessary to support widespread adoption of safety practices. It is vital to understand nursing students’ perspectives on patient safety and the extent to which patient safety is addressed in the classroom and clinical settings. In this cross-sectional study, students in all 4 years of an undergraduate program were asked to complete the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey. Eighty-one percent (238 of 293) of students completed the questionnaire. Responses were favorable, with students reporting confidence in learning about a variety of patient safety competencies. Of note, there were decreasing levels of confidence in the third-year and fourth-year students and low-to-moderate correlation between classroom and clinical responses. These results support the importance of consistently engaging students in safety principles early in and throughout their health care programs.

    @article{RefWorks:286,
      author={L. Duhn and S. Karp and O. Oni and D. Edge and L. Ginsburg and E. VanDenKerkhof},
      year={2012},
      month={Sep},
      title={Perspectives on patient safety among undergraduate nursing students},
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={51},
      number={9},
      pages={526-531},
      note={CI: Copyright 2012; JID: 7705432; 2012/01/23 [received]; 2012/04/18 [accepted]; 2012/07/06 [aheadofprint]; ppublish},
      abstract={Incorporating patient safety principles in academic and clinical education for health science professionals is necessary to support widespread adoption of safety practices. It is vital to understand nursing students' perspectives on patient safety and the extent to which patient safety is addressed in the classroom and clinical settings. In this cross-sectional study, students in all 4 years of an undergraduate program were asked to complete the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey. Eighty-one percent (238 of 293) of students completed the questionnaire. Responses were favorable, with students reporting confidence in learning about a variety of patient safety competencies. Of note, there were decreasing levels of confidence in the third-year and fourth-year students and low-to-moderate correlation between classroom and clinical responses. These results support the importance of consistently engaging students in safety principles early in and throughout their health care programs.},
      keywords={Cross-Sectional Studies; Curriculum/standards; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/standards; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Nursing Education Research; Patient Safety/standards; Safety Management; Students, Nursing/psychology},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • E., E. C.. (2012). A Spotlight on Strategies for Increasing Safety Reporting in Nursing Education. Journal of continuing education in nursing, 43(4), 162-168.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{RefWorks:262,
      author={Elizabeth Cooper  E.},
      year={2012},
      month={04},
      title={A Spotlight on Strategies for Increasing Safety Reporting in Nursing Education},
      journal={Journal of continuing education in nursing},
      volume={43},
      number={4},
      pages={162-168},
      note={ID: 2011531533},
      keywords={Health Care Errors; Incident Reports; Voluntary Reporting; Schools, Nursing; Education, Nursing; Education, Clinical; Student Placement; Patient Safety; Protocols; Students, Nursing; Documentation; Root Cause Analysis; Information Systems; Medication Errors; Simulations},
      isbn={0022-0124},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011531533&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Fay-Hillier, T. M., Regan, R. V., & Gordon, G. M.. (2012). Communication and patient safety in simulation for mental health nursing education. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33(11), 718-726.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) found that 65% of medical sentinel events or medical errors are associated with communication breakdowns. In addition to the JCAHO, The Institute of Medicine, in their Core Competencies for health care professional education, recommend improvement in professional communication, collaboration, and a patient-centered approach to provide safety. Consistency of opportunities for students to practice their communication and collaboration skills is limited based on the variety of clinical experiences that are available. Simulation would provide consistency in students’ experiences. Students can practice giving a structured report, providing and receiving peer feedback, and obtaining patient feedback in a safe setting through a simulation experience. A structured hand-off shift report using a technique such as SBAR communication has been found to improve patient safety in health care environments. This paper examines the implementation of a simulation experience for students taking a Mental Health course in a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) Program to support their practice of patient and professional communication, as well as, collaboration skills with a patient-centered approach using a standardized patient simulation.

    @article{RefWorks:285,
      author={T. M. Fay-Hillier and R. V. Regan and M. Gallagher Gordon},
      year={2012},
      month={Nov},
      title={Communication and patient safety in simulation for mental health nursing education},
      journal={Issues in Mental Health Nursing},
      volume={33},
      number={11},
      pages={718-726},
      note={JID: 7907126; ppublish},
      abstract={The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) found that 65% of medical sentinel events or medical errors are associated with communication breakdowns. In addition to the JCAHO, The Institute of Medicine, in their Core Competencies for health care professional education, recommend improvement in professional communication, collaboration, and a patient-centered approach to provide safety. Consistency of opportunities for students to practice their communication and collaboration skills is limited based on the variety of clinical experiences that are available. Simulation would provide consistency in students' experiences. Students can practice giving a structured report, providing and receiving peer feedback, and obtaining patient feedback in a safe setting through a simulation experience. A structured hand-off shift report using a technique such as SBAR communication has been found to improve patient safety in health care environments. This paper examines the implementation of a simulation experience for students taking a Mental Health course in a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) Program to support their practice of patient and professional communication, as well as, collaboration skills with a patient-centered approach using a standardized patient simulation.},
      keywords={Communication; Curriculum; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Humans; Interview, Psychological; Mental Disorders/nursing/psychology; Nurse-Patient Relations; Nursing, Team; Patient Safety; Patient Simulation; Psychiatric Nursing/education; Therapeutic Community},
      isbn={1096-4673; 0161-2840},
      language={eng}
    }

  • J., K. S.. (2012). Using nursing grand rounds to enforce Quality and Safety Education for Nurses competencies. Teaching & Learning in Nursing, 7(3), 118-120.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Creative teaching is critical to engaging students. Medical grand rounds emerged as a central teaching activity in United States medical schools for the first half of the past century but have faded as education has moved to the classroom. Combining this age-old Socratic teaching method with modern high-fidelity laboratory manikins makes for an optimal learning opportunity for nursing students. Development of activities with the structure of Quality and Safety Education for Nurses competencies supports evidence-based practice and critical reasoning skills.

    @article{RefWorks:258,
      author={Karin Sherrill  J.},
      year={2012},
      month={07},
      title={Using nursing grand rounds to enforce Quality and Safety Education for Nurses competencies},
      journal={Teaching & Learning in Nursing},
      volume={7},
      number={3},
      pages={118-120},
      note={ID: 2012020211},
      abstract={Creative teaching is critical to engaging students. Medical grand rounds emerged as a central teaching activity in United States medical schools for the first half of the past century but have faded as education has moved to the classroom. Combining this age-old Socratic teaching method with modern high-fidelity laboratory manikins makes for an optimal learning opportunity for nursing students. Development of activities with the structure of Quality and Safety Education for Nurses competencies supports evidence-based practice and critical reasoning skills.},
      keywords={Patient Rounds -- Education; Learning Laboratories; Nursing Skills; Patient Safety; Education, Nursing, Associate; Vignettes; Curriculum; Nursing Practice, Evidence-Based; Quality Improvement; Teamwork; Patient Centered Care; Medical Informatics},
      isbn={1557-3087},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2012020211&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • K., G. M.. (2012). Patient Safety and Nursing Education. International Journal of Nursing Education, 4(2), 92-96.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The primary responsibility for all nursing professionals as patient advocates, is delivering safe, effective and prudent care. Creating a culture of safety in healthcare systems is the goal of leaders in the patient safety movement. Quality and Safety Education for Nurses1 (QSEN) recommended that nurses are to be prepared with essential quality and safety competencies such as patient-centered care, evidencebased practice, teamwork and collaboration, quality improvement and informatics. Educators of both pre and post-licensure nurses are challenged to prepare nurses to match with the competencies needed to integrate quality and safety with systems approach in creating a patient safety culture. Inclusion of Human Factor Theory (HFT) and Human Factors Analysis and Classifi cation System (HFACS) in the nursing curriculum could act as a foundation towards quality education, to produce competent safe practitioners. Nursing education system ensures patient safety by modifications to curricula content, facilitation of multi-disciplinary processes, inclusion of educational methods facilitating the core competencies and faculty development. Educators are encouraged to engage in a culture shift whereby student error is considered from an education systems perspective. Educators and schools are challenged to look within and systematically review how program structures and processes may be contributing to student error and undermining patient safety. Graduates prepared with necessary competencies will become leaders in shifting the healthcare culture to strengthen patient safety thus nursing education act as catalyst for the patient safety movement.

    @article{RefWorks:247,
      author={Girija Madhavanpraphakaran  K.},
      year={2012},
      month={2012},
      title={Patient Safety and Nursing Education},
      journal={International Journal of Nursing Education},
      volume={4},
      number={2},
      pages={92-96},
      note={ID: 2011793117},
      abstract={The primary responsibility for all nursing professionals as patient advocates, is delivering safe, effective and prudent care. Creating a culture of safety in healthcare systems is the goal of leaders in the patient safety movement. Quality and Safety Education for Nurses1 (QSEN) recommended that nurses are to be prepared with essential quality and safety competencies such as patient-centered care, evidencebased practice, teamwork and collaboration, quality improvement and informatics. Educators of both pre and post-licensure nurses are challenged to prepare nurses to match with the competencies needed to integrate quality and safety with systems approach in creating a patient safety culture. Inclusion of Human Factor Theory (HFT) and Human Factors Analysis and Classifi cation System (HFACS) in the nursing curriculum could act as a foundation towards quality education, to produce competent safe practitioners. Nursing education system ensures patient safety by modifications to curricula content, facilitation of multi-disciplinary processes, inclusion of educational methods facilitating the core competencies and faculty development. Educators are encouraged to engage in a culture shift whereby student error is considered from an education systems perspective. Educators and schools are challenged to look within and systematically review how program structures and processes may be contributing to student error and undermining patient safety. Graduates prepared with necessary competencies will become leaders in shifting the healthcare culture to strengthen patient safety thus nursing education act as catalyst for the patient safety movement.},
      keywords={Patient Safety -- Education; Education, Nursing; Patient Centered Care; Organizational Culture; Curriculum; Theory; Education, Clinical},
      isbn={0974-9349},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011793117&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • M., A. M., Horton-Deutsch, S., & M., B. F.. (2012). Improving Quality and Safety in Graduate Education Using an Electronic Student Tracking System. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 26(5), 358-363.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Topic: The Institute of Medicine report on the future of nursing, the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses initiative, and the Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform movement are among the most prominent forces guiding change related to information technology and informatics in nursing to improve quality and safety in practice. Informatics competencies are essential for psychiatric nurses to leverage and integrate information technology into education, practice, and research. Purpose: This article examines informatics and information technology from the perspective of educational preparation of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner. Sources of Information: Literature related to informatics, information technology, and quality and safety in advanced practice psychiatric nursing. Conclusion: Strategies for integration of information technology in educating psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner students are described. Informatics competency will result in safer and higher quality care.

    @article{RefWorks:244,
      author={Angela McNelis  M. and Sara Horton-Deutsch and Barbara Friesth  M.},
      year={2012},
      month={10},
      title={Improving Quality and Safety in Graduate Education Using an Electronic Student Tracking System},
      journal={Archives of Psychiatric Nursing},
      volume={26},
      number={5},
      pages={358-363},
      note={ID: 2011687312},
      abstract={Topic: The Institute of Medicine report on the future of nursing, the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses initiative, and the Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform movement are among the most prominent forces guiding change related to information technology and informatics in nursing to improve quality and safety in practice. Informatics competencies are essential for psychiatric nurses to leverage and integrate information technology into education, practice, and research. Purpose: This article examines informatics and information technology from the perspective of educational preparation of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner. Sources of Information: Literature related to informatics, information technology, and quality and safety in advanced practice psychiatric nursing. Conclusion: Strategies for integration of information technology in educating psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner students are described. Informatics competency will result in safer and higher quality care.},
      keywords={Information Technology; Nursing Informatics; Quality Improvement; Patient Safety; Nursing Practice; Psychiatric Nursing -- Education; Nurse Practitioners -- Education; Information Literacy; Institute of Medicine (U.S.); Change Management; Education, Nursing; Research, Nursing},
      isbn={0883-9417},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011687312&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Mackay, B., Harding, T., Jurlina, L., Scobie, N., & Khan, R.. (2012). Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students. Nurse Education in Practice, 12(2), 120-126.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the social cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with Maori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international nursing students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents ‘awareness’, with the other four digits signifying ‘connection’, ‘communication’, ‘negotiation’ and ‘advocacy’ respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of The Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn. © 2011 Nursing Praxis in New Zealand. This article was first published by Nursing Praxis in New Zealand: Mackay, B? Harding, T., Jurlina, L? Scobie, N., & Khan, R. (2011 ). Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand. 27(1), 13-24.

    @article{RefWorks:268,
      author={Bev Mackay and Thomas Harding and Lou Jurlina and Norma Scobie and Ruelle Khan},
      year={2012},
      month={03},
      title={Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students},
      journal={Nurse Education in Practice},
      volume={12},
      number={2},
      pages={120-126},
      note={ID: 2011522211},
      abstract={The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the social cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with Maori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international nursing students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection', 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of The Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn. © 2011 Nursing Praxis in New Zealand. This article was first published by Nursing Praxis in New Zealand: Mackay, B? Harding, T., Jurlina, L? Scobie, N., & Khan, R. (2011 ). Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand. 27(1), 13-24.},
      keywords={Students, Foreign -- New Zealand; Education, Nursing, Theory-Based -- New Zealand; Nursing Models, Theoretical; Culture; New Zealand; Maori; Negotiation; Patient Advocacy; Communication; Faculty-Student Relations; Acculturation; Cognition},
      isbn={1471-5953},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011522211&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Mansour, M.. (2012). Current assessment of patient safety education. British Journal of Nursing, 21(9), 536-543.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The purpose of this literature review was to examine current evidence on how student nurses and nursing faculty members perceived the integration of patient safety education in preregistration/undergraduate nursing training. Databases searched from January 2000 to April 2011 included CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, PubMed, AMED, Academic Science, Midline, Cochrane Library Database, Web of Knowledge, Ovid Nursing Database, Wiley Online Library and Science Direct. In total, 77 articles were initially found, although only 15 were included in the author’s review. Of these, 5 papers were research-based articles that examined aspects of patient safety education in undergraduate/pre-registration nursing training, and 9 papers were literature review and discussion based, which provided insight into the experience, assessment, evaluation or implementation of patient safety education curriculum in nursing education. The author’s literature review highlights the continuing lack of research on patient safety education in undergraduate/preregistration nursing training and, in particular, outlines areas in nursing education which need to be addressed to develop patient-safety-friendly nursing curricula.

    @article{RefWorks:240,
      author={Mansour Mansour},
      year={2012},
      month={05/10},
      title={Current assessment of patient safety education},
      journal={British Journal of Nursing},
      volume={21},
      number={9},
      pages={536-543},
      note={ID: 2011550842},
      abstract={The purpose of this literature review was to examine current evidence on how student nurses and nursing faculty members perceived the integration of patient safety education in preregistration/undergraduate nursing training. Databases searched from January 2000 to April 2011 included CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, PubMed, AMED, Academic Science, Midline, Cochrane Library Database, Web of Knowledge, Ovid Nursing Database, Wiley Online Library and Science Direct. In total, 77 articles were initially found, although only 15 were included in the author's review. Of these, 5 papers were research-based articles that examined aspects of patient safety education in undergraduate/pre-registration nursing training, and 9 papers were literature review and discussion based, which provided insight into the experience, assessment, evaluation or implementation of patient safety education curriculum in nursing education. The author's literature review highlights the continuing lack of research on patient safety education in undergraduate/preregistration nursing training and, in particular, outlines areas in nursing education which need to be addressed to develop patient-safety-friendly nursing curricula.},
      keywords={Patient Safety -- Education; Education, Nursing; Curriculum; Human; CINAHL Database; Psycinfo; PubMed; Medline; Cochrane Library; Faculty, Nursing},
      isbn={0966-0461},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011550842&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Reid-Searl, K., & Happell, B.. (2012). Supervising nursing students administering medication: a perspective from registered nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(13), 1998-2005.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Aims. To explore the attitudes, experiences and opinions of registered nurses regarding supervision of undergraduate nursing students while administering medication in the healthcare setting. Background. Medication errors present a considerable risk to safety in the healthcare setting. By virtue of their role in the administration of medication, registered nurses are considered as major contributors to this problem. Undergraduate nursing students administer medication in the clinical setting, but little attention has been paid to the implications for patient safety. Design. This research was conducted using exploratory qualitative methodology. Methods. Focus group interviews were conducted with 13 registered nurses. The participants were asked to describe their experiences and opinions regarding the supervision of undergraduate nursing students. Data were analysed using the framework approach. Results. Three main themes from this work are presented in this paper: ‘standard of supervision’, ‘a beneficial experience’ and ‘preparation’. Conclusions. The participants regarded supervision as an important process in fostering student learning and ensuring safety. Preparation on the part of the healthcare facility, students and the university were essential to maximise the benefits for all concerned. Relevance to clinical practice. The ability to administer medication safely is an important skill for all registered nurses. Nursing students need the opportunity to develop these skills as part of their undergraduate educational programme. Registered nurses must supervise students in a rigorous and supportive manner to enhance learning and to promote quality care.

    @article{RefWorks:264,
      author={Kerry Reid-Searl and Brenda Happell},
      year={2012},
      month={07},
      title={Supervising nursing students administering medication: a perspective from registered nurses},
      journal={Journal of Clinical Nursing},
      volume={21},
      number={13},
      pages={1998-2005},
      note={ID: 2011567974},
      abstract={Aims. To explore the attitudes, experiences and opinions of registered nurses regarding supervision of undergraduate nursing students while administering medication in the healthcare setting. Background. Medication errors present a considerable risk to safety in the healthcare setting. By virtue of their role in the administration of medication, registered nurses are considered as major contributors to this problem. Undergraduate nursing students administer medication in the clinical setting, but little attention has been paid to the implications for patient safety. Design. This research was conducted using exploratory qualitative methodology. Methods. Focus group interviews were conducted with 13 registered nurses. The participants were asked to describe their experiences and opinions regarding the supervision of undergraduate nursing students. Data were analysed using the framework approach. Results. Three main themes from this work are presented in this paper: 'standard of supervision', 'a beneficial experience' and 'preparation'. Conclusions. The participants regarded supervision as an important process in fostering student learning and ensuring safety. Preparation on the part of the healthcare facility, students and the university were essential to maximise the benefits for all concerned. Relevance to clinical practice. The ability to administer medication safely is an important skill for all registered nurses. Nursing students need the opportunity to develop these skills as part of their undergraduate educational programme. Registered nurses must supervise students in a rigorous and supportive manner to enhance learning and to promote quality care.},
      keywords={Professional-Student Relations; Registered Nurses; Nurse Attitudes; Supervisors and Supervision; Drug Administration; Education, Nursing; Human; Nurse Attitudes -- Evaluation; Exploratory Research; Qualitative Studies; Focus Groups; Queensland; Audiorecording; Male; Female; Adult; Thematic Analysis; Funding Source},
      isbn={0962-1067},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011567974&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Schnall, R., Cook, S., Marie, R. J., Larson, E., W., P. S., Sullivan, C., & Bakken, S.. (2012). Patient safety issues in advanced practice nursing students’ care settings. Journal of nursing care quality, 27(2), 132-138.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The purpose of this project was to identify and characterize patient safety issues across advanced practice nursing (APN) care settings including ambulatory care visits. A total of 162 registered nurses enrolled in an APN education program completed an online survey. Respondents reported patient safety issues related to diagnosis or management and treatment in almost half of 489 encounters. The most common issues were clinician communication problems with patients, which occurred during 42.4% of encounters. Adoption of information technology may be a pathway for improving patient safety issues in APN practice settings.

    @article{RefWorks:257,
      author={Rebecca Schnall and Sarah Cook and Rita John  Marie and Elaine Larson and Patricia Stone  W. and Caroline Sullivan and Suzanne Bakken},
      year={2012},
      month={2012},
      title={Patient safety issues in advanced practice nursing students' care settings},
      journal={Journal of nursing care quality},
      volume={27},
      number={2},
      pages={132-138},
      note={ID: 2011501002},
      abstract={The purpose of this project was to identify and characterize patient safety issues across advanced practice nursing (APN) care settings including ambulatory care visits. A total of 162 registered nurses enrolled in an APN education program completed an online survey. Respondents reported patient safety issues related to diagnosis or management and treatment in almost half of 489 encounters. The most common issues were clinician communication problems with patients, which occurred during 42.4% of encounters. Adoption of information technology may be a pathway for improving patient safety issues in APN practice settings.},
      keywords={Advanced Nursing Practice -- Education; Ambulatory Care Nursing; Health Care Delivery; Patient Safety; Students, Nursing, Graduate; Adult; Communication; Data Analysis Software; Descriptive Statistics; Female; Human; Male; New York; Nurse Attitudes; Registered Nurses; Survey Research},
      isbn={1057-3631},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2011501002&site=ehost-live}
    }

2011

  • Altmiller, G.. (2011). Quality and safety education for nurses competencies and the clinical nurse specialist role: implications for preceptors . Clinical Nurse Specialist: The Journal for Advanced Nursing Practice, 25(1), 28-32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Quality and Safety Education for Nurses came about through a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Its mission has been to transform nursing education by deliberately changing the focus of nursing’s professional identity. The purpose of this article is to discuss the recent adaptation of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses knowledge, skills, and attitudes, originally developed for undergraduate education, into competencies for advanced practice nursing education. This article discusses the applicability of those competencies for graduate education as it applies to the spheres of influence in the clinical nurse specialist role and the implications for preceptors. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:714,
      author={G. Altmiller},
      year={2011},
      month={2011},
      title={Quality and safety education for nurses competencies and the clinical nurse specialist role: implications for preceptors },
      journal={Clinical Nurse Specialist: The Journal for Advanced Nursing Practice},
      volume={25},
      number={1},
      pages={28-32},
      note={id: 5107},
      abstract={Quality and Safety Education for Nurses came about through a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Its mission has been to transform nursing education by deliberately changing the focus of nursing's professional identity. The purpose of this article is to discuss the recent adaptation of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses knowledge, skills, and attitudes, originally developed for undergraduate education, into competencies for advanced practice nursing education. This article discusses the applicability of those competencies for graduate education as it applies to the spheres of influence in the clinical nurse specialist role and the implications for preceptors. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={0887-6274},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010914533&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Bellman, L., Webster, J., & Jeanes, A.. (2011). Knowledge transfer and the integration of research, policy and practice for patient benefit . Journal of Research in Nursing, 16(3), 254-270.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Multiple routes are proposed within the nursing and healthcare literature for implementing traditional and reflexive research evidence into practice. Knowledge transfer is a relatively new field of inquiry, which, as both a process and a strategy, can lead to the utilisation of research findings and improved outcomes for patients. Nurse leaders and the public have recognised the need to ensure that evidence-based practice is introduced expeditiously. Nurses working at an advanced level of practice, such as consultant nurses, use all forms of knowledge in sophisticated ways to lead the integration of research findings into diverse practice settings. Within healthcare organisations evidence-based practice is far more likely to occur when it is linked to implementing healthcare policy in practice. The current international, collaborative knowledge transfer research agenda includes the need to learn if knowledge transfer programmes, structures, frameworks and theories are working, and if not, why not. The knowledge transfer process is illustrated by consultant nurses using the knowledge-to-action framework to underpin two recent UK policy examples: safeguarding vulnerable adults and the prevention of Clostridium difficile. For the future, clinical academic partnerships are required to foster a culture of evidence-based practice through practical engagement, and the sharing of nursing knowledge and expertise in a systematic way, both to improve patient care and address the current research—practice gap. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:715,
      author={L. Bellman and J. Webster and A. Jeanes},
      year={2011},
      month={05},
      title={Knowledge transfer and the integration of research, policy and practice for patient benefit },
      journal={Journal of Research in Nursing},
      volume={16},
      number={3},
      pages={254-270},
      note={id: 5626},
      abstract={Multiple routes are proposed within the nursing and healthcare literature for implementing traditional and reflexive research evidence into practice. Knowledge transfer is a relatively new field of inquiry, which, as both a process and a strategy, can lead to the utilisation of research findings and improved outcomes for patients. Nurse leaders and the public have recognised the need to ensure that evidence-based practice is introduced expeditiously. Nurses working at an advanced level of practice, such as consultant nurses, use all forms of knowledge in sophisticated ways to lead the integration of research findings into diverse practice settings. Within healthcare organisations evidence-based practice is far more likely to occur when it is linked to implementing healthcare policy in practice. The current international, collaborative knowledge transfer research agenda includes the need to learn if knowledge transfer programmes, structures, frameworks and theories are working, and if not, why not. The knowledge transfer process is illustrated by consultant nurses using the knowledge-to-action framework to underpin two recent UK policy examples: safeguarding vulnerable adults and the prevention of Clostridium difficile. For the future, clinical academic partnerships are required to foster a culture of evidence-based practice through practical engagement, and the sharing of nursing knowledge and expertise in a systematic way, both to improve patient care and address the current research—practice gap. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Nursing Practice, Evidence-Based -- Trends; Nursing Knowledge -- Trends; Research, Nursing -- Trends; Patient Centered Care; Organizational Policies -- Trends; United Kingdom; Advanced Nursing Practice; Nursing Outcomes -- Evaluation; Clostridium Infections -- Prevention and Control},
      isbn={1744-9871},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2011060001&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Brady, D. S.. (2011). Using Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) as a Pedagogical Structure for Course Redesign and Content . International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 8(1), 1-18.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The safety and quality issues identified in the United States healthcare system have resulted in a call to transform healthcare education, preparing graduates to work in teams and within systems that promote patient safety. Responding from funding by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, a National Nursing Advisory Board and the American Association of Colleges of Nurses created six Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies for nursing: patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence based practice, safety, quality improvement, and informatics. These competencies provided a systematic pedagogical structure for course redesign and content to prepare nurses to value quality and safety in caring for patients. The course redesign incorporated a wide variety of active learning modalities, simulation being an ideal education technique to implement QSEN because of the multiple levels of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can be practiced and evaluated in each competency. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:716,
      author={D. S. Brady},
      year={2011},
      title={Using Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) as a Pedagogical Structure for Course Redesign and Content },
      journal={International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship},
      volume={8},
      number={1},
      pages={1-18},
      note={id: 5232},
      abstract={The safety and quality issues identified in the United States healthcare system have resulted in a call to transform healthcare education, preparing graduates to work in teams and within systems that promote patient safety. Responding from funding by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, a National Nursing Advisory Board and the American Association of Colleges of Nurses created six Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies for nursing: patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence based practice, safety, quality improvement, and informatics. These competencies provided a systematic pedagogical structure for course redesign and content to prepare nurses to value quality and safety in caring for patients. The course redesign incorporated a wide variety of active learning modalities, simulation being an ideal education technique to implement QSEN because of the multiple levels of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can be practiced and evaluated in each competency. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1548-923X},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2011016061&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Butterworth, T., Jones, K., & Jordan, S.. (2011). Building capacity and capability in patient safety, innovation and service improvement: an English case study . Journal of Research in Nursing, 16(3), 243-251.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    It is clear that for at least the next decade, funding for many health systems across the world will be challenged by serious uncertainties in country economies. In facing these challenges nurses have to respond positively to innovations in the delivery of care, increases in productivity and the eradication of errors that result in harm to patients. This paper briefly describes background developments during the last decade, offers one example of innovation programme content, describes the results of introducing patient safety, quality improvement and innovation into education curricula and suggests potential areas for future research by clinical academic nurse researchers. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:717,
      author={T. Butterworth and K. Jones and S. Jordan},
      year={2011},
      month={05},
      title={Building capacity and capability in patient safety, innovation and service improvement: an English case study },
      journal={Journal of Research in Nursing},
      volume={16},
      number={3},
      pages={243-251},
      note={id: 5283},
      abstract={It is clear that for at least the next decade, funding for many health systems across the world will be challenged by serious uncertainties in country economies. In facing these challenges nurses have to respond positively to innovations in the delivery of care, increases in productivity and the eradication of errors that result in harm to patients. This paper briefly describes background developments during the last decade, offers one example of innovation programme content, describes the results of introducing patient safety, quality improvement and innovation into education curricula and suggests potential areas for future research by clinical academic nurse researchers. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Patient Safety -- Trends; Quality of Nursing Care; Quality Improvement; United Kingdom; United States; Productivity; Education, Nursing -- Trends; Research, Nursing -- Trends},
      isbn={1744-9871},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2011060010&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Huang, G. C., Newman, L. R., Tess, A. V., & Schwartzstein, R. M.. (2011). Teaching Patient Safety: Conference Proceedings and Consensus Statements of the Millennium Conference 2009 . Teaching & Learning in Medicine, 23(2), 172-178.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Purpose: The 2003 Institute of Medicine’s report ‘Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality’ argued for the education of health professionals in patient safety. In response to this call, a number of organizations and institutions have developed frameworks and curricula that provide the educational foundation essential for learning about patient safety. However, there is limited guidance on strategies for implementation of training programs in patient safety. Summary: We convened the ‘Millennium Conference 2009: Patient Safety-Implications for Teaching in the 21st Century’ to develop concrete approaches to teach patient safety in undergraduate and graduate medical education. We selected 9 medical schools through a competitive application process to participate as school teams. We led attendees through structured discussions on three topics: (a) promoting a culture of patient safety, (b) implementing patient safety content into preexisting curricula, and (c) providing faculty development. School teams also met to refine their current local initiatives in patient safety teaching. Conclusions: A group of committed stakeholders gathered to collectively consider strategies for the integration of patient safety education into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The recommendations from this conference proceed from consensus reached by the participants. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:719,
      author={G. C. Huang and L. R. Newman and A. V. Tess and R. M. Schwartzstein},
      year={2011},
      month={2011},
      title={Teaching Patient Safety: Conference Proceedings and Consensus Statements of the Millennium Conference 2009 },
      journal={Teaching & Learning in Medicine},
      volume={23},
      number={2},
      pages={172-178},
      note={id: 5405},
      abstract={Purpose: The 2003 Institute of Medicine's report 'Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality' argued for the education of health professionals in patient safety. In response to this call, a number of organizations and institutions have developed frameworks and curricula that provide the educational foundation essential for learning about patient safety. However, there is limited guidance on strategies for implementation of training programs in patient safety. Summary: We convened the 'Millennium Conference 2009: Patient Safety-Implications for Teaching in the 21st Century' to develop concrete approaches to teach patient safety in undergraduate and graduate medical education. We selected 9 medical schools through a competitive application process to participate as school teams. We led attendees through structured discussions on three topics: (a) promoting a culture of patient safety, (b) implementing patient safety content into preexisting curricula, and (c) providing faculty development. School teams also met to refine their current local initiatives in patient safety teaching. Conclusions: A group of committed stakeholders gathered to collectively consider strategies for the integration of patient safety education into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The recommendations from this conference proceed from consensus reached by the participants. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Patient Safety -- Education; Education, Medical; Congresses and Conferences; Curriculum Development; Organizational Culture; Faculty Development},
      isbn={1040-1334},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2011016654&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Ironside, P. M., & McNelis, A. M.. (2011). Transforming clinical education . The Journal of nursing education, 50(3), 123-124.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This is a time of great opportunity for faculties because national attention is being focused on nursing education in an unprecedented way. Perhaps the most important question we can ask ourselves is: How willing are we to transform our clinical courses to prepare new nurses with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they will need in the emerging health care system? (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:720,
      author={P. M. Ironside and A. M. McNelis},
      year={2011},
      month={Mar},
      title={Transforming clinical education },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={50},
      number={3},
      pages={123-124},
      note={id: 5300; JID: 7705432; ppublish },
      abstract={This is a time of great opportunity for faculties because national attention is being focused on nursing education in an unprecedented way. Perhaps the most important question we can ask ourselves is: How willing are we to transform our clinical courses to prepare new nurses with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they will need in the emerging health care system? (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Education, Nursing/methods; Humans; Safety Management; Teaching/methods; United States},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Jackson, N. V., & Carlo, D. J. J.. (2011). Problem solved: dosage calculation in a nursing program . Nurse educator, 36(2), 80-83.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Patient safety, including the safe administration of medications, is an essential component of nursing practice. However, helping students calculate medication dosages has continually challenged faculty members and students. The authors describe a comprehensive approach to teaching and evaluating dosage calculation. Common barriers to helping students master necessary math skills required for accuracy are addressed. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:721,
      author={N. V. Jackson and J. J. De Carlo},
      year={2011},
      month={Mar-Apr},
      title={Problem solved: dosage calculation in a nursing program },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={36},
      number={2},
      pages={80-83},
      note={id: 5301; JID: 7701902; ppublish },
      abstract={Patient safety, including the safe administration of medications, is an essential component of nursing practice. However, helping students calculate medication dosages has continually challenged faculty members and students. The authors describe a comprehensive approach to teaching and evaluating dosage calculation. Common barriers to helping students master necessary math skills required for accuracy are addressed. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Clinical Competence; Data Collection; Drug Dosage Calculations; Drug Toxicity/nursing; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods; Educational Measurement; Educational Status; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Mathematics; Patient Care/methods; Problem Solving; Schools, Nursing; Students, Nursing; Teaching/methods},
      isbn={1538-9855; 0363-3624},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Jenkins, S., Blake, J., Brandy-Webb, P., & Ashe, W.. (2011). Teaching Patient Safety in Simulated Learning Experiences . Nurse educator, 36(3), 112-117.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Patient safety is an ongoing critical issue. Faculty can improve the delivery of safe care by making students aware of safety errors without negative consequences to an actual patient. A strategy was designed to focus on patient safety principles. The authors discuss implementation, outcomes, and lessons learned using the strategy. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:722,
      author={S. Jenkins and J. Blake and P. Brandy-Webb and W. Ashe},
      year={2011},
      month={2011},
      title={Teaching Patient Safety in Simulated Learning Experiences },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={36},
      number={3},
      pages={112-117},
      note={id: 5291},
      abstract={Patient safety is an ongoing critical issue. Faculty can improve the delivery of safe care by making students aware of safety errors without negative consequences to an actual patient. A strategy was designed to focus on patient safety principles. The authors discuss implementation, outcomes, and lessons learned using the strategy. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Patient Safety -- Education; Simulations; Education, Nursing; Treatment Errors -- Prevention and Control; Teaching Methods; Behavioral Objectives; Vignettes; Schools, Nursing; Texas; Outcomes of Education; Health Care Errors},
      isbn={0363-3624},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2011171215&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Killam, L. A., Luhanga, F., & Bakker, D.. (2011). Characteristics of unsafe undergraduate nursing students in clinical practice: an integrative literature review . The Journal of nursing education, 50(8), 437-446.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Providing quality clinical experiences for nursing students is vital to the development of safe and competent professional nurses. However, clinical educators often have difficulty identifying and coping with students whose performance is unsatisfactory. The purposes of this integrative review were to examine the extent and quality of the literature focusing on unsafe nursing students in clinical settings and to describe the characteristics of nursing students considered unsafe in clinical settings. A structured literature search yielded 11 relevant articles: five theoretical articles and six research studies. Analysis of findings revealed three themes: ineffective interpersonal interactions, knowledge and skill incompetence, and unprofessional image. The themes reflected the attitudes, actions, and behaviors that influenced students’ ability to develop a safe milieu for client care. The findings provide clarity for early identification of students in need of increased support and facilitate clinical educators in meeting students’ learning needs to ensure patient safety. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:723,
      author={L. A. Killam and F. Luhanga and D. Bakker},
      year={2011},
      month={Aug},
      title={Characteristics of unsafe undergraduate nursing students in clinical practice: an integrative literature review },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={50},
      number={8},
      pages={437-446},
      note={id: 5297; CI: Copyright 2011; JID: 7705432; 2010/09/01 [received]; 2011/02/16 [accepted]; 2011/05/17 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={Providing quality clinical experiences for nursing students is vital to the development of safe and competent professional nurses. However, clinical educators often have difficulty identifying and coping with students whose performance is unsatisfactory. The purposes of this integrative review were to examine the extent and quality of the literature focusing on unsafe nursing students in clinical settings and to describe the characteristics of nursing students considered unsafe in clinical settings. A structured literature search yielded 11 relevant articles: five theoretical articles and six research studies. Analysis of findings revealed three themes: ineffective interpersonal interactions, knowledge and skill incompetence, and unprofessional image. The themes reflected the attitudes, actions, and behaviors that influenced students' ability to develop a safe milieu for client care. The findings provide clarity for early identification of students in need of increased support and facilitate clinical educators in meeting students' learning needs to ensure patient safety. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Krautscheid, L. C., Orton, V. J., Chorpenning, L., & Ryerson, R.. (2011). Student nurse perceptions of effective medication administration education . International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 8(1), 1-15.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nursing faculty strive to educate students in a manner that prevents errors, promoting quality, patient-centered care. This endeavor is dependent upon meaningful and effective education that incorporates educational experiences reflective of the service sector. Anecdotal reports from clinical faculty and student nurses suggest that academic medication administration education may not optimally prepare students for safe entry into clinical practice. The aim of this phenomenologic qualitative research is to understand student nurse perceptions regarding teaching strategies and learning activities that prepared them for safe medication administration in acute care clinical settings. Focus group interviews resulted in two broad themes that are identified as Effective Education and Gaps in Education. Within these broad themes, findings revealed that students value faculty demonstrations, peer-learning opportunities, and repetitive practice with timely feedback. Study findings also pointed to educational gaps. Students reported needing to learn communication and conflict resolution strategies that would help them manage real-world interruptions, distractions, and computer generated alerts. Study findings recommend implementing relevant decision-support technology within academic lab learning activities. (Source: CINAHL)

    @article{RefWorks:725,
      author={L. C. Krautscheid and V. J. Orton and L. Chorpenning and R. Ryerson},
      year={2011},
      title={Student nurse perceptions of effective medication administration education },
      journal={International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship},
      volume={8},
      number={1},
      pages={1-15},
      note={id: 5224},
      abstract={Nursing faculty strive to educate students in a manner that prevents errors, promoting quality, patient-centered care. This endeavor is dependent upon meaningful and effective education that incorporates educational experiences reflective of the service sector. Anecdotal reports from clinical faculty and student nurses suggest that academic medication administration education may not optimally prepare students for safe entry into clinical practice. The aim of this phenomenologic qualitative research is to understand student nurse perceptions regarding teaching strategies and learning activities that prepared them for safe medication administration in acute care clinical settings. Focus group interviews resulted in two broad themes that are identified as Effective Education and Gaps in Education. Within these broad themes, findings revealed that students value faculty demonstrations, peer-learning opportunities, and repetitive practice with timely feedback. Study findings also pointed to educational gaps. Students reported needing to learn communication and conflict resolution strategies that would help them manage real-world interruptions, distractions, and computer generated alerts. Study findings recommend implementing relevant decision-support technology within academic lab learning activities. (Source: CINAHL) },
      isbn={1548-923X},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2011016063&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Manning, M. L., & Frisby, A. J.. (2011). Multimethod teaching strategies to integrate selected QSEN competencies in a Doctor of Nursing Practice distance education program . Nursing outlook, 59(3), 166-173.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Abstract: The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) initiative identified 6 competencies for the education of nurses (patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics) and the related knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) for each competency. The initial QSEN focus was on competency development during prelicensure nursing education, with subsequent attention on adapting the KSAs for graduate programs that prepare advanced practice nurses for clinical roles. Description of successful QSEN competency integration in Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs is limited. Although the ultimate goal is executing DNP programs where quality and safety is thoroughly integrated throughout the curricula, the focus of this article is on multimethod teaching strategies to integrate selected QSEN KSAs into an existing online post-master’s DNP quality and safety course. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:726,
      author={M. L. Manning and A. J. Frisby},
      year={2011},
      month={05},
      title={Multimethod teaching strategies to integrate selected QSEN competencies in a Doctor of Nursing Practice distance education program },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={59},
      number={3},
      pages={166-173},
      note={id: 5359},
      abstract={Abstract: The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) initiative identified 6 competencies for the education of nurses (patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics) and the related knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) for each competency. The initial QSEN focus was on competency development during prelicensure nursing education, with subsequent attention on adapting the KSAs for graduate programs that prepare advanced practice nurses for clinical roles. Description of successful QSEN competency integration in Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs is limited. Although the ultimate goal is executing DNP programs where quality and safety is thoroughly integrated throughout the curricula, the focus of this article is on multimethod teaching strategies to integrate selected QSEN KSAs into an existing online post-master’s DNP quality and safety course. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={0029-6554},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2011052966&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • McMullan, M., Jones, R., & Lea, S.. (2011). The effect of an interactive e-drug calculations package on nursing students’ drug calculation ability and self-efficacy . International journal of medical informatics, 80(6), 421-430.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    OBJECTIVE: Nurses need to be competent and confident in performing drug calculations to ensure patient safety. The purpose of this study is to compare an interactive e-drug calculations package, developed using Cognitive Load Theory as its theoretical framework, with traditional handout learning support on nursing students’ drug calculation ability, self-efficacy and support material satisfaction. DESIGN: A cluster randomised controlled trial comparing the e-package with traditional handout learning support was conducted with a September cohort (n=137) and a February cohort (n=92) of second year diploma nursing students. Students from each cohort were geographically dispersed over 3 or 4 independent sites. MEASUREMENTS: Students from each cohort were invited to participate, halfway through their second year, before and after a 12 week clinical practice placement. During their placement the intervention group received the e-drug calculations package while the control group received traditional ‘handout’ support material. Drug calculation ability and self-efficacy tests were given to the participants pre- and post-intervention. Participants were given the support material satisfaction scale post-intervention. RESULTS: Students in both cohorts randomised to e-learning were more able to perform drug calculations than those receiving the handout (September: mean 48.4% versus 34.7%, p=0.027; February: mean 47.6% versus 38.3%, p=0.024). February cohort students using the e-package were more confident in performing drug calculations than those students using handouts (self-efficacy mean 56.7% versus 45.8%, p=0.022). There was no difference in improved self-efficacy between intervention and control for students in the September cohort. Students who used the package were more satisfied with its use than the students who used the handout (mean 29.6 versus 26.5, p=0.001), particularly with regard to the package enhancing their learning (p=0.023), being an effective way to learn (p=0.005), providing practice and feedback (p

    @article{RefWorks:727,
      author={M. McMullan and R. Jones and S. Lea},
      year={2011},
      month={Jun},
      title={The effect of an interactive e-drug calculations package on nursing students' drug calculation ability and self-efficacy },
      journal={International journal of medical informatics},
      volume={80},
      number={6},
      pages={421-430},
      note={id: 5299; CI: Copyright (c) 2011; JID: 9711057; 2009/10/09 [received]; 2010/08/23 [revised]; 2010/10/06 [accepted]; 2011/04/05 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={OBJECTIVE: Nurses need to be competent and confident in performing drug calculations to ensure patient safety. The purpose of this study is to compare an interactive e-drug calculations package, developed using Cognitive Load Theory as its theoretical framework, with traditional handout learning support on nursing students' drug calculation ability, self-efficacy and support material satisfaction. DESIGN: A cluster randomised controlled trial comparing the e-package with traditional handout learning support was conducted with a September cohort (n=137) and a February cohort (n=92) of second year diploma nursing students. Students from each cohort were geographically dispersed over 3 or 4 independent sites. MEASUREMENTS: Students from each cohort were invited to participate, halfway through their second year, before and after a 12 week clinical practice placement. During their placement the intervention group received the e-drug calculations package while the control group received traditional 'handout' support material. Drug calculation ability and self-efficacy tests were given to the participants pre- and post-intervention. Participants were given the support material satisfaction scale post-intervention. RESULTS: Students in both cohorts randomised to e-learning were more able to perform drug calculations than those receiving the handout (September: mean 48.4% versus 34.7%, p=0.027; February: mean 47.6% versus 38.3%, p=0.024). February cohort students using the e-package were more confident in performing drug calculations than those students using handouts (self-efficacy mean 56.7% versus 45.8%, p=0.022). There was no difference in improved self-efficacy between intervention and control for students in the September cohort. Students who used the package were more satisfied with its use than the students who used the handout (mean 29.6 versus 26.5, p=0.001), particularly with regard to the package enhancing their learning (p=0.023), being an effective way to learn (p=0.005), providing practice and feedback (p},
      isbn={1872-8243; 1386-5056},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Reid, J., & Catchpole, K.. (2011). Patient safety: a core value of nursing – so why is achieving it so difficult? . Journal of Research in Nursing, 16(3), 209-223.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Patient safety in the perioperative setting is determined by many interdependent factors including reliable systems, good teamwork, psychological safety, optimal communications and most crucially shared vision and goals. The necessary organizational, environmental and behavioural conditions for quality care are not new and were in fact known to Florence Nightingale as much as 150 years ago. As noted by Nightingale, and something that remains unchanged today, the greatest threat to patient safety are the frailties of the human condition, complacent attitudes and unconscious behaviours. Recognizing that error is normal and somewhat inevitable, given the complexity of modern surgery, is undoubtedly the first step to mitigating error and harm, and the basis from which to tackle variability and sub-optimal conditions to deliver quality improvement. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:729,
      author={J. Reid and K. Catchpole},
      year={2011},
      month={05},
      title={Patient safety: a core value of nursing - so why is achieving it so difficult? },
      journal={Journal of Research in Nursing},
      volume={16},
      number={3},
      pages={209-223},
      note={id: 5625},
      abstract={Patient safety in the perioperative setting is determined by many interdependent factors including reliable systems, good teamwork, psychological safety, optimal communications and most crucially shared vision and goals. The necessary organizational, environmental and behavioural conditions for quality care are not new and were in fact known to Florence Nightingale as much as 150 years ago. As noted by Nightingale, and something that remains unchanged today, the greatest threat to patient safety are the frailties of the human condition, complacent attitudes and unconscious behaviours. Recognizing that error is normal and somewhat inevitable, given the complexity of modern surgery, is undoubtedly the first step to mitigating error and harm, and the basis from which to tackle variability and sub-optimal conditions to deliver quality improvement. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Patient Safety; Perioperative Nursing; Organizational Policies; Teamwork; National Health Programs -- Standards; Postoperative Complications -- Prevention and Control; Interprofessional Relations},
      isbn={1744-9871},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2011060005&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Saintsing, D., Gibson, L. M., & Pennington, A. W.. (2011). The novice nurse and clinical decision-making: how to avoid errors . Journal of nursing management, 19(3), 354-359.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The purpose of this integrative review is to present the evidence in relation to novice nurses’ errors when faced with clinical decision-making in the first years of a nursing career. Recent studies identify a need for nursing schools to produce 30 000 new graduates each year to keep up with the nursing shortage. Novice nurses may be at greater risk for errors than experienced nurses. As the novice nurse moves into practice, it is imperative to recognize potential mistakes in order to prevent errors. Articles selected included information regarding types of errors, causes of errors and potential interventions for the novice nurse. The primary types of errors committed by the novice nurses include medication errors, patient falls and delay in treatment. The causes of such errors are complex. Improved patient outcomes, reduced liability and higher retention/satisfaction are all potential benefits of reducing the errors made by novice nurses. Simply being aware of the type of problems may be an important first step in improving the care by novice nurses. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:731,
      author={D. Saintsing and L. M. Gibson and A. W. Pennington},
      year={2011},
      month={04},
      title={The novice nurse and clinical decision-making: how to avoid errors },
      journal={Journal of nursing management},
      volume={19},
      number={3},
      pages={354-359},
      note={id: 5293},
      abstract={The purpose of this integrative review is to present the evidence in relation to novice nurses' errors when faced with clinical decision-making in the first years of a nursing career. Recent studies identify a need for nursing schools to produce 30 000 new graduates each year to keep up with the nursing shortage. Novice nurses may be at greater risk for errors than experienced nurses. As the novice nurse moves into practice, it is imperative to recognize potential mistakes in order to prevent errors. Articles selected included information regarding types of errors, causes of errors and potential interventions for the novice nurse. The primary types of errors committed by the novice nurses include medication errors, patient falls and delay in treatment. The causes of such errors are complex. Improved patient outcomes, reduced liability and higher retention/satisfaction are all potential benefits of reducing the errors made by novice nurses. Simply being aware of the type of problems may be an important first step in improving the care by novice nurses. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Novice Nurses; Decision Making, Clinical; New Graduate Nurses; Adverse Health Care Event -- Risk Factors; Nursing Management; Education, Nursing -- Trends; Technology, Medical; Education, Clinical -- Trends; Student Placement; Faculty, Nursing; Nursing Shortage; Nursing Role; Job Experience; Medication Errors; Treatment Delay; Workload; Clinical Competence; Preceptorship; Accidental Falls; Treatment Errors; Systematic Review},
      isbn={0966-0429},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2011011202&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Sherwood, G.. (2011). Integrating quality and safety science in nursing education and practice . Journal of Research in Nursing, 16(3), 226-240.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This paper describes the transformation underway in nursing education in the United States to integrate quality and safety competencies through the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project. A national expert panel defined the competencies and surveyed US schools of nursing to assess current implementation. To model the changes needed, a 15-school Pilot Learning Collaborative completed demonstration projects and surveyed graduating students to self-assess their achievement of the competencies. A Delphi process assessed level and placement of the competencies in the curriculum to offer educators a blueprint for spreading across curricula. Specialty organisations are cross-mapping the competencies for graduate education, educational standards have incorporated the competencies into their essentials documents, and a train the trainer faculty development model is now helping educators transform curriculum. Two key questions emerge from these findings: Are any of these projects replicable in other settings? Will these competencies translate across borders? (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:732,
      author={G. Sherwood},
      year={2011},
      month={05},
      title={Integrating quality and safety science in nursing education and practice },
      journal={Journal of Research in Nursing},
      volume={16},
      number={3},
      pages={226-240},
      note={id: 5159},
      abstract={This paper describes the transformation underway in nursing education in the United States to integrate quality and safety competencies through the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project. A national expert panel defined the competencies and surveyed US schools of nursing to assess current implementation. To model the changes needed, a 15-school Pilot Learning Collaborative completed demonstration projects and surveyed graduating students to self-assess their achievement of the competencies. A Delphi process assessed level and placement of the
    competencies in the curriculum to offer educators a blueprint for spreading across curricula. Specialty organisations are cross-mapping the competencies for graduate education, educational standards have incorporated the competencies into their essentials documents, and a train the
    trainer faculty development model is now helping educators transform curriculum. Two key questions emerge from these findings: Are any of these projects replicable in other settings? Will these competencies translate across borders? (Source: Publisher) },
      isbn={1744-9871},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2011060007&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Tanicala, M. L., Scheffer, B. K., & Roberts, M. S.. (2011). DEFINING PASS/FAIL Nursing Student Clinical Behaviors Phase I: Moving Toward a Culture of Safety . Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(3), 155-161.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Achieving safe patient care underlies all of clinical nursing education. Nurse educators are professionally, legally, and ethically expected to anticipate safety risks for patients and prevent students from causing harm to patients in the clinical arena. When a student’s behavior or behaviors pose a threat to patient safety, that student may be subject to a failing grade in the clinical nursing course. However, determining what student behaviors will result in failure in a clinical nursing course is challenging for even the most experienced nurse educators. Moving from a culture of blame to a culture of safety is also challenging. The authors developed a multiphase project to facilitate that move. Phase 1, the focus of this article, began with a qualitative study. Focus groups of part-time and ranked faculty in baccalaureate nursing programs were conducted. The goal was to begin to identify faculty perspectives regarding nursing student behaviors that result in failure in a clinical course. One major theme (context and patterns) and five subthemes (safety, thinking, ethics, communication, and standards) with clarifiers emerged from this study. Plans for the next four phases of the multiphased project are presented. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:733,
      author={M. L. Tanicala and B. K. Scheffer and M. S. Roberts},
      year={2011},
      month={2011},
      title={DEFINING PASS/FAIL Nursing Student Clinical Behaviors Phase I: Moving Toward a Culture of Safety },
      journal={Nursing Education Perspectives},
      volume={32},
      number={3},
      pages={155-161},
      note={id: 5284},
      abstract={Achieving safe patient care underlies all of clinical nursing education. Nurse educators are professionally, legally, and ethically expected to anticipate safety risks for patients and prevent students from causing harm to patients in the clinical arena. When a student's behavior or behaviors pose a threat to patient safety, that student may be subject to a failing grade in the clinical nursing course. However, determining what student behaviors will result in failure in a clinical nursing course is challenging for even the most experienced nurse educators. Moving from a culture of blame to a culture of safety is also challenging. The authors developed a multiphase project to facilitate that move. Phase 1, the focus of this article, began with a qualitative study. Focus groups of part-time and ranked faculty in baccalaureate nursing programs were conducted. The goal was to begin to identify faculty perspectives regarding nursing student behaviors that result in failure in a clinical course. One major theme (context and patterns) and five subthemes (safety, thinking, ethics, communication, and standards) with clarifiers emerged from this study. Plans for the next four phases of the multiphased project are presented. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Patient Safety -- Education; Education, Nursing -- Trends; Students, Nursing -- Evaluation; Competency Assessment -- Evaluation; Faculty, Nursing -- Psychosocial Factors; Funding Source; Human; Qualitative Studies; Focus Groups; Field Notes; Purposive Sample; Audiorecording},
      isbn={1536-5026},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2011171033&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Wolf, Z. R., Altmiller, G., & Bicknell, P.. (2011). Development and testing of the patient safety test: Current concepts . Nurse educator, 36(5), 187-191.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    To explore patient safety concepts applicable to clinical teaching in the current healthcare environment, the Patient Safety Test was created. Patient Safety Test assists nursing faculty members to assess their knowledge of safety and quality information. The authors discussed test development, implementation, and results. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:735,
      author={Z. R. Wolf and G. Altmiller and P. Bicknell},
      year={2011},
      month={Sep-Oct},
      title={Development and testing of the patient safety test: Current concepts },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={36},
      number={5},
      pages={187-191},
      note={id: 5512; CI: Copyright (c) 2011; JID: 7701902; ppublish },
      abstract={To explore patient safety concepts applicable to clinical teaching in the current healthcare environment, the Patient Safety Test was created. Patient Safety Test assists nursing faculty members to assess their knowledge of safety and quality information. The authors discussed test development, implementation, and results. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1538-9855; 0363-3624},
      language={eng}
    }

2010

  • Brown, R., Feller, L., & Benedict, L.. (2010). Reframing nursing education: the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Initiative . Teaching & Learning in Nursing, 5(3), 115-118.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Quality and safety are paramount concerns in today’s health care industry. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Initiative (QSEN), funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, has identified six competencies for graduates of all levels of prelicensure programs and the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to meet them. The authors describe the three phases of the QSEN initiative and their experiences as one of two associate degree pilot schools involved in the early phases of QSEN. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:701,
      author={R. Brown and L. Feller and L. Benedict},
      year={2010},
      month={07},
      title={Reframing nursing education: the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Initiative },
      journal={Teaching & Learning in Nursing},
      volume={5},
      number={3},
      pages={115-118},
      note={id: 4972},
      abstract={Quality and safety are paramount concerns in today's health care industry. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Initiative (QSEN), funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, has identified six competencies for graduates of all levels of prelicensure programs and the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to meet them. The authors describe the three phases of the QSEN initiative and their experiences as one of two associate degree pilot schools involved in the early phases of QSEN. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Education, Nursing; Program Implementation -- Methods; Quality of Nursing Care; Human; Patient Safety; Rules and Regulations; Simulations},
      isbn={1557-3087},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010718872&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Chenot, T. M., & Daniel, L. G.. (2010). Frameworks for Patient Safety in the Nursing Curriculum . Journal of Nursing Education, 49(10), 559-568.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Patient safety has recently received a great deal of media coverage. Professional and regulatory agencies have indicated that patient safety education should be provided to health care workers to improve health outcomes. This study’s primary purpose was to gain a better understanding of the current status of patient safety awareness among prelicensure nursing students. Data were collected from two samples (N = 150 and 318), and nursing curricula were examined from seven institutions. Measurement integrity studies indicated that patient safety awareness can be measured validly and reliably. Demographic variables were correlated with patient safety awareness. A content analysis found that all of the participating nursing schools included at least three of the six core competencies of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) (Cronenwett et al., 2007) in their curriculum; one school exhibited all six. Our findings led to conclusions and recommendations for nurse educators and for future research on patient safety education in the nursing curriculum. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:702,
      author={T. M. Chenot and L. G. Daniel},
      year={2010},
      month={10},
      title={Frameworks for Patient Safety in the Nursing Curriculum },
      journal={Journal of Nursing Education},
      volume={49},
      number={10},
      pages={559-568},
      note={id: 4920},
      abstract={Patient safety has recently received a great deal of media coverage. Professional and regulatory agencies have indicated that patient safety education should be provided to health care workers to improve health outcomes. This study's primary purpose was to gain a better understanding of the current status of patient safety awareness among prelicensure nursing students. Data were collected from two samples (N = 150 and 318), and nursing curricula were examined from seven institutions. Measurement integrity studies indicated that patient safety awareness can be measured validly and reliably. Demographic variables were correlated with patient safety awareness. A content analysis found that all of the participating nursing schools included at least three of the six core competencies of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) (Cronenwett et al., 2007) in their curriculum; one school exhibited all six. Our findings led to conclusions and recommendations for nurse educators and for future research on patient safety education in the nursing curriculum. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Patient Safety -- Education; Education, Nursing; Curriculum; Outcomes of Education; Content Analysis; Institute of Medicine (U.S.); Exploratory Research; Surveys; Quantitative Studies; Clinical Assessment Tools; Mail; Pilot Studies; Sample Size; Snowball Sample; Florida; Purposive Sample; Students, Nursing; Factor Analysis; Descriptive Statistics; Human; Male; Female; P-Value; Multiple Regression; Program Evaluation},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010833417&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Christiansen, A., Robson, L., & Griffith-Evans, C.. (2010). Creating an improvement culture for enhanced patient safety: service improvement learning in pre-registration education . Journal of nursing management, 18(7), 782-788.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    AIM: The present study reports a descriptive survey of nursing students’ experience of service improvement learning in the university and practice setting. BACKGROUND: Opportunities to develop service improvement capabilities were embedded into pre-registration programmes at a university in the Northwest of England to ensure future nurses have key skills for the workplace. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey designed to capture key aspects of students’ experience was completed by nursing students (n = 148) who had undertaken a service improvement project in the practice setting. RESULTS: Work organizations in which a service improvement project was undertaken were receptive to students’ efforts. Students reported increased confidence to undertake service improvement and service improvement capabilities were perceived to be important to future career development and employment prospects. CONCLUSION: Service improvement learning in pre-registration education appears to be acceptable, effective and valued by students. Further research to identify the impact upon future professional practice and patient outcomes would enhance understanding of this developing area. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nurse Managers can play an active role in creating a service culture in which innovation and improvement can flourish to enhance patient outcomes, experience and safety. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:703,
      author={A. Christiansen and L. Robson and C. Griffith-Evans},
      year={2010},
      month={Oct},
      title={Creating an improvement culture for enhanced patient safety: service improvement learning in pre-registration education },
      journal={Journal of nursing management},
      volume={18},
      number={7},
      pages={782-788},
      note={id: 4985; CI: (c) 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation (c) 2010; JID: 9306050; ppublish },
      abstract={AIM: The present study reports a descriptive survey of nursing students' experience of service improvement learning in the university and practice setting. BACKGROUND: Opportunities to develop service improvement capabilities were embedded into pre-registration programmes at a university in the Northwest of England to ensure future nurses have key skills for the workplace. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey designed to capture key aspects of students' experience was completed by nursing students (n = 148) who had undertaken a service improvement project in the practice setting. RESULTS: Work organizations in which a service improvement project was undertaken were receptive to students' efforts. Students reported increased confidence to undertake service improvement and service improvement capabilities were perceived to be important to future career development and employment prospects. CONCLUSION: Service improvement learning in pre-registration education appears to be acceptable, effective and valued by students. Further research to identify the impact upon future professional practice and patient outcomes would enhance understanding of this developing area. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nurse Managers can play an active role in creating a service culture in which innovation and improvement can flourish to enhance patient outcomes, experience and safety. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Adult; Cross-Sectional Studies; Education, Nursing; Female; Health Care Surveys; Humans; Learning; Male; Middle Aged; Nursing, Supervisory; Organizational Culture; Patient Care/standards; Quality of Health Care/standards; Questionnaires; Safety/standards; Schools, Nursing; Students, Nursing; Young Adult},
      isbn={1365-2834; 0966-0429},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Gantt, L. T., & Webb-Corbett, R.. (2010). Using simulation to teach patient safety behaviors in undergraduate nursing education . Journal of Nursing Education, 49(1), 48-51.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The purpose of this article is to describe how our college of nursing began to integrate patient safety instruction into simulation experiences for undergraduate nursing students. A system for evaluating and grading students was developed. Data on student safety behaviors were collected before and after implementation of instruction designed to improve adherence to hand washing and patient identification procedures. In the first semester in which data were collected, students did not demonstrate satisfactory performance of either hand hygiene or patient identification 61% of the time. After instruction, students still did not perform these procedures consistently 38% of the time. Lessons learned and future plans for addressing these problems with basic patient safety behaviors are discussed. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:744,
      author={L. T. Gantt and R. Webb-Corbett},
      year={2010},
      title={Using simulation to teach patient safety behaviors in undergraduate nursing education },
      journal={Journal of Nursing Education},
      volume={49},
      number={1},
      pages={48-51},
      note={id: 4559},
      abstract={The purpose of this article is to describe how our college of nursing began to integrate patient safety instruction into simulation experiences for undergraduate nursing students. A system for evaluating and grading students was developed. Data on student safety behaviors were collected before and after implementation of instruction designed to improve adherence to hand washing and patient identification procedures. In the first semester in which data were collected, students did not demonstrate satisfactory performance of either hand hygiene or patient identification 61% of the time. After instruction, students still did not perform these procedures consistently 38% of the time. Lessons learned and future plans for addressing these problems with basic patient safety behaviors are discussed. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010535742&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Henderson, D., Carson-Stevens, A., Bohnen, J., Gutnik, L., Hafiz, S., & Mills, S.. (2010). Check a Box. Save a Life. How Student Leadership is Shaking Up Health Care and Driving a Revolution in Patient Safety . Journal of Patient Safety, 6(1), 43-7.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Objectives: The objective was to engage health professions students as leaders in spreading the World Health Organization Surgical Checklist. The published impact of the checklist in reducing surgical complications and deaths, combined with its ease of use, offers an ideal target for students to save lives and prevent suffering. As members of the "Check a Box. Save a Life" campaign, students can speed the pace of patient safety improvement. Results: One hundred eighty-two registrants, representing 122 hosting institutions, signed up for the launch event. Based on hosts’ projected event sizes, assessed in a registration questionnaire, approximately 1400 students are believed to have participated in the event. After the launch, these students joined the campaign and were invited to carry out projects in their home institutions. Six weeks after the launch, the campaign reconvened at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s 21st Annual National Forum, and attendees presented case reports of 15 projects they had undertaken since the launch. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:818,
      author={D. Henderson and A. Carson-Stevens and J. Bohnen and L. Gutnik and S. Hafiz and S. Mills},
      year={2010},
      title={Check a Box. Save a Life. How Student Leadership is Shaking Up Health Care and Driving a Revolution in Patient Safety },
      journal={Journal of Patient Safety},
      volume={6},
      number={1},
      pages={43-7},
      note={id: 4793},
      abstract={Objectives: The objective was to engage health professions students as leaders in spreading the World Health Organization Surgical Checklist. The published impact of the checklist in reducing surgical complications and deaths, combined with its ease of use, offers an ideal target for students to save lives and prevent suffering. As members of the "Check a Box. Save a Life" campaign, students can speed the pace of patient safety improvement.
    Results: One hundred eighty-two registrants, representing 122 hosting institutions, signed up for the launch event. Based on hosts’ projected event sizes, assessed in a registration questionnaire, approximately 1400 students are believed to have participated in the event. After the launch, these students joined the campaign and were invited to carry out projects in their home institutions. Six weeks after the launch, the campaign reconvened at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s 21st Annual National Forum, and attendees presented case reports of 15 projects they had undertaken since the launch. (Source: Publisher) }
    }

  • Henneman, E. A., Roche, J. P., Fisher, D. L., Cunningham, H., Reilly, C. A., Nathanson, B. H., & Henneman, P. L.. (2010). Error identification and recovery by student nurses using human patient simulation: opportunity to improve patient safety . Applied Nursing Research : ANR, 23(1), 11-21.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This study examined types of errors that occurred or were recovered in a simulated environment by student nurses. Errors occurred in all four rule-based error categories, and all students committed at least one error. The most frequent errors occurred in the verification category. Another common error was related to physician interactions. The least common errors were related to coordinating information with the patient and family. Our finding that 100% of student subjects committed rule-based errors is cause for concern. To decrease errors and improve safe clinical practice, nurse educators must identify effective strategies that students can use to improve patient surveillance. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:793,
      author={E. A. Henneman and J. P. Roche and D. L. Fisher and H. Cunningham and C. A. Reilly and B. H. Nathanson and P. L. Henneman},
      year={2010},
      month={Feb},
      title={Error identification and recovery by student nurses using human patient simulation: opportunity to improve patient safety },
      journal={Applied Nursing Research : ANR},
      volume={23},
      number={1},
      pages={11-21},
      note={id: 4683; CI: Copyright 2010; JID: 8901557; 2007/10/08 [received]; 2008/01/19 [revised]; 2008/02/19 [accepted]; 2009/01/15 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={This study examined types of errors that occurred or were recovered in a simulated environment by student nurses. Errors occurred in all four rule-based error categories, and all students committed at least one error. The most frequent errors occurred in the verification category. Another common error was related to physician interactions. The least common errors were related to coordinating information with the patient and family. Our finding that 100% of student subjects committed rule-based errors is cause for concern. To decrease errors and improve safe clinical practice, nurse educators must identify effective strategies that students can use to improve patient surveillance. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Causality; Chi-Square Distribution; Clinical Competence/standards; Communication Barriers; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Habits; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Interprofessional Relations; Manikins; Medical Errors/classification/nursing/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Models, Nursing; Nurse's Role/psychology; Nursing Assessment; Nursing Education Research; Nursing Evaluation Research; Patient Identification Systems; Retrospective Studies; Safety Management/organization & administration; Students, Nursing/psychology; Time Factors; Total Quality Management/organization & administration},
      isbn={1532-8201; 0897-1897},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Holland, R., Meyers, D., Hildebrand, C., Bridges, A. J., Roach, M. A., & Vogelman, B.. (2010). Creating champions for health care quality and safety . American Journal of Medical Quality : The Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality, 25(2), 102-108.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Patient safety and quality of care are public concerns that demand personal responsibility at all levels of the health care organization. Senior residents in our graduate medical education program took responsibility for a capstone quality improvement project designed to transform them into champions for health care quality. Residents (n = 26) participated alone or in pairs in a 1-month faculty-mentored rotation at the Veterans Administration Hospital during the 2007-2008 academic year. They completed a Web-based curriculum, identified a quality-of-care issue, applied Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, authored a report, and engaged colleagues in their innovations during a department-wide presentation. Results indicated that residents demonstrated significantly enhanced knowledge and attitudes about patient safety and quality improvement and provided consistently positive faculty and rotation evaluations. In addition, residents generated 20 quality improvement project proposals with a 50% rate of hospital-wide implementation, leading to meaningful changes in the systems that affect patient care. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:794,
      author={R. Holland and D. Meyers and C. Hildebrand and A. J. Bridges and M. A. Roach and B. Vogelman},
      year={2010},
      month={Mar-Apr},
      title={Creating champions for health care quality and safety },
      journal={American Journal of Medical Quality : The Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality},
      volume={25},
      number={2},
      pages={102-108},
      note={id: 4703; JID: 9300756; 2009/12/04 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={Patient safety and quality of care are public concerns that demand personal responsibility at all levels of the health care organization. Senior residents in our graduate medical education program took responsibility for a capstone quality improvement project designed to transform them into champions for health care quality. Residents (n = 26) participated alone or in pairs in a 1-month faculty-mentored rotation at the Veterans Administration Hospital during the 2007-2008 academic year. They completed a Web-based curriculum, identified a quality-of-care issue, applied Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, authored a report, and engaged colleagues in their innovations during a department-wide presentation. Results indicated that residents demonstrated significantly enhanced knowledge and attitudes about patient safety and quality improvement and provided consistently positive faculty and rotation evaluations. In addition, residents generated 20 quality improvement project proposals with a 50% rate of hospital-wide implementation, leading to meaningful changes in the systems that affect patient care. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Curriculum; Humans; Internet; Internship and Residency/organization & administration; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Professional Competence; Quality Assurance, Health Care/methods; Safety Management; Wisconsin},
      isbn={1555-824X; 1062-8606},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Howard, J. N.. (2010). The missing link: dedicated patient safety education within top-ranked US nursing school curricula . Journal of patient safety, 6(3), 165-171.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Ten years after To Err Is Human found that perhaps as many as 98,000 deaths occur each year due to medical errors, 9 of the top 10 nursing schools in the 2007 US News and World Report rankings failed to require an expressly dedicated patient safety component (DPSC) within their curricula. Curricula were evaluated for the presence of a DPSC; 3 courses were selected from 2 top 10 school curricula to serve as DPSC criteria. For each reviewed curriculum, an average score was calculated representing the ratio of the number of programs requiring a DPSC, to the total number of reviewed programs. Results indicate the average score for these top 10 schools to be a scant 0.004. The top-ranked school was found to have 2 nursing specialty curriculum catalogs, totaling 174 course descriptions, entirely devoid of the words "safety," "quality," and "error." Ironically, the school curriculum providing 2 of the 3 DPSC criteria failed to require its own DPSCs in all 31 reviewed nursing programs. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:718,
      author={J. N. Howard},
      year={2010},
      month={Sep},
      title={The missing link: dedicated patient safety education within top-ranked US nursing school curricula },
      journal={Journal of patient safety},
      volume={6},
      number={3},
      pages={165-171},
      note={id: 5298; JID: 101233393; ppublish },
      abstract={Ten years after To Err Is Human found that perhaps as many as 98,000 deaths occur each year due to medical errors, 9 of the top 10 nursing schools in the 2007 US News and World Report rankings failed to require an expressly dedicated patient safety component (DPSC) within their curricula. Curricula were evaluated for the presence of a DPSC; 3 courses were selected from 2 top 10 school curricula to serve as DPSC criteria. For each reviewed curriculum, an average score was calculated representing the ratio of the number of programs requiring a DPSC, to the total number of reviewed programs. Results indicate the average score for these top 10 schools to be a scant 0.004. The top-ranked school was found to have 2 nursing specialty curriculum catalogs, totaling 174 course descriptions, entirely devoid of the words "safety," "quality," and "error." Ironically, the school curriculum providing 2 of the 3 DPSC criteria failed to require its own DPSCs in all 31 reviewed nursing programs. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Curriculum/standards; Humans; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Program Evaluation; Quality of Health Care; Safety Management; Schools, Nursing; United States},
      isbn={1549-8425; 1549-8417},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Hutton, M., Coben, D., Hall, C., Rowe, D., Sabin, M., Weeks, K., & Woolley, N.. (2010). Numeracy for nursing, report of a pilot study to compare outcomes of two practical simulation tools–an online medication dosage assessment and practical assessment in the style of objective structured clinical examination . Nurse education today, 30(7), 608-614.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This pilot study compares the results of medications calculations carried out by student nurses using an online assessment tool with the results of the same calculations carried out within simulated practice. The numeracy project, of which this is part, is funded by NHS Education for Scotland (NES). OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of a realistic computer-based assessment of pre-registration nurses’ medication calculations skills by comparing outcomes from using an online assessment tool with a practical assessment tool in the style of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination OSCE. Both assessment methods used medicine calculations usually presenting authentically in the practice setting. DESIGN: A multi-stage quantitative study using a cross-over design. SAMPLE: Fifty early 3rd year students on the adult branch of a pre-registration nursing programme at a large school of nursing in England. RESULTS: Results showed that, for assessing accuracy of calculation, there was a high level of congruence between the two methods. CONCLUSIONS: Computerised assessment of medications calculations using this particular platform is likely to closely mirror assessment of medication calculations done in a practical setting. As such it could be a useful adjunct to current assessment methods. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:704,
      author={M. Hutton and D. Coben and C. Hall and D. Rowe and M. Sabin and K. Weeks and N. Woolley},
      year={2010},
      month={Oct},
      title={Numeracy for nursing, report of a pilot study to compare outcomes of two practical simulation tools--an online medication dosage assessment and practical assessment in the style of objective structured clinical examination },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={30},
      number={7},
      pages={608-614},
      note={id: 4984; CI: Copyright (c) 2009; JID: 8511379; 2008/12/17 [received]; 2009/10/23 [revised]; 2009/12/03 [accepted]; 2010/01/25 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={This pilot study compares the results of medications calculations carried out by student nurses using an online assessment tool with the results of the same calculations carried out within simulated practice. The numeracy project, of which this is part, is funded by NHS Education for Scotland (NES). OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of a realistic computer-based assessment of pre-registration nurses' medication calculations skills by comparing outcomes from using an online assessment tool with a practical assessment tool in the style of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination OSCE. Both assessment methods used medicine calculations usually presenting authentically in the practice setting. DESIGN: A multi-stage quantitative study using a cross-over design. SAMPLE: Fifty early 3rd year students on the adult branch of a pre-registration nursing programme at a large school of nursing in England. RESULTS: Results showed that, for assessing accuracy of calculation, there was a high level of congruence between the two methods. CONCLUSIONS: Computerised assessment of medications calculations using this particular platform is likely to closely mirror assessment of medication calculations done in a practical setting. As such it could be a useful adjunct to current assessment methods. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1532-2793; 0260-6917},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Jacobson, T., Belcher, E., Sarr, B., Riutta, E., Ferrier, J. D., & Botten, M. A.. (2010). Clinical scenarios: enhancing the skill set of the nurse as a vigilant guardian . Journal of continuing education in nursing, 41(8), 347-53; quiz 354-5.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Patient safety is enhanced when nursing staff recognize and respond to subtle changes in a patient’s condition. In this quality improvement project, simulated clinical scenarios were conducted with staff nurses on a multi-specialty surgical unit. Scenarios were developed from actual patient situations as well as from calls to the rapid response team. Nurses were given the opportunity to practice assessment, critical thinking, and communication skills. Pre- and post-project surveys were used to assess nurses’ perceived level of confidence and skill in handling emergency situations. Post-project survey data showed that nurses perceived that the scenario exercises improved their confidence and skill in managing critical patient situations. In addition, the findings supported the continued use of the scenarios as a teaching strategy. The scenarios have increased nurses’ awareness of early signs of patients’ conditions deteriorating and have the potential to decrease the number of patient situations that escalate to emergencies. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:705,
      author={T. Jacobson and E. Belcher and B. Sarr and E. Riutta and J. D. Ferrier and M. A. Botten},
      year={2010},
      month={Aug},
      title={Clinical scenarios: enhancing the skill set of the nurse as a vigilant guardian },
      journal={Journal of continuing education in nursing},
      volume={41},
      number={8},
      pages={347-53; quiz 354-5},
      note={id: 4899; JID: 0262321; ppublish },
      abstract={Patient safety is enhanced when nursing staff recognize and respond to subtle changes in a patient's condition. In this quality improvement project, simulated clinical scenarios were conducted with staff nurses on a multi-specialty surgical unit. Scenarios were developed from actual patient situations as well as from calls to the rapid response team. Nurses were given the opportunity to practice assessment, critical thinking, and communication skills. Pre- and post-project surveys were used to assess nurses' perceived level of confidence and skill in handling emergency situations. Post-project survey data showed that nurses perceived that the scenario exercises improved their confidence and skill in managing critical patient situations. In addition, the findings supported the continued use of the scenarios as a teaching strategy. The scenarios have increased nurses' awareness of early signs of patients' conditions deteriorating and have the potential to decrease the number of patient situations that escalate to emergencies. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Attitude of Health Personnel; Clinical Competence; Communication; Education, Nursing, Continuing/organization & administration; Emergencies/nursing; Hospital Rapid Response Team/organization & administration; Humans; Minnesota; Models, Nursing; Nurse's Role/psychology; Nursing Assessment; Nursing Education Research; Nursing Staff, Hospital/education/psychology; Program Evaluation; Role Playing; Safety Management/organization & administration; Self Efficacy; Thinking; Total Quality Management/organization & administration},
      isbn={0022-0124; 0022-0124},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Jarzemsky, P., McCarthy, J., & Ellis, N.. (2010). Incorporating quality and safety education for nurses competencies in simulation scenario design . Nurse educator, 35(2), 90-92.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    When planning a simulation scenario, even if adopting prepackaged simulation scenarios, faculty should first conduct a task analysis to guide development of learning objectives and cue critical events. The authors describe a strategy for systematic planning of simulation-based training that incorporates knowledge, skills, and attitudes as defined by the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) initiative. The strategy cues faculty to incorporate activities that target QSEN competencies (patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, informatics, and safety) before, during, and after simulation scenarios. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:796,
      author={P. Jarzemsky and J. McCarthy and N. Ellis},
      year={2010},
      month={Mar-Apr},
      title={Incorporating quality and safety education for nurses competencies in simulation scenario design },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={35},
      number={2},
      pages={90-92},
      note={id: 4652; JID: 7701902; ppublish },
      abstract={When planning a simulation scenario, even if adopting prepackaged simulation scenarios, faculty should first conduct a task analysis to guide development of learning objectives and cue critical events. The authors describe a strategy for systematic planning of simulation-based training that incorporates knowledge, skills, and attitudes as defined by the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) initiative. The strategy cues faculty to incorporate activities that target QSEN competencies (patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, informatics, and safety) before, during, and after simulation scenarios. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1538-9855; 0363-3624},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Kearney, A., Adey, T., Bursey, M., Cooze, L., Dillon, C., Barrett, J., King-Jesso, P., & McCarthy, P.. (2010). Enhancing patient safety through undergraduate inter-professional health education . Healthcare quarterly (Toronto, Ont.), 13 Spec No, 88-93.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation of an undergraduate inter-professional patient safety education module that resulted from recommendations from the Task Force on Adverse Health Events with a mandate to "examine and evaluate how the health system identifies, evaluates, responds, and communicates" adverse events. The Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI 2008) Safety Competencies Framework was used for guidance in the curriculum’s development. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:706,
      author={A. Kearney and T. Adey and M. Bursey and L. Cooze and C. Dillon and J. Barrett and P. King-Jesso and P. McCarthy},
      year={2010},
      month={Sep},
      title={Enhancing patient safety through undergraduate inter-professional health education },
      journal={Healthcare quarterly (Toronto, Ont.)},
      volume={13 Spec No},
      pages={88-93},
      note={id: 4987; JID: 101208192; ppublish },
      abstract={This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation of an undergraduate inter-professional patient safety education module that resulted from recommendations from the Task Force on Adverse Health Events with a mandate to "examine and evaluate how the health system identifies, evaluates, responds, and communicates" adverse events. The Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI 2008) Safety Competencies Framework was used for guidance in the curriculum's development. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Canada; Curriculum; Education, Medical, Undergraduate; Humans; Interdisciplinary Communication; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Professional Competence; Safety Management},
      isbn={1710-2774; 1710-2774},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Killam, L. P., Montgomery, P., Luhanga, F. L., Adamic, P., & Carter, L. M.. (2010). Views of unsafe nursing students in clinical learning . International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 7(1), Article 36.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Clinical education is a cornerstone of undergraduate nursing education programs. Although protecting patient safety in clinical learning experiences is a standard of practice, no standard definition of the "unsafe" student exists. The purpose of this study was to describe the viewpoints of undergraduate student nurses and their clinical educators about unsafe clinical student practices. Using Q methodology, 57 students and 14 clinical educators sorted 39 unsafe student practice statements. These statements were generated from an integrated review of nursing and related literature and two undergraduate student focus groups. The use of centroid factor analysis with varimax rotation produced three dimensions of unsafe student practices. An unsafe student was characterized by his/her Compromised Professional Accountability, Incomplete Praxis, and Clinical Disengagement. A shared attribute among these three features was violated professional integrity. While students’ affective, cognitive, and praxis competencies were priority elements in the conceptualization of unsafe student practice, this study also identified the salient role of educators as active participants in preparation of safe practitioners. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:724,
      author={L. P. Killam and P. Montgomery and F. L. Luhanga and P. Adamic and L. M. Carter},
      year={2010},
      title={Views of unsafe nursing students in clinical learning },
      journal={International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship},
      volume={7},
      number={1},
      pages={Article 36},
      note={id: 5294},
      abstract={Clinical education is a cornerstone of undergraduate nursing education programs. Although protecting patient safety in clinical learning experiences is a standard of practice, no standard definition of the "unsafe" student exists. The purpose of this study was to describe the viewpoints of undergraduate student nurses and their clinical educators about unsafe clinical student practices. Using Q methodology, 57 students and 14 clinical educators sorted 39 unsafe student practice statements. These statements were generated from an integrated review of nursing and related literature and two undergraduate student focus groups. The use of centroid factor analysis with varimax rotation produced three dimensions of unsafe student practices. An unsafe student was characterized by his/her Compromised Professional Accountability, Incomplete Praxis, and Clinical Disengagement. A shared attribute among these three features was violated professional integrity. While students' affective, cognitive, and praxis competencies were priority elements in the conceptualization of unsafe student practice, this study also identified the salient role of educators as active participants in preparation of safe practitioners. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Education, Clinical; Patient Safety; Perception; Students, Nursing; Accountability; Behavior; Correlational Studies; Ethics, Professional; Factor Analysis; Faculty, Nursing; Focus Groups; Guideline Adherence; Honesty; Human; Intraprofessional Relations; Nursing Practice; Questionnaires; Student Attitudes},
      isbn={1548-923X},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010888051&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Kirch, D. G., & Boysen, P. G.. (2010). Changing the culture in medical education to teach patient safety . Health affairs (Project Hope), 29(9), 1600-1604.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In 1999 a seminal Institute of Medicine report estimated that preventable medical errors accounted for 44,000-98,000 patient deaths annually in U.S. hospitals. In response to this problem, the nation’s medical schools, teaching hospitals, and health systems recognized that achieving greater patient safety requires more than a brief course in an already crowded medical school curriculum. It requires a fundamental culture change across all phases of medical education. This includes graduate medical education, which is already teaching the next generation of physicians to approach patient safety in a new way. In this paper the authors explore five factors critical to transforming the culture for patient safety and reflect on one real-world example at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:707,
      author={D. G. Kirch and P. G. Boysen},
      year={2010},
      month={Sep},
      title={Changing the culture in medical education to teach patient safety },
      journal={Health affairs (Project Hope)},
      volume={29},
      number={9},
      pages={1600-1604},
      note={id: 4988; JID: 8303128; ppublish },
      abstract={In 1999 a seminal Institute of Medicine report estimated that preventable medical errors accounted for 44,000-98,000 patient deaths annually in U.S. hospitals. In response to this problem, the nation's medical schools, teaching hospitals, and health systems recognized that achieving greater patient safety requires more than a brief course in an already crowded medical school curriculum. It requires a fundamental culture change across all phases of medical education. This includes graduate medical education, which is already teaching the next generation of physicians to approach patient safety in a new way. In this paper the authors explore five factors critical to transforming the culture for patient safety and reflect on one real-world example at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1544-5208; 0278-2715},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Kohtz, C., & Gowda, C.. (2010). Teaching drug calculation in nursing education: a comparison study . Nurse educator, 35(2), 83-86.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Medication errors related to incorrect drug dose calculation continue to plague nursing and jeopardize patient welfare. This research study spans 2 academic years (4 classes of senior undergraduate nursing students) and compares the use of 2 approaches to drug calculation: dimensional analysis and conventional methods (ratio-proportion and calculation formulas). Data analysis looked at several factors but primarily focused on conceptual accuracy. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:798,
      author={C. Kohtz and C. Gowda},
      year={2010},
      month={Mar-Apr},
      title={Teaching drug calculation in nursing education: a comparison study },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={35},
      number={2},
      pages={83-86},
      note={id: 4653; JID: 7701902; ppublish },
      abstract={Medication errors related to incorrect drug dose calculation continue to plague nursing and jeopardize patient welfare. This research study spans 2 academic years (4 classes of senior undergraduate nursing students) and compares the use of 2 approaches to drug calculation: dimensional analysis and conventional methods (ratio-proportion and calculation formulas). Data analysis looked at several factors but primarily focused on conceptual accuracy. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1538-9855; 0363-3624},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Levett-Jones, T., Hoffman, K., Dempsey, J., Jeong, S. Y., Noble, D., Norton, C. A., Roche, J., & Hickey, N.. (2010). The ‘five rights’ of clinical reasoning: An educational model to enhance nursing students’ ability to identify and manage clinically ‘at risk’ patients . Nurse education today, 30(6), 515-520.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Acute care settings are characterised by patients with complex health problems who are more likely to be or become seriously ill during their hospital stay. Although warning signs often precede serious adverse events there is consistent evidence that ‘at risk’ patients are not always identified or managed appropriately. ‘Failure to rescue’, with rescue being the ability to recognise deteriorating patients and to intervene appropriately, is related to poor clinical reasoning skills. These factors provided the impetus for the development of an educational model that has the potential to enhance nursing students’ clinical reasoning skills and consequently their ability to manage ‘at risk’ patients. Clinical reasoning is the process by which nurses collect cues, process the information, come to an understanding of a patient problem or situation, plan and implement interventions, evaluate outcomes, and reflect on and learn from the process. Effective clinical reasoning depends upon the nurse’s ability to collect the right cues and to take the right action for the right patient at the right time and for the right reason. This paper provides an overview of a clinical reasoning model and the literature underpinning the ‘five rights’ of clinical reasoning. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:799,
      author={T. Levett-Jones and K. Hoffman and J. Dempsey and S. Y. Jeong and D. Noble and C. A. Norton and J. Roche and N. Hickey},
      year={2010},
      month={Aug},
      title={The 'five rights' of clinical reasoning: An educational model to enhance nursing students' ability to identify and manage clinically 'at risk' patients },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={30},
      number={6},
      pages={515-520},
      note={id: 4668; CI: Copyright (c) 2009; JID: 8511379; 2009/01/16 [received]; 2009/07/15 [revised]; 2009/10/30 [accepted]; 2009/11/30 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={Acute care settings are characterised by patients with complex health problems who are more likely to be or become seriously ill during their hospital stay. Although warning signs often precede serious adverse events there is consistent evidence that 'at risk' patients are not always identified or managed appropriately. 'Failure to rescue', with rescue being the ability to recognise deteriorating patients and to intervene appropriately, is related to poor clinical reasoning skills. These factors provided the impetus for the development of an educational model that has the potential to enhance nursing students' clinical reasoning skills and consequently their ability to manage 'at risk' patients. Clinical reasoning is the process by which nurses collect cues, process the information, come to an understanding of a patient problem or situation, plan and implement interventions, evaluate outcomes, and reflect on and learn from the process. Effective clinical reasoning depends upon the nurse's ability to collect the right cues and to take the right action for the right patient at the right time and for the right reason. This paper provides an overview of a clinical reasoning model and the literature underpinning the 'five rights' of clinical reasoning. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1532-2793; 0260-6917},
      language={ENG}
    }

  • Macdonald, M.. (2010). Patient safety: examining the adequacy of the 5 rights of medication administration . Clinical nurse specialist CNS, 24(4), 196-201.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to examine the adequacy of the 5 rights (5 R’s) for nurses and for including patients in medication administration while considering patient safety. Patient safety related to medication adverse events will be discussed; the 5 R’s will be examined and critiqued and the importance of patient-centered care and patient participation in care will be presented. A path forward is offered based on the expressive-collaborative model. Suggestions for introduction of the model are outlined, and implications for practice, research, and education are discussed. BACKGROUND: Nurses have been guided by the 5 R’s of medication administration in both education and practice for many decades. Many have found the 5 R’s to be lacking and proceeded to propose the addition of a variety of rights from right indication to the rights of nurses to have legible orders and timely access to information. Patients are no longer passive recipients of care and are choosing to play increasingly greater roles in the process of care. INNOVATION: In a collaborative patient-centered environment, an expressive-collaborative model of approaching systems of care is needed. In this model, individuals negotiate with one another to find out what people need to know and to strategize on the means to acquiring the necessary information. Providers are no longer expected to be all knowing. CONCLUSION: Medication administration is no longer simply the 5 R’s. Medication administration is a process with many interconnected players including patients. We need to collaboratively restructure medication use in this era in which all involved in the process share the responsibility for a safe medication use system. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:708,
      author={M. Macdonald},
      year={2010},
      month={Jul-Aug},
      title={Patient safety: examining the adequacy of the 5 rights of medication administration },
      journal={Clinical nurse specialist CNS},
      volume={24},
      number={4},
      pages={196-201},
      note={id: 4869; JID: 8709115; ppublish },
      abstract={PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to examine the adequacy of the 5 rights (5 R's) for nurses and for including patients in medication administration while considering patient safety. Patient safety related to medication adverse events will be discussed; the 5 R's will be examined and critiqued and the importance of patient-centered care and patient participation in care will be presented. A path forward is offered based on the expressive-collaborative model. Suggestions for introduction of the model are outlined, and implications for practice, research, and education are discussed. BACKGROUND: Nurses have been guided by the 5 R's of medication administration in both education and practice for many decades. Many have found the 5 R's to be lacking and proceeded to propose the addition of a variety of rights from right indication to the rights of nurses to have legible orders and timely access to information. Patients are no longer passive recipients of care and are choosing to play increasingly greater roles in the process of care. INNOVATION: In a collaborative patient-centered environment, an expressive-collaborative model of approaching systems of care is needed. In this model, individuals negotiate with one another to find out what people need to know and to strategize on the means to acquiring the necessary information. Providers are no longer expected to be all knowing. CONCLUSION: Medication administration is no longer simply the 5 R's. Medication administration is a process with many interconnected players including patients. We need to collaboratively restructure medication use in this era in which all involved in the process share the responsibility for a safe medication use system. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Humans; Medication Errors/prevention & control; Patient-Centered Care; Safety Management/organization & administration},
      isbn={1538-9782; 0887-6274},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Manojlovich, M.. (2010). Nurse/physician communication through a sensemaking lens: shifting the paradigm to improve patient safety . Medical care, 48(11), 941-946.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Physician-nurse communication has been identified as one of the main obstacles to progress in patient safety. Breakdowns in communication between physicians and nurses often result in errors, many of which are preventable. Recent research into nurse/physician communication has borrowed heavily from team literature, tending to study communication as one behavior in a larger cluster of behaviors. The multicluster approach to team research has not provided enough analysis of and attention to communication alone. Research into communication specifically is needed to understand its crucial role in teamwork and safety. A critique of the research literature on nurse/physician communication published since 1992 revealed 3 dominant themes: settings and context, consensus building, and conflict resolution. A fourth implicit theme, the temporal nature of communication, emerged as well. These themes were used to frame a discussion on sensemaking: an iterative process arising from dialogue when 2 or more people share their unique perspectives. As a theoretical model, sensemaking may offer an alternative lens through which to view the phenomenon of nurse/physician communication and advance our understanding of how nurse/physician communication can promote patient safety. Sensemaking may represent a paradigm shift with the potential to affect 2 spheres of influence: clinical practice and health care outcomes. Sensemaking may also hold promise as an intervention because through sensemaking consensus may be built and errors possibly prevented. Engaging in sensemaking may overcome communication barriers without realigning power bases, incorporate contextual influences without drawing attention away from communicators, and inform actions arising from communication. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:709,
      author={M. Manojlovich},
      year={2010},
      month={Nov},
      title={Nurse/physician communication through a sensemaking lens: shifting the paradigm to improve patient safety },
      journal={Medical care},
      volume={48},
      number={11},
      pages={941-946},
      note={id: 4986; JID: 0230027; ppublish },
      abstract={Physician-nurse communication has been identified as one of the main obstacles to progress in patient safety. Breakdowns in communication between physicians and nurses often result in errors, many of which are preventable. Recent research into nurse/physician communication has borrowed heavily from team literature, tending to study communication as one behavior in a larger cluster of behaviors. The multicluster approach to team research has not provided enough analysis of and attention to communication alone. Research into communication specifically is needed to understand its crucial role in teamwork and safety. A critique of the research literature on nurse/physician communication published since 1992 revealed 3 dominant themes: settings and context, consensus building, and conflict resolution. A fourth implicit theme, the temporal nature of communication, emerged as well. These themes were used to frame a discussion on sensemaking: an iterative process arising from dialogue when 2 or more people share their unique perspectives. As a theoretical model, sensemaking may offer an alternative lens through which to view the phenomenon of nurse/physician communication and advance our understanding of how nurse/physician communication can promote patient safety. Sensemaking may represent a paradigm shift with the potential to affect 2 spheres of influence: clinical practice and health care outcomes. Sensemaking may also hold promise as an intervention because through sensemaking consensus may be built and errors possibly prevented. Engaging in sensemaking may overcome communication barriers without realigning power bases, incorporate contextual influences without drawing attention away from communicators, and inform actions arising from communication. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Attitude of Health Personnel; Communication Barriers; Cooperative Behavior; Humans; Interprofessional Relations; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Patient Care Team/organization & administration; Patient-Centered Care/organization & administration; Physician-Nurse Relations; Risk Management/organization & administration; Safety Management/organization & administration; Total Quality Management/organization & administration; United States},
      isbn={1537-1948; 0025-7079},
      language={eng}
    }

  • McMullan, M., Jones, R., & Lea, S.. (2010). Patient safety: numerical skills and drug calculation abilities of nursing students and registered nurses . Journal of advanced nursing, 66(4), 891-899.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Aim. This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of age, status, experience and drug calculation ability to numerical ability of nursing students and Registered Nurses. Background. Competent numerical and drug calculation skills are essential for nurses as mistakes can put patients’ lives at risk. Method. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in one United Kingdom university. Validated numerical and drug calculation tests were given to 229 second year nursing students and 44 Registered Nurses attending a non-medical prescribing programme. Results. The numeracy test was failed by 55% of students and 45% of Registered Nurses, while 92% of students and 89% of nurses failed the drug calculation test. Independent of status or experience, older participants (>=35 years) were statistically significantly more able to perform numerical calculations. There was no statistically significant difference between nursing students and Registered Nurses in their overall drug calculation ability, but nurses were statistically significantly more able than students to perform basic numerical calculations and calculations for solids, oral liquids and injections. Both nursing students and Registered Nurses were statistically significantly more able to perform calculations for solids, liquid oral and injections than calculations for drug percentages, drip and infusion rates. Conclusion. To prevent deskilling, Registered Nurses should continue to practise and refresh all the different types of drug calculations as often as possible with regular (self)-testing of their ability. Time should be set aside in curricula for nursing students to learn how to perform basic numerical and drug calculations. This learning should be reinforced through regular practice and assessment. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:800,
      author={M. McMullan and R. Jones and S. Lea},
      year={2010},
      month={04},
      title={Patient safety: numerical skills and drug calculation abilities of nursing students and registered nurses },
      journal={Journal of advanced nursing},
      volume={66},
      number={4},
      pages={891-899},
      note={id: 4707},
      abstract={Aim. This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of age, status, experience and drug calculation ability to numerical ability of nursing students and Registered Nurses. Background. Competent numerical and drug calculation skills are essential for nurses as mistakes can put patients' lives at risk. Method. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in one United Kingdom university. Validated numerical and drug calculation tests were given to 229 second year nursing students and 44 Registered Nurses attending a non-medical prescribing programme. Results. The numeracy test was failed by 55% of students and 45% of Registered Nurses, while 92% of students and 89% of nurses failed the drug calculation test. Independent of status or experience, older participants (>=35 years) were statistically significantly more able to perform numerical calculations. There was no statistically significant difference between nursing students and Registered Nurses in their overall drug calculation ability, but nurses were statistically significantly more able than students to perform basic numerical calculations and calculations for solids, oral liquids and injections. Both nursing students and Registered Nurses were statistically significantly more able to perform calculations for solids, liquid oral and injections than calculations for drug percentages, drip and infusion rates. Conclusion. To prevent deskilling, Registered Nurses should continue to practise and refresh all the different types of drug calculations as often as possible with regular (self)-testing of their ability. Time should be set aside in curricula for nursing students to learn how to perform basic numerical and drug calculations. This learning should be reinforced through regular practice and assessment. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Dosage Calculation; Mathematics; Registered Nurses; Students, Nursing; Adult; Age Factors; Colleges and Universities; Convenience Sample; Correlational Studies; Cross Sectional Studies; Descriptive Research; Descriptive Statistics; Educational Measurement; Educational Status; Female; Human; Inferential Statistics; Job Experience; Male; Mann-Whitney U Test; Middle Age; Multiple Regression; Paired T-Tests; Pearson's Correlation Coefficient; United Kingdom},
      isbn={0309-2402},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010587579&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Myers, S., Reidy, P., French, B., McHale, J., Chisholm, M., & Griffin, M.. (2010). Safety concerns of hospital-based new-to-practice registered nurses and their preceptors . Journal of continuing education in nursing, 41(4), 163-171.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    BACKGROUND On graduation, nursing students enter a critical transition process to become professional registered nurses (RNs). METHODS Six new-to-practice RN groups and seven preceptor groups convened to explore their views of the safety concerns of new-to-practice RNs. RESULTS The main learning needs of new-to-practice RNs identified by both preceptors and new-to-practice RNs centered on perceptions of uncertainty about technical aspects of nursing care. Lack of critical thinking and inability to think holistically contributed to increased stress. Preceptors who provided frequent feedback in a positive manner were rated as important to the developmental process of becoming a skilled RN. CONCLUSION Safety and learning needs identified in this study are amenable to teaching solutions, both in academia and in the hospital work setting. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:803,
      author={S. Myers and P. Reidy and B. French and J. McHale and M. Chisholm and M. Griffin},
      year={2010},
      month={04},
      title={Safety concerns of hospital-based new-to-practice registered nurses and their preceptors },
      journal={Journal of continuing education in nursing},
      volume={41},
      number={4},
      pages={163-171},
      note={id: 4708},
      abstract={BACKGROUND On graduation, nursing students enter a critical transition process to become professional registered nurses (RNs). METHODS Six new-to-practice RN groups and seven preceptor groups convened to explore their views of the safety concerns of new-to-practice RNs. RESULTS The main learning needs of new-to-practice RNs identified by both preceptors and new-to-practice RNs centered on perceptions of uncertainty about technical aspects of nursing care. Lack of critical thinking and inability to think holistically contributed to increased stress. Preceptors who provided frequent feedback in a positive manner were rated as important to the developmental process of becoming a skilled RN. CONCLUSION Safety and learning needs identified in this study are amenable to teaching solutions, both in academia and in the hospital work setting. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={New Graduate Nurses; Preceptorship; Registered Nurses; Adult; Age Factors; Audiorecording; Communication; Critical Thinking; Exploratory Research; Face Validity; Female; Focus Groups; Human; Information Needs; Male; Nursing Skills; Occupational Safety; Perception; Simulations; Stress, Occupational; Teaching Methods},
      isbn={0022-0124},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010627475&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Nemeth, L. S., & Wessell, A. M.. (2010). Improving medication safety in primary care using electronic health records . Journal of patient safety, 6(4), 238-243.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    OBJECTIVES: Electronic health record (EHR) systems offer promising tools to assist clinicians and staff with improving medication safety, yet many of the decision support components within these information systems are not well used. The aim of this study was to identify the strategies planned by primary care practices participating in a 2-year medication safety quality improvement intervention within the Practice Partner Research Network. METHODS: A theoretical model for primary care practice improvement was used to foster team-based approaches to prioritizing performance, system redesign, better use of EHR tools, and patient activation. The intervention included network meetings, site visits and performance reports. Improvement plans were qualitatively evaluated from field notes and organized to present a comprehensive approach to improving medication safety in primary care using EHRs. RESULTS: A total of 32 distinct plans and 11 common strategies were developed by practices to improve adherence with prescribing and monitoring indicators. Common plans included enhancing medication reconciliation to improve the accuracy of medication lists, using Practice Partner Research Network reports to identify patients meeting criteria for preventable medication errors, and customizing and applying EHR decision support tools for medication dosing, drug-disease interactions, and monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Medication safety might be improved by implementing specific strategies within the primary care setting. Further evaluation is needed to provide an evidence base for improvement. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:728,
      author={L. S. Nemeth and A. M. Wessell},
      year={2010},
      month={Dec},
      title={Improving medication safety in primary care using electronic health records },
      journal={Journal of patient safety},
      volume={6},
      number={4},
      pages={238-243},
      note={id: 5235; GR: 1R18HS017037-01/HS/AHRQ HHS/United States; JID: 101233393; ppublish },
      abstract={OBJECTIVES: Electronic health record (EHR) systems offer promising tools to assist clinicians and staff with improving medication safety, yet many of the decision support components within these information systems are not well used. The aim of this study was to identify the strategies planned by primary care practices participating in a 2-year medication safety quality improvement intervention within the Practice Partner Research Network. METHODS: A theoretical model for primary care practice improvement was used to foster team-based approaches to prioritizing performance, system redesign, better use of EHR tools, and patient activation. The intervention included network meetings, site visits and performance reports. Improvement plans were qualitatively evaluated from field notes and organized to present a comprehensive approach to improving medication safety in primary care using EHRs. RESULTS: A total of 32 distinct plans and 11 common strategies were developed by practices to improve adherence with prescribing and monitoring indicators. Common plans included enhancing medication reconciliation to improve the accuracy of medication lists, using Practice Partner Research Network reports to identify patients meeting criteria for preventable medication errors, and customizing and applying EHR decision support tools for medication dosing, drug-disease interactions, and monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Medication safety might be improved by implementing specific strategies within the primary care setting. Further evaluation is needed to provide an evidence base for improvement. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1549-8425; 1549-8417},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Pearson, P., Steven, A., Howe, A., Sheikh, A., Ashcroft, D., Smith, P., & Group, P. S. E. S.. (2010). Learning about patient safety: organizational context and culture in the education of health care professionals . Journal of health services research & policy, 15 Suppl 1, 4-10.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the formal and informal ways pre-registration students from medicine, nursing, physiotherapy and pharmacy learn about keeping patients safe. This paper gives an overview of the study and explores findings in relation to organizational context and culture. METHODS: The study employed a phased design using multiple qualitative methods. The overall approach drew on ‘illuminative evaluation’. Ethical approval was obtained. Phase 1 employed a convenience sample of 13 pre-registration courses across the UK. Curriculum documents were gathered, and course directors interviewed. Phase 2 used eight case studies, two for each professional group, to develop an in-depth investigation of learning across university and practice by students and newly-qualified practitioners in relation to patient safety, and to examine the organizational culture that students and newly-qualified staff are exposed to. Analysis was iterative and ongoing throughout the study, using frameworks agreed by all researchers. RESULTS: Patient safety was felt to have become a higher priority for the health care system in recent years. Incident reporting was a key feature of the patient safety agenda within the organizations examined. Staff were often unclear or too busy to report. On the whole, students were not engaged and may not be aware of incident reporting schemes. They may not have access to existing systems in their organization. Most did not access employers’ induction programmes. Some training sessions occasionally included students but this did not appear to be routine. CONCLUSIONS: Action is needed to develop an efficient interface between employers and education providers to develop up-to-date curricula for patient safety. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:804,
      author={P. Pearson and A. Steven and A. Howe and A. Sheikh and D. Ashcroft and P. Smith and Patient Safety Education Study Group},
      year={2010},
      month={Jan},
      title={Learning about patient safety: organizational context and culture in the education of health care professionals },
      journal={Journal of health services research & policy},
      volume={15 Suppl 1},
      pages={4-10},
      note={id: 4702; JID: 9604936; ppublish },
      abstract={OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the formal and informal ways pre-registration students from medicine, nursing, physiotherapy and pharmacy learn about keeping patients safe. This paper gives an overview of the study and explores findings in relation to organizational context and culture. METHODS: The study employed a phased design using multiple qualitative methods. The overall approach drew on 'illuminative evaluation'. Ethical approval was obtained. Phase 1 employed a convenience sample of 13 pre-registration courses across the UK. Curriculum documents were gathered, and course directors interviewed. Phase 2 used eight case studies, two for each professional group, to develop an in-depth investigation of learning across university and practice by students and newly-qualified practitioners in relation to patient safety, and to examine the organizational culture that students and newly-qualified staff are exposed to. Analysis was iterative and ongoing throughout the study, using frameworks agreed by all researchers. RESULTS: Patient safety was felt to have become a higher priority for the health care system in recent years. Incident reporting was a key feature of the patient safety agenda within the organizations examined. Staff were often unclear or too busy to report. On the whole, students were not engaged and may not be aware of incident reporting schemes. They may not have access to existing systems in their organization. Most did not access employers' induction programmes. Some training sessions occasionally included students but this did not appear to be routine. CONCLUSIONS: Action is needed to develop an efficient interface between employers and education providers to develop up-to-date curricula for patient safety. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Attitude of Health Personnel; Curriculum; Education, Professional/methods; Great Britain; Health Personnel/education; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Organizational Culture; Qualitative Research; Risk Management; Safety Management/organization & administration; Schools, Health Occupations; State Medicine},
      isbn={1758-1060; 1355-8196},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Pingleton, S. K., Davis, D. A., & Dickler, R. M.. (2010). Characteristics of quality and patient safety curricula in major teaching hospitals . American Journal of Medical Quality : The Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality, 25(4), 305-311.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The authors recently discovered 2 quality and patient safety curricula for internal medicine and general surgery residents in major teaching hospitals: an infrequent formal curriculum developed by the university and a positive informal curriculum found in the teaching hospital. A hidden curriculum was postulated. These data were gathered through applied qualitative research methodology. In this article, curricular characteristics of the formal, informal, and hidden curricula are described and analyzed. Themes evaluated were planning, delivery, evaluation, drivers, responsible entity, and resources. The data show different curricular characteristics in each theme, especially for the formal and informal curricula. Understanding curricular characteristics represents the next step in understanding the environments of resident quality and safety learning, especially in the academic hospital setting. Aligning the formal and informal curricula as well as leveraging all curricula could improve educational venues for quality and safety and institutional clinical performance, and promote a learning health care system. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:805,
      author={S. K. Pingleton and D. A. Davis and R. M. Dickler},
      year={2010},
      month={Jul-Aug},
      title={Characteristics of quality and patient safety curricula in major teaching hospitals },
      journal={American Journal of Medical Quality : The Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality},
      volume={25},
      number={4},
      pages={305-311},
      note={id: 4697; JID: 9300756; ppublish },
      abstract={The authors recently discovered 2 quality and patient safety curricula for internal medicine and general surgery residents in major teaching hospitals: an infrequent formal curriculum developed by the university and a positive informal curriculum found in the teaching hospital. A hidden curriculum was postulated. These data were gathered through applied qualitative research methodology. In this article, curricular characteristics of the formal, informal, and hidden curricula are described and analyzed. Themes evaluated were planning, delivery, evaluation, drivers, responsible entity, and resources. The data show different curricular characteristics in each theme, especially for the formal and informal curricula. Understanding curricular characteristics represents the next step in understanding the environments of resident quality and safety learning, especially in the academic hospital setting. Aligning the formal and informal curricula as well as leveraging all curricula could improve educational venues for quality and safety and institutional clinical performance, and promote a learning health care system. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1555-824X; 1062-8606},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Reid-Searl, K., Moxham, L., Walker, S., & Happell, B.. (2010). Supervising medication administration by undergraduate nursing students: influencing factors . Journal of clinical nursing, 19(5-6), 775-784.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Background. The administration of medication is an important skill nursing students need to learn in the clinical setting to develop safe practices. Legally within Queensland, registered nurses are required to provide personal supervision for this process. Research undertaken by the authors suggests the supervision students receive frequently falls short of what is legally required. Aims and objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the factors that influence the experiences of final-year undergraduate nursing students when administering medications in the clinical setting. Design. A grounded theory approach was used with constant comparative analysis to identify categories from the data. Methods. The experiences of final-year nursing students were explored using a grounded theory approach. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 28 final-year undergraduate nursing students in Queensland, Australia. Results. Supervision was found to be the central issue influencing medication administration for students. Three main factors were identified as influencing the supervision provided by registered nurses: attitudes of the registered nurse, communication from the university, and busyness and having time. Conclusions. The extent to which registered nurses provide direct supervision to nursing students when administering medication is influenced by factors inherent within the clinical environment. Relevance to clinical practice. The factors influencing the supervision provided by registered nurses needs further exploration that effective strategies can be implemented to ensure safe practices in relation to medication administration can be implemented. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:807,
      author={K. Reid-Searl and L. Moxham and S. Walker and B. Happell},
      year={2010},
      month={03},
      title={Supervising medication administration by undergraduate nursing students: influencing factors },
      journal={Journal of clinical nursing},
      volume={19},
      number={5-6},
      pages={775-784},
      note={id: 4729},
      abstract={Background. The administration of medication is an important skill nursing students need to learn in the clinical setting to develop safe practices. Legally within Queensland, registered nurses are required to provide personal supervision for this process. Research undertaken by the authors suggests the supervision students receive frequently falls short of what is legally required. Aims and objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the factors that influence the experiences of final-year undergraduate nursing students when administering medications in the clinical setting. Design. A grounded theory approach was used with constant comparative analysis to identify categories from the data. Methods. The experiences of final-year nursing students were explored using a grounded theory approach. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 28 final-year undergraduate nursing students in Queensland, Australia. Results. Supervision was found to be the central issue influencing medication administration for students. Three main factors were identified as influencing the supervision provided by registered nurses: attitudes of the registered nurse, communication from the university, and busyness and having time. Conclusions. The extent to which registered nurses provide direct supervision to nursing students when administering medication is influenced by factors inherent within the clinical environment. Relevance to clinical practice. The factors influencing the supervision provided by registered nurses needs further exploration that effective strategies can be implemented to ensure safe practices in relation to medication administration can be implemented. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Clinical Supervision; Drug Administration; Medication Errors -- Prevention and Control; Students, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Adult; Audiorecording; Coding; Communication; Conceptual Framework; Constant Comparative Method; Convenience Sample; Demography; Drug Administration -- Methods; Educational Status; Female; Grounded Theory; Human; Male; Nurse Attitudes; Queensland; Questionnaires; Registered Nurses; Semi-Structured Interview; Student Attitudes; Student Placement; Time Factors; Work Environment},
      isbn={0962-1067},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010578943&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Riesenberg, L. A., Leisch, J., & Cunningham, J. M.. (2010). Nursing handoffs: a systematic review of the literature . The American Journal of Nursing, 110(4), 24-34; quiz 35-6.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    OBJECTIVE: Handoffs of patient care from one nurse to another are an integral part of nursing practice; but there is abundant evidence that poor communication and variable procedures result in inadequate handoffs. We sought to conduct a systematic review of articles that focused on nursing handoffs, conduct a qualitative review of barriers to and strategies for effective handoffs, and identify features of structured handoffs that have been effective. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of English-language articles, published between January 1, 1987, and August 4, 2008, that focused on nursing handoffs in the United States. The search strategy yielded 2,649 articles. After title review, 460 of these were obtained for further review by trained abstractors. RESULTS: Ninety-five articles met the inclusion criteria; of these, 55 (58%) were published between January 1, 2006 and August 4, 2008. Content analysis yielded identification of barriers to effective handoffs in eight major categories and strategies for effective handoffs in seven major categories. Twenty articles involved research on nursing handoffs. Quality assessment scores for the research studies ranged from 2 to 12 (possible range, 1 to 16). The majority of the research studies on nursing handoffs (17 studies; 85%) received quality scores at or below 8 and only three achieved scores above 10. Ten (50%) of the studies included measures of handoff effectiveness. CONCLUSION: Despite the well-known negative consequences of inadequate nursing handoffs, very little research has been done to identify best practices. There is remarkable consistency in the anecdotally suggested strategies; but there is a paucity of evidence to support them. We call for high-quality studies of handoff outcomes that focus on systems factors, human performance, and the effectiveness of structured protocols and interventions. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:808,
      author={L. A. Riesenberg and J. Leisch and J. M. Cunningham},
      year={2010},
      month={Apr},
      title={Nursing handoffs: a systematic review of the literature },
      journal={The American Journal of Nursing},
      volume={110},
      number={4},
      pages={24-34; quiz 35-6},
      note={id: 4628; JID: 0372646; CIN: Am J Nurs. 2010 Apr;110(4):7. PMID: 20335664; RF: 119; ppublish },
      abstract={OBJECTIVE: Handoffs of patient care from one nurse to another are an integral part of nursing practice; but there is abundant evidence that poor communication and variable procedures result in inadequate handoffs. We sought to conduct a systematic review of articles that focused on nursing handoffs, conduct a qualitative review of barriers to and strategies for effective handoffs, and identify features of structured handoffs that have been effective. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of English-language articles, published between January 1, 1987, and August 4, 2008, that focused on nursing handoffs in the United States. The search strategy yielded 2,649 articles. After title review, 460 of these were obtained for further review by trained abstractors. RESULTS: Ninety-five articles met the inclusion criteria; of these, 55 (58%) were published between January 1, 2006 and August 4, 2008. Content analysis yielded identification of barriers to effective handoffs in eight major categories and strategies for effective handoffs in seven major categories. Twenty articles involved research on nursing handoffs. Quality assessment scores for the research studies ranged from 2 to 12 (possible range, 1 to 16). The majority of the research studies on nursing handoffs (17 studies; 85%) received quality scores at or below 8 and only three achieved scores above 10. Ten (50%) of the studies included measures of handoff effectiveness. CONCLUSION: Despite the well-known negative consequences of inadequate nursing handoffs, very little research has been done to identify best practices. There is remarkable consistency in the anecdotally suggested strategies; but there is a paucity of evidence to support them. We call for high-quality studies of handoff outcomes that focus on systems factors, human performance, and the effectiveness of structured protocols and interventions. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Benchmarking; Clinical Competence; Communication; Continuity of Patient Care; Evidence-Based Nursing/organization & administration; Humans; Interprofessional Relations; Nursing Assessment; Nursing Evaluation Research/organization & administration; Nursing Staff/education/organization & administration/psychology; Patient Care Planning; Qualitative Research; Research Design; Teaching Rounds/methods/standards; Time Management; United States; Workload},
      isbn={1538-7488; 0002-936X},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Roykenes, K., & Larsen, T.. (2010). The relationship between nursing students’ mathematics ability and their performance in a drug calculation test . Nurse education today, 30(7), 697-701.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nurses and nursing students need good mathematics skills to do drug calculations correctly. As part of their undergraduate education, Norwegian nursing students must take a drug calculation test, obtaining no errors in the results. In spite of drug calculation tests, many adverse events occur, leading to a focus on drug administration skills both during students’ courses and afterwards. Adverse events in drug administration can be related to poor mathematics skills education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students’ mathematics experiences in school (primary, secondary and high school) and their beliefs about being able to master the drug calculation test. A questionnaire was given to 116 first-year Bachelor of Nursing students. Those students who assessed their mathematics knowledge as poor found the requirement to obtain no errors in the drug calculation test more stressful than students who judged their mathematics knowledge as good. The youngest students were most likely to find the test requirement stressful. Teachers in high school had the most positive influence on mathematics interest, followed by teachers in secondary and primary school. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:711,
      author={K. Roykenes and T. Larsen},
      year={2010},
      month={10},
      title={The relationship between nursing students' mathematics ability and their performance in a drug calculation test },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={30},
      number={7},
      pages={697-701},
      note={id: 4905},
      abstract={Nurses and nursing students need good mathematics skills to do drug calculations correctly. As part of their undergraduate education, Norwegian nursing students must take a drug calculation test, obtaining no errors in the results. In spite of drug calculation tests, many adverse events occur, leading to a focus on drug administration skills both during students' courses and afterwards. Adverse events in drug administration can be related to poor mathematics skills education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students' mathematics experiences in school (primary, secondary and high school) and their beliefs about being able to master the drug calculation test. A questionnaire was given to 116 first-year Bachelor of Nursing students. Those students who assessed their mathematics knowledge as poor found the requirement to obtain no errors in the drug calculation test more stressful than students who judged their mathematics knowledge as good. The youngest students were most likely to find the test requirement stressful. Teachers in high school had the most positive influence on mathematics interest, followed by teachers in secondary and primary school. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Dosage Calculation; Mathematics; Student Knowledge; Students, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Adult; Age Factors; Colleges and Universities; Convenience Sample; Descriptive Research; Descriptive Statistics; Human; Mathematics -- Education; Norway; Quantitative Studies; Record Review; Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient; Student Attitudes -- Evaluation; Summated Rating Scaling},
      isbn={0260-6917},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010802939&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Sammer, C. E., Lykens, K., Singh, K. P., Mains, D. A., & Lackan, N. A.. (2010). What is patient safety culture? A review of the literature . Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 42(2), 156-165.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Purpose: To organize the properties of safety culture addressed by many studies and to develop a conceptual culture of safety model. Design and Methods: A comprehensive review of the culture of safety literature within the U.S. hospital setting. The review was a qualitative metaanalysis from which we generated a conceptual culture of safety framework and developed a typology of the safety culture literature. Findings: Seven subcultures of patient safety culture were identified: (a) leadership, (b) teamwork, (c) evidence-based, (d) communication, (e) learning, (f) just, and (g) patient-centered. Conclusions: Safety culture is a complex phenomenon that is not clearly understood by hospital leaders, thus making it difficult to operationalize. We found senior leadership accountability key to an organization-wide culture of safety. Clinical Relevance: Hospital leaders are increasingly pressured by federal, state, regulatory, and consumer groups to demonstrate an organizational safety culture that assures patients are safe from medical error. This article defines a safety culture framework that may support hospital leadership answer the question "what is a patient safety culture?" (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:809,
      author={C. E. Sammer and K. Lykens and K. P. Singh and D. A. Mains and N. A. Lackan},
      year={2010},
      month={06},
      title={What is patient safety culture? A review of the literature },
      journal={Journal of Nursing Scholarship},
      volume={42},
      number={2},
      pages={156-165},
      note={id: 4626},
      abstract={Purpose: To organize the properties of safety culture addressed by many studies and to develop a conceptual culture of safety model. Design and Methods: A comprehensive review of the culture of safety literature within the U.S. hospital setting. The review was a qualitative metaanalysis from which we generated a conceptual culture of safety framework and developed a typology of the safety culture literature. Findings: Seven subcultures of patient safety culture were identified: (a) leadership, (b) teamwork, (c) evidence-based, (d) communication, (e) learning, (f) just, and (g) patient-centered. Conclusions: Safety culture is a complex phenomenon that is not clearly understood by hospital leaders, thus making it difficult to operationalize. We found senior leadership accountability key to an organization-wide culture of safety. Clinical Relevance: Hospital leaders are increasingly pressured by federal, state, regulatory, and consumer groups to demonstrate an organizational safety culture that assures patients are safe from medical error. This article defines a safety culture framework that may support hospital leadership answer the question "what is a patient safety culture?" (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1527-6546},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010684976&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Sears, K., Goldsworthy, S., & Goodman, W. M.. (2010). The Relationship Between Simulation in Nursing Education and Medication Safety . The Journal of nursing education, 49(1), 52-55.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This experimental study examined whether the use of clinical simulation in nursing education could help reduce medication errors. Fifty-four student volunteers were randomly assigned to an experimental (treatment) group (24 students) or a clinical control group (30 students). The treatment replaced some early-term clinical placement hours with a simulated clinical experience. The control group had all normally scheduled clinical hours. Treatment occurred prior to opportunities for medication administration. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:754,
      author={K. Sears and S. Goldsworthy and W. M. Goodman},
      year={2010},
      month={Oct 9},
      title={The Relationship Between Simulation in Nursing Education and Medication Safety },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={49},
      number={1},
      pages={52-55},
      note={id: 4270; CI: Copyright 2009; JID: 7705432; 2008/06/17 [received]; 2008/12/23 [accepted]; aheadofprint; SO: J Nurs Educ. 2009 Oct 9:1-4. doi: 10.3928/01484834-20090918-12. },
      abstract={This experimental study examined whether the use of clinical simulation in nursing education could help reduce medication errors. Fifty-four student volunteers were randomly assigned to an experimental (treatment) group (24 students) or a clinical control group (30 students). The treatment replaced some early-term clinical placement hours with a simulated clinical experience. The control group had all normally scheduled clinical hours. Treatment occurred prior to opportunities for medication administration. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={ENG}
    }

  • Sherwood, G.. (2010). New views of quality and safety offer new roles for nurses and midwives . Nursing & health sciences, 12(3), 281-283.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Around the world nurses, midwives and all health professionals are developing new roles and responsibilities in improving health care. By applying the science that undergirds the approach to quality improvement and safety developed in other high performance industries, health professionals are shifting from only considering personal responsibility and accountability to systems redesign. Error reporting systems in many countries and regions allow systematic analysis of near misses as well as sentinel events so that the system can be redesigned to prevent future occurrence. Health care organizations match their quality data with benchmarks established among their peers to discover gaps in quality, create quality improvement teams to close the gap, and encourage interdisciplinary collaboration and teamwork to achieve improved outcomes. Nurses are challenged to create the educational approaches so nurses have the necessary skills and leadership opportunities, as illustrated in the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:712,
      author={G. Sherwood},
      year={2010},
      month={09},
      title={New views of quality and safety offer new roles for nurses and midwives },
      journal={Nursing & health sciences},
      volume={12},
      number={3},
      pages={281-283},
      note={id: 4921},
      abstract={Around the world nurses, midwives and all health professionals are developing new roles and responsibilities in improving health care. By applying the science that undergirds the approach to quality improvement and safety developed in other high performance industries, health professionals are shifting from only considering personal responsibility and accountability to systems redesign. Error reporting systems in many countries and regions allow systematic analysis of near misses as well as sentinel events so that the system can be redesigned to prevent future occurrence. Health care organizations match their quality data with benchmarks established among their peers to discover gaps in quality, create quality improvement teams to close the gap, and encourage interdisciplinary collaboration and teamwork to achieve improved outcomes. Nurses are challenged to create the educational approaches so nurses have the necessary skills and leadership opportunities, as illustrated in the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Nursing Role; Quality Improvement; Patient Safety; Education, Nursing; Quality of Health Care -- Education; Voluntary Reporting; Health Care Errors -- Prevention and Control; Nursing Practice, Evidence-Based; Curriculum Development; Nurse Midwives -- Education},
      isbn={1441-0745},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010763674&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Simmons, D., & Sherwood, G.. (2010). Neonatal intensive care unit and emergency department nurses’ descriptions of working together: building team relationships to improve safety . Critical care nursing clinics of North America, 22(2), 253-260.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Teamwork is considered a critical factor in delivering high-quality, safe patient care although research on the evidence base of the effectiveness of teamwork and communication across disciplines is scarce. Health care providers have limited educational preparation for the communication and complex care coordination across disciplines required by today’s complex patients. Complex work environments are affected by little understood human factors including the intricacies of human communication and behavior. To understand how nurses view teamwork, this secondary qualitative analysis examined nurses’ perceptions of working in high-performance areas with interdisciplinary teams. Results from 4 focus groups of 18 nurses from a neonatal intensive care unit and emergency department trauma resuscitation teams, revealed 3 themes with descriptive meanings to help understand the complexities of teamwork. These findings illustrate the rewards and challenges for teams working together in the current health care environment. Continuing to investigate teamwork can add to our understanding of what nurses and health professionals need to know about teamwork to help develop evidence-based team training in prelicensure education and in practice settings. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:811,
      author={D. Simmons and G. Sherwood},
      year={2010},
      month={Jun},
      title={Neonatal intensive care unit and emergency department nurses' descriptions of working together: building team relationships to improve safety },
      journal={Critical care nursing clinics of North America},
      volume={22},
      number={2},
      pages={253-260},
      note={id: 4734; CI: Copyright 2010; GR: 1P01HS1154401/HS/AHRQ HHS/United States; JID: 8912620; ppublish },
      abstract={Teamwork is considered a critical factor in delivering high-quality, safe patient care although research on the evidence base of the effectiveness of teamwork and communication across disciplines is scarce. Health care providers have limited educational preparation for the communication and complex care coordination across disciplines required by today's complex patients. Complex work environments are affected by little understood human factors including the intricacies of human communication and behavior. To understand how nurses view teamwork, this secondary qualitative analysis examined nurses' perceptions of working in high-performance areas with interdisciplinary teams. Results from 4 focus groups of 18 nurses from a neonatal intensive care unit and emergency department trauma resuscitation teams, revealed 3 themes with descriptive meanings to help understand the complexities of teamwork. These findings illustrate the rewards and challenges for teams working together in the current health care environment. Continuing to investigate teamwork can add to our understanding of what nurses and health professionals need to know about teamwork to help develop evidence-based team training in prelicensure education and in practice settings. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1558-3481; 0899-5885},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Smetzer, J., Baker, C., Byrne, F. D., & Cohen, M. R.. (2010). Shaping systems for better behavioral choices: lessons learned from a fatal medication error . Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources, 36(4), 152-163.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    BACKGROUND: In July 2006, a 16-year-old patient came to the hospital to deliver her baby. During the process of her care, an infusion intended exclusively for the epidural route was connected to the patient’s peripheral intravenous line and infused by pump. The patient experienced cardiovascular collapse. A cesarean section resulted in the delivery of a healthy infant, but the medical team was unable to resuscitate the mother. The media attention surrounding the error accelerated through the national provider and safety community when the nurse was charged with a criminal offense. These events set in motion intense internal and external scrutiny of the hospital’s medication and safety procedures. ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS (RCA): To further understanding about latent systems gaps and process failure modes, an independent RCA of the event was conducted in June 2007. An external consultant team conducted a one-week evaluation of the medication use system and the organization’s current environment, systems and processes, staffing patterns, leadership, and culture to help shape the recommended improvements. For each of the four proximate causes of the event, performance-shaping factors were identified. Although the hospital’s organizational learning was painful, this event offered an opportunity for increasing organizational competency and capacity for designing and implementing patient safety. Structures and processes, including safety nets and fail-safe mechanisms, were implemented to promote safer behavioral choices for providers. ACTIONS TAKEN: The hospital took a number of clinical steps to improve the safety of medication administration, including removing the barriers to scanning medication bar codes, implementing consistent scanning-compliance tracking, and providing teamwork training for all nursing and physician staff practicing in the birth suites. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:812,
      author={J. Smetzer and C. Baker and F. D. Byrne and M. R. Cohen},
      year={2010},
      month={Apr},
      title={Shaping systems for better behavioral choices: lessons learned from a fatal medication error },
      journal={Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources},
      volume={36},
      number={4},
      pages={152-163},
      note={id: 4745; JID: 101238023; CIN: Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2010 Apr;36(4):147-9. PMID: 20402369; CIN: Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2010 Apr;36(4):149-50. PMID: 20402370; CIN: Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2010 Apr;36(4):150-1. PMID: 20402371; ppublish },
      abstract={BACKGROUND: In July 2006, a 16-year-old patient came to the hospital to deliver her baby. During the process of her care, an infusion intended exclusively for the epidural route was connected to the patient's peripheral intravenous line and infused by pump. The patient experienced cardiovascular collapse. A cesarean section resulted in the delivery of a healthy infant, but the medical team was unable to resuscitate the mother. The media attention surrounding the error accelerated through the national provider and safety community when the nurse was charged with a criminal offense. These events set in motion intense internal and external scrutiny of the hospital's medication and safety procedures. ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS (RCA): To further understanding about latent systems gaps and process failure modes, an independent RCA of the event was conducted in June 2007. An external consultant team conducted a one-week evaluation of the medication use system and the organization's current environment, systems and processes, staffing patterns, leadership, and culture to help shape the recommended improvements. For each of the four proximate causes of the event, performance-shaping factors were identified. Although the hospital's organizational learning was painful, this event offered an opportunity for increasing organizational competency and capacity for designing and implementing patient safety. Structures and processes, including safety nets and fail-safe mechanisms, were implemented to promote safer behavioral choices for providers. ACTIONS TAKEN: The hospital took a number of clinical steps to improve the safety of medication administration, including removing the barriers to scanning medication bar codes, implementing consistent scanning-compliance tracking, and providing teamwork training for all nursing and physician staff practicing in the birth suites. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Adolescent; Anesthesia, Epidural/adverse effects; Automatic Data Processing; Female; Heart Arrest/chemically induced; Humans; Infusions, Intravenous/adverse effects; Medication Errors/prevention & control; Medication Systems; Pregnancy; Risk Management; Systems Analysis; Wisconsin},
      isbn={1553-7250; 1553-7250},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Sullivan, D. T.. (2010). Connecting nursing education and practice: a focus on shared goals for quality and safety . Creative nursing, 16(1), 37-43.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    A recent attempt to unite nursing education and practice is the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) initiative, generously funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The major goal of QSEN is to prepare future nurses with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to continuously improve the quality and safety of care delivery in health care systems. This article summarizes and discusses QSEN’s accomplishments and upcoming activities within a framework of the factors contributing to the separation of the education and practice worlds and makes recommendations for building on the progress derived from QSEN activities. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:813,
      author={D. T. Sullivan},
      year={2010},
      title={Connecting nursing education and practice: a focus on shared goals for quality and safety },
      journal={Creative nursing},
      volume={16},
      number={1},
      pages={37-43},
      note={id: 4694; JID: 9505022; ppublish },
      abstract={A recent attempt to unite nursing education and practice is the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) initiative, generously funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The major goal of QSEN is to prepare future nurses with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to continuously improve the quality and safety of care delivery in health care systems. This article summarizes and discusses QSEN's accomplishments and upcoming activities within a framework of the factors contributing to the separation of the education and practice worlds and makes recommendations for building on the progress derived from QSEN activities. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Attitude of Health Personnel; Clinical Competence; Cooperative Behavior; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Faculty, Nursing/organization & administration; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Nurse's Role; Nursing Care/organization & administration; Organizational Objectives; Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration; Safety Management/organization & administration; United States},
      isbn={1078-4535; 1078-4535},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Thornlow, D. K., & McGuinn, K.. (2010). A necessary sea change for nurse faculty development: spotlight on quality and safety . Journal of professional nursing : Official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 26(2), 71-81.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    More than 10 years have passed since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s report, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health Care System, yet recent reports indicate that significant strides toward transformational improvement in quality and patient safety are still necessary. Real progress toward superior health care quality requires foundational enhancements in health care education. An urgent need exists for undergraduate nursing programs to strengthen quality and safety knowledge in their curricula. A first step in attaining this goal is to equip baccalaureate nursing faculty with the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to teach these concepts. The first part of this article provides a compelling case for new graduate nurses to have a comprehensive understanding of how quality and safety issues affect patient outcomes. The second part highlights the specific faculty competencies required to teach quality and safety to undergraduate nursing students and offers a framework that faculty can use for professional development in this area. This article is by no means exhaustive but provides a starting point for providing undergraduate nursing faculty with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to assist students to achieve quality and safety competencies in their curricula. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:814,
      author={D. K. Thornlow and K. McGuinn},
      year={2010},
      month={Mar},
      title={A necessary sea change for nurse faculty development: spotlight on quality and safety },
      journal={Journal of professional nursing : Official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing},
      volume={26},
      number={2},
      pages={71-81},
      note={id: 4621; JID: 8511298; 2009/06/18 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={More than 10 years have passed since the publication of the Institute of Medicine's report, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health Care System, yet recent reports indicate that significant strides toward transformational improvement in quality and patient safety are still necessary. Real progress toward superior health care quality requires foundational enhancements in health care education. An urgent need exists for undergraduate nursing programs to strengthen quality and safety knowledge in their curricula. A first step in attaining this goal is to equip baccalaureate nursing faculty with the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to teach these concepts. The first part of this article provides a compelling case for new graduate nurses to have a comprehensive understanding of how quality and safety issues affect patient outcomes. The second part highlights the specific faculty competencies required to teach quality and safety to undergraduate nursing students and offers a framework that faculty can use for professional development in this area. This article is by no means exhaustive but provides a starting point for providing undergraduate nursing faculty with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to assist students to achieve quality and safety competencies in their curricula. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1532-8481; 8755-7223},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Walsh, T., Jairath, N., Paterson, M. A., & Grandjean, C.. (2010). Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Clinical Evaluation Tool . Journal of Nursing Education, 49(9), 517-522.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    An efficient evaluation tool is essential when measuring the clinical performance of undergraduate nursing students. It is also important that this evaluation tool accurately assess the critical competencies that students must demonstrate in the clinical setting. The tool should be unambiguous, succinct, and adaptable to a wide variety of clinical experiences and faculty. As part of a curriculum improvement initiative for their baccalaureate nursing program, the nursing faculty teaching in a 4-year undergraduate program identified the need for the development of a new clinical performance evaluation tool for the evaluation of undergraduate nursing students in each clinical placement. The resultant tool more accurately appraised clinical capabilities by focusing on quality and safety in health care, and it permitted the evaluation of critical thinking skills and team communication. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:713,
      author={T. Walsh and N. Jairath and M. A. Paterson and C. Grandjean},
      year={2010},
      month={09},
      title={Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Clinical Evaluation Tool },
      journal={Journal of Nursing Education},
      volume={49},
      number={9},
      pages={517-522},
      note={id: 4969},
      abstract={An efficient evaluation tool is essential when measuring the clinical performance of undergraduate nursing students. It is also important that this evaluation tool accurately assess the critical competencies that students must demonstrate in the clinical setting. The tool should be unambiguous, succinct, and adaptable to a wide variety of clinical experiences and faculty. As part of a curriculum improvement initiative for their baccalaureate nursing program, the nursing faculty teaching in a 4-year undergraduate program identified the need for the development of a new clinical performance evaluation tool for the evaluation of undergraduate nursing students in each clinical placement. The resultant tool more accurately appraised clinical capabilities by focusing on quality and safety in health care, and it permitted the evaluation of critical thinking skills and team communication. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Student Performance Appraisal; Instrument Construction; Students, Nursing; Clinical Competence; Patient Centered Care; Pilot Studies; Human; Focus Groups; Interrater Reliability; Sensitivity and Specificity; Education, Clinical; Clinical Assessment Tools; Education Research},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010768134&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Welsh, C. A., Flanagan, M. E., & Ebright, P.. (2010). Barriers and facilitators to nursing handoffs: Recommendations for redesign . Nursing outlook, 58(3), 148-154.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    During a handoff, communication errors can lead to adverse events and suboptimal patient care. As a result, many institutions want to redesign their handoff processes, but have little specific guidance from the literature. We examined two approaches to nursing end-of-shift reports both taped and written, to identify specific factors limiting and facilitating such handoffs. Twenty nurses were interviewed using a semistructured format. They were asked about the current reporting process, the limitations, the elements that helped, and ideas for improvement. Analyses revealed that inadequate information, inconsistent quality, limited opportunity to ask questions, equipment malfunction, insufficient time to generate reports, and interruptions, limited handoffs. Facilitators were "pertinent" content, notes and space for notes, face-to-face interaction, and structured form/checklist. Recommendations for redesign are defining content pertinent to the unit, structuring handoffs so that information is received in a standard way, embedding an opportunity for questions into the process, planning for all 3 handoff subprocesses, and conducting peer evaluations and education. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:815,
      author={C. A. Welsh and M. E. Flanagan and P. Ebright},
      year={2010},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={Barriers and facilitators to nursing handoffs: Recommendations for redesign },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={58},
      number={3},
      pages={148-154},
      note={id: 4627; CI: Copyright 2010; JID: 0401075; 2009/03/02 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={During a handoff, communication errors can lead to adverse events and suboptimal patient care. As a result, many institutions want to redesign their handoff processes, but have little specific guidance from the literature. We examined two approaches to nursing end-of-shift reports both taped and written, to identify specific factors limiting and facilitating such handoffs. Twenty nurses were interviewed using a semistructured format. They were asked about the current reporting process, the limitations, the elements that helped, and ideas for improvement. Analyses revealed that inadequate information, inconsistent quality, limited opportunity to ask questions, equipment malfunction, insufficient time to generate reports, and interruptions, limited handoffs. Facilitators were "pertinent" content, notes and space for notes, face-to-face interaction, and structured form/checklist. Recommendations for redesign are defining content pertinent to the unit, structuring handoffs so that information is received in a standard way, embedding an opportunity for questions into the process, planning for all 3 handoff subprocesses, and conducting peer evaluations and education. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1528-3968; 0029-6554},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Wright, K.. (2010). Do calculation errors by nurses cause medication errors in clinical practice? A literature review . Nurse education today, 30(1), 85-97.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This review aims to examine the literature available to ascertain whether medication errors in clinical practice are the result of nurses’ miscalculating drug dosages. The research studies highlighting poor calculation skills of nurses and student nurses have been tested using written drug calculation tests in formal classroom settings [Kapborg, I., 1994. Calculation and administration of drug dosage by Swedish nurses, student nurses and physicians. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 6(4): 389 -395; Hutton, M., 1998. Nursing Mathematics: the importance of application Nursing Standard 13(11): 35-38; Weeks, K., Lynne, P., Torrance, C., 2000. Written drug dosage errors made by students: the threat to clinical effectiveness and the need for a new approach. Clinical Effectiveness in Nursing 4, 20-29]; Wright, K., 2004. Investigation to find strategies to improve student nurses’ maths skills. British Journal Nursing 13(21) 1280-1287; Wright, K., 2005. An exploration into the most effective way to teach drug calculation skills to nursing students. Nurse Education Today 25, 430-436], but there have been no reviews of the literature on medication errors in practice that specifically look to see whether the medication errors are caused by nurses’ poor calculation skills. The databases Medline, CINAHL, British Nursing Index (BNI), Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) and Archives and Cochrane reviews were searched for research studies or systematic reviews which reported on the incidence or causes of drug errors in clinical practice. In total 33 articles met the criteria for this review. There were no studies that examined nurses’ drug calculation errors in practice. As a result studies and systematic reviews that investigated the types and causes of drug errors were examined to establish whether miscalculations by nurses were the causes of errors. The review found insufficient evidence to suggest that medication errors are caused by nurses’ poor calculation skills. Of the 33 studies reviewed only five articles specifically recorded information relating to calculation errors and only two of these detected errors using the direct observational approach. The literature suggests that there are other more pressing aspects of nurses’ preparation and administration of medications which are contributing to medication errors in practice that require more urgent attention and calls into question the current focus on calculation and numeracy skills of pre registration and qualified nurses (NMC 2008). However, more research is required into the calculation errors in practice. In particular there is a need for a direct observational study on paediatric nurses as there are presently none examining this area of practice. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:759,
      author={K. Wright},
      year={2010},
      month={Aug 8},
      title={Do calculation errors by nurses cause medication errors in clinical practice? A literature review },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={30},
      number={1},
      pages={85-97},
      note={id: 4361; JID: 8511379; 2008/11/04 [received]; 2009/06/10 [revised]; 2009/06/15 [accepted]; aheadofprint },
      abstract={This review aims to examine the literature available to ascertain whether medication errors in clinical practice are the result of nurses' miscalculating drug dosages. The research studies highlighting poor calculation skills of nurses and student nurses have been tested using written drug calculation tests in formal classroom settings [Kapborg, I., 1994. Calculation and administration of drug dosage by Swedish nurses, student nurses and physicians. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 6(4): 389 -395; Hutton, M., 1998. Nursing Mathematics: the importance of application Nursing Standard 13(11): 35-38; Weeks, K., Lynne, P., Torrance, C., 2000. Written drug dosage errors made by students: the threat to clinical effectiveness and the need for a new approach. Clinical Effectiveness in Nursing 4, 20-29]; Wright, K., 2004. Investigation to find strategies to improve student nurses' maths skills. British Journal Nursing 13(21) 1280-1287; Wright, K., 2005. An exploration into the most effective way to teach drug calculation skills to nursing students. Nurse Education Today 25, 430-436], but there have been no reviews of the literature on medication errors in practice that specifically look to see whether the medication errors are caused by nurses' poor calculation skills. The databases Medline, CINAHL, British Nursing Index (BNI), Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) and Archives and Cochrane reviews were searched for research studies or systematic reviews which reported on the incidence or causes of drug errors in clinical practice. In total 33 articles met the criteria for this review. There were no studies that examined nurses' drug calculation errors in practice. As a result studies and systematic reviews that investigated the types and causes of drug errors were examined to establish whether miscalculations by nurses were the causes of errors. The review found insufficient evidence to suggest that medication errors are caused by nurses' poor calculation skills. Of the 33 studies reviewed only five articles specifically recorded information relating to calculation errors and only two of these detected errors using the direct observational approach. The literature suggests that there are other more pressing aspects of nurses' preparation and administration of medications which are contributing to medication errors in practice that require more urgent attention and calls into question the current focus on calculation and numeracy skills of pre registration and qualified nurses (NMC 2008). However, more research is required into the calculation errors in practice. In particular there is a need for a direct observational study on paediatric nurses as there are presently none examining this area of practice. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1532-2793},
      language={ENG}
    }

  • Yoo, M. S., Yoo, I. Y., & Lee, H.. (2010). Nursing Students’ Self-Evaluation Using a Video Recording of Foley Catheterization: Effects on Students’ Competence, Communication Skills, and Learning Motivation . The Journal of nursing education, 1-4.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    An opportunity for a student to evaluate his or her own performance enhances self-awareness and promotes self-directed learning. Using three outcome measures of competency of procedure, communication skills, and learning motivation, the effects of self-evaluation using a video recording of the student’s Foley catheterization was investigated in this study. The students in the experimental group (n = 20) evaluated their Foley catheterization performance by reviewing the video recordings of their own performance, whereas students in the control group (n = 20) received written evaluation guidelines only. The results showed that the students in the experimental group had better scores on competency (p

    @article{RefWorks:817,
      author={M. S. Yoo and I. Y. Yoo and H. Lee},
      year={2010},
      month={Apr 1},
      title={Nursing Students' Self-Evaluation Using a Video Recording of Foley Catheterization: Effects on Students' Competence, Communication Skills, and Learning Motivation },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      pages={1-4},
      note={id: 4644; CI: Copyright 2010; JID: 7705432; 2009/06/07 [received]; 2009/09/14 [accepted]; aheadofprint; SO: J Nurs Educ. 2010 Apr 1:1-4. doi: 10.3928/01484834-20100331-03. },
      abstract={An opportunity for a student to evaluate his or her own performance enhances self-awareness and promotes self-directed learning. Using three outcome measures of competency of procedure, communication skills, and learning motivation, the effects of self-evaluation using a video recording of the student's Foley catheterization was investigated in this study. The students in the experimental group (n = 20) evaluated their Foley catheterization performance by reviewing the video recordings of their own performance, whereas students in the control group (n = 20) received written evaluation guidelines only. The results showed that the students in the experimental group had better scores on competency (p },
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={ENG}
    }

2009

  • Ardizzone, L. L., Enlow, W. M., Evanina, E. Y., Schnall, R., & Currie, L.. (2009). Impact of a patient safety curriculum for nurse anesthesia students . The Journal of nursing education, 48(12), 706-710.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Patient safety has become an important aspect of national health care initiatives. The purpose of this evaluation was to measure the impact of a patient safety education series for students enrolled in a nurse anesthesia program. Baseline surveys that measured patient safety competencies across three domains, attitudes, skills and knowledge, were administered to the students. A patient safety education series was delivered to the cohort and the survey was then readministered. Mean scores were compared using independent samples t tests. Attitude scores did not change from baseline to posttest. Participants scored higher on posttest means for both the patient safety skills and knowledge domains. Incorporating patient safety content into the nurse anesthesia master’s degree curriculum may enhance clinicians’ skills and knowledge related to patient safety, and the addition of a patient safety curriculum is important during the formative education process. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:787,
      author={L. L. Ardizzone and W. M. Enlow and E. Y. Evanina and R. Schnall and L. Currie},
      year={2009},
      month={Dec},
      title={Impact of a patient safety curriculum for nurse anesthesia students },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={48},
      number={12},
      pages={706-710},
      note={id: 4660; GR: D11 HP07346/PHS HHS/United States; JID: 7705432; 2009/03/31 [received]; 2009/09/13 [accepted]; ppublish },
      abstract={Patient safety has become an important aspect of national health care initiatives. The purpose of this evaluation was to measure the impact of a patient safety education series for students enrolled in a nurse anesthesia program. Baseline surveys that measured patient safety competencies across three domains, attitudes, skills and knowledge, were administered to the students. A patient safety education series was delivered to the cohort and the survey was then readministered. Mean scores were compared using independent samples t tests. Attitude scores did not change from baseline to posttest. Participants scored higher on posttest means for both the patient safety skills and knowledge domains. Incorporating patient safety content into the nurse anesthesia master's degree curriculum may enhance clinicians' skills and knowledge related to patient safety, and the addition of a patient safety curriculum is important during the formative education process. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Nurse Anesthetists/education; Program Evaluation; Safety Management; United States},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Armstrong, G. E., Spencer, T. S., & Lenburg, C. B.. (2009). Using quality and safety education for nurses to enhance competency outcome performance assessment: a synergistic approach that promotes patient safety and quality outcomes . The Journal of nursing education, 48(12), 686-693.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    As nursing programs respond to vital initiatives such as Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN), nursing faculty will discover important shared values exist between competency-based curricular models and the latest call for stronger foci on safety and quality. This article describes how one university is using the QSEN competencies to enhance its competency outcome performance assessment (COPA)-based curriculum, thereby updating and strengthening its graduates’ skills in quality improvement and safety. Faculty at the school found QSEN and COPA share the same concerns for promoting student competence and continuing competence in nursing practice to safeguard patient safety and quality care. Nursing faculty whose teaching is focused in a competency-based curriculum are well positioned to respond to the call to integrate QSEN competencies into their curricula. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:788,
      author={G. E. Armstrong and T. S. Spencer and C. B. Lenburg},
      year={2009},
      month={Dec},
      title={Using quality and safety education for nurses to enhance competency outcome performance assessment: a synergistic approach that promotes patient safety and quality outcomes },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={48},
      number={12},
      pages={686-693},
      note={id: 4664; JID: 7705432; 2009/03/31 [received]; 2009/09/30 [accepted]; ppublish },
      abstract={As nursing programs respond to vital initiatives such as Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN), nursing faculty will discover important shared values exist between competency-based curricular models and the latest call for stronger foci on safety and quality. This article describes how one university is using the QSEN competencies to enhance its competency outcome performance assessment (COPA)-based curriculum, thereby updating and strengthening its graduates' skills in quality improvement and safety. Faculty at the school found QSEN and COPA share the same concerns for promoting student competence and continuing competence in nursing practice to safeguard patient safety and quality care. Nursing faculty whose teaching is focused in a competency-based curriculum are well positioned to respond to the call to integrate QSEN competencies into their curricula. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Colorado; Competency-Based Education/methods; Curriculum; Education, Nursing/methods; Educational Measurement; Humans; Models, Educational; Quality of Health Care; Safety Management},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Bambini, D., Washburn, J., & Perkins, R.. (2009). Outcomes of clinical simulation for novice nursing students: communication, confidence, clinical judgment . Nursing Education Perspectives, 30(2), 79-82.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of clinical simulation in nursing education provides many opportunities for students to learn and apply theoretical principles of nursing care in a safe environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate simulated clinical experiences as a teaching/learning method to increase the self-efficacy of nursing students during their initial clinical course in a prelicensure program. An integrated, quasi-experimental, repeated measures design was used. A sample of 112 students completed surveys, indicating their confidence in various skills necessary for postpartum and newborn nursing, both before and after the simulation experience. Results indicated that students experienced a significant increase in overall self-efficacy (p

    @article{RefWorks:760,
      author={D. Bambini and J. Washburn and R. Perkins},
      year={2009},
      month={03},
      title={Outcomes of clinical simulation for novice nursing students: communication, confidence, clinical judgment },
      journal={Nursing Education Perspectives},
      volume={30},
      number={2},
      pages={79-82},
      note={id: 3677; JF: Nursing Education Perspectives },
      abstract={The use of clinical simulation in nursing education provides many opportunities for students to learn and apply theoretical principles of nursing care in a safe environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate simulated clinical experiences as a teaching/learning method to increase the self-efficacy of nursing students during their initial clinical course in a prelicensure program. An integrated, quasi-experimental, repeated measures design was used. A sample of 112 students completed surveys, indicating their confidence in various skills necessary for postpartum and newborn nursing, both before and after the simulation experience. Results indicated that students experienced a significant increase in overall self-efficacy (p },
      isbn={1536-5026},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010258640&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Barton, A. J., Armstrong, G., Preheim, G., Gelmon, S. B., & Andrus, L. C.. (2009). A national Delphi to determine developmental progression of quality and safety competencies in nursing education . Nursing outlook, 57(6), 313-322.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) faculty outlined 6 competency domains: patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics. In this study, 18 subject matter experts participated in a web-based modified Delphi survey between October 2008 and February 2009 to determine whether there was consensus on the developmental progression of knowledge, skill, and attitude elements within the QSEN competencies. Support for creation of curricular threads to facilitate student progressive achievement of the QSEN competencies was validated. Competency development related to the individual patient was emphasized early in the curriculum, whereas teams and systems were emphasized later. Complex concepts such as teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, and informatics were emphasized in advanced courses. Experts outlined a developmental approach in curriculum design, which would potentially encourage practice, reinforcement of learning, and recognition of context of care. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:736,
      author={A. J. Barton and G. Armstrong and G. Preheim and S. B. Gelmon and L. C. Andrus},
      year={2009},
      month={Nov-Dec},
      title={A national Delphi to determine developmental progression of quality and safety competencies in nursing education },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={57},
      number={6},
      pages={313-322},
      note={id: 4342; JID: 0401075; 2009/03/01 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) faculty outlined 6 competency domains: patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics. In this study, 18 subject matter experts participated in a web-based modified Delphi survey between October 2008 and February 2009 to determine whether there was consensus on the developmental progression of knowledge, skill, and attitude elements within the QSEN competencies. Support for creation of curricular threads to facilitate student progressive achievement of the QSEN competencies was validated. Competency development related to the individual patient was emphasized early in the curriculum, whereas teams and systems were emphasized later. Complex concepts such as teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, and informatics were emphasized in advanced courses. Experts outlined a developmental approach in curriculum design, which would potentially encourage practice, reinforcement of learning, and recognition of context of care. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1528-3968},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Berkow, S., Virkstis, K., Stewart, J., & Conway, L.. (2009). Assessing new graduate nurse performance . Nurse educator, 34(1), 17-22.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    New graduate nurses now comprise more than 10% of a typical hospital’s nursing staff, with this number certain to grow given the increasing numbers of entrants into the nurse workforce. Concomitantly, only 10% of hospital and health system nurse executives believe their new graduate nurses are fully prepared to provide safe and effective care. As part of a multipronged research initiative on bridging the preparation-practice gap, the Nursing Executive Center administered a national survey to a cross section of frontline nurse leaders on new graduate nurse proficiency across 36 nursing competencies deemed essential to safe and effective nursing practice. Based on survey data analysis, the authors discuss the most pressing and promising opportunities for improving the practice readiness of new graduate nurses. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:737,
      author={S. Berkow and K. Virkstis and J. Stewart and L. Conway},
      year={2009},
      month={2009},
      title={Assessing new graduate nurse performance },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={34},
      number={1},
      pages={17-22},
      note={id: 4326},
      abstract={New graduate nurses now comprise more than 10% of a typical hospital's nursing staff, with this number certain to grow given the increasing numbers of entrants into the nurse workforce. Concomitantly, only 10% of hospital and health system nurse executives believe their new graduate nurses are fully prepared to provide safe and effective care. As part of a multipronged research initiative on bridging the preparation-practice gap, the Nursing Executive Center administered a national survey to a cross section of frontline nurse leaders on new graduate nurse proficiency across 36 nursing competencies deemed essential to safe and effective nursing practice. Based on survey data analysis, the authors discuss the most pressing and promising opportunities for improving the practice readiness of new graduate nurses. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Clinical Competence; New Graduate Nurses; Charge Nurses; Clinical Competence -- Classification; Clinical Nurse Specialists; Cross Sectional Studies; Descriptive Research; Descriptive Statistics; Educational Status; Internet; Nurse Administrators; Nurse Attitudes -- Evaluation; Nurse Managers; Questionnaires; Staff Development Instructors; Staff Nurses; Survey Research; United States},
      isbn={0363-3624},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010148061&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Brady, A. M., Malone, A. M., & Fleming, S.. (2009). A literature review of the individual and systems factors that contribute to medication errors in nursing practice . Journal of nursing management, 17(6), 679-697.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    AIM: This paper reports a review of the empirical literature on factors that contribute to medication errors. BACKGROUND: Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. This creates an imperative to reduce medication errors to deliver safe and ethical care to patients. METHOD: The databases CINAHL, PubMed, Science Direct and Synergy were searched from 1988 to 2007 using the keywords medication errors, medication management, medication reconciliation, medication knowledge and mathematical skills, and reporting medication errors. RESULTS Contributory factors to nursing medication errors are manifold, and include both individual and systems issues. These include medication reconciliation, the types of drug distribution system, the quality of prescriptions, and deviation from procedures including distractions during administration, excessive workloads, and nurse’s knowledge of medications. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: It is imperative that managers implement strategies to reduce medication errors including the establishment of reporting mechanisms at international and national levels to include the evaluation and audit of practice at a local level. Systematic approaches to medication reconciliation can also reduce medication error significantly. Promoting consistency between health care professionals as to what constitutes medication error will contribute to increased accuracy and compliance in reporting of medication errors, thereby informing health care policies aimed at reducing the occurrence of medication errors. Acquisition and maintenance of mathematical competency for nurses in practice is an important issue in the prevention of medication error. The health care industry can benefit from learning from other high-risk industries such as aviation in the prevention and management of systems errors. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:738,
      author={A. M. Brady and A. M. Malone and S. Fleming},
      year={2009},
      month={Sep},
      title={A literature review of the individual and systems factors that contribute to medication errors in nursing practice },
      journal={Journal of nursing management},
      volume={17},
      number={6},
      pages={679-697},
      note={id: 4438; JID: 9306050; RF: 90; ppublish },
      abstract={AIM: This paper reports a review of the empirical literature on factors that contribute to medication errors. BACKGROUND: Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. This creates an imperative to reduce medication errors to deliver safe and ethical care to patients. METHOD: The databases CINAHL, PubMed, Science Direct and Synergy were searched from 1988 to 2007 using the keywords medication errors, medication management, medication reconciliation, medication knowledge and mathematical skills, and reporting medication errors. RESULTS Contributory factors to nursing medication errors are manifold, and include both individual and systems issues. These include medication reconciliation, the types of drug distribution system, the quality of prescriptions, and deviation from procedures including distractions during administration, excessive workloads, and nurse's knowledge of medications. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: It is imperative that managers implement strategies to reduce medication errors including the establishment of reporting mechanisms at international and national levels to include the evaluation and audit of practice at a local level. Systematic approaches to medication reconciliation can also reduce medication error significantly. Promoting consistency between health care professionals as to what constitutes medication error will contribute to increased accuracy and compliance in reporting of medication errors, thereby informing health care policies aimed at reducing the occurrence of medication errors. Acquisition and maintenance of mathematical competency for nurses in practice is an important issue in the prevention of medication error. The health care industry can benefit from learning from other high-risk industries such as aviation in the prevention and management of systems errors. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Causality; Clinical Competence; Drug Dosage Calculations; Drug Prescriptions/nursing/standards; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Medication Errors/nursing/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Medication Systems/organization & administration; Nurse Administrators; Nurse's Role; Nursing Research; Nursing Staff/education/organization & administration/psychology; Pharmacology/education; Research Design; Risk Assessment; Safety Management; Systems Analysis; Workload},
      isbn={1365-2834; 1365-2834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Bruce, S. A., Scherer, Y. K., Curran, C. C., Urschel, D. M., Erdley, S., & Ball, L. S.. (2009). A collaborative exercise between graduate and undergraduate nursing students using a computer-assisted simulator in a mock cardiac arrest . Nursing education perspectives, 30(1), 22-27.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Faculty at the University at Buffalo designed and implemented a mock cardiac arrest that involved joint participation by both undergraduate and graduate students. Various instruments were developed to evaluate the effectiveness of this teaching modality, including scales that measured pre- and postsimulation knowledge and confidence. Students were also asked to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the experience especially regarding teamwork during an emergency situation. Management of the arrest by the graduate students was evaluated using a scale that included competency criteria related to assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and resource management. Undergraduate students’ performance was also evaluated. Using paired t-test statistics, postsimulation knowledge scores were significantly higher than presimulation scores (p = .000), while postsimulation confidence scores were not statistically significant (p = .177). Students at both levels reported high satisfaction with the experience and with the opportunity to participate in a simulated cardiac arrest as a member of the health team. The use of a computer-assisted human patient simulator involving different levels of nursing students appears to be an effective teaching method; more investigation into specific outcomes is needed. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:762,
      author={S. A. Bruce and Y. K. Scherer and C. C. Curran and D. M. Urschel and S. Erdley and L. S. Ball},
      year={2009},
      month={Jan-Feb},
      title={A collaborative exercise between graduate and undergraduate nursing students using a computer-assisted simulator in a mock cardiac arrest },
      journal={Nursing education perspectives},
      volume={30},
      number={1},
      pages={22-27},
      note={id: 3704; JID: 101140025; ppublish },
      abstract={Faculty at the University at Buffalo designed and implemented a mock cardiac arrest that involved joint participation by both undergraduate and graduate students. Various instruments were developed to evaluate the effectiveness of this teaching modality, including scales that measured pre- and postsimulation knowledge and confidence. Students were also asked to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the experience especially regarding teamwork during an emergency situation. Management of the arrest by the graduate students was evaluated using a scale that included competency criteria related to assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and resource management. Undergraduate students' performance was also evaluated. Using paired t-test statistics, postsimulation knowledge scores were significantly higher than presimulation scores (p = .000), while postsimulation confidence scores were not statistically significant (p = .177). Students at both levels reported high satisfaction with the experience and with the opportunity to participate in a simulated cardiac arrest as a member of the health team. The use of a computer-assisted human patient simulator involving different levels of nursing students appears to be an effective teaching method; more investigation into specific outcomes is needed. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1536-5026},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Clark, P. R.. (2009). Teamwork: building healthier workplaces and providing safer patient care . Critical care nursing quarterly, 32(3), 221-231.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    A changing healthcare landscape requires nurses to care for more patients with higher acuity during their shift than ever before. These more austere working conditions are leading to increased burnout. In addition, patient safety is not of the quality or level that is required. To build healthier workplaces where safe care is provided, formal teamwork training is recommended. Formal teamwork training programs, such as that provided by the MedTeams group, TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety), or participatory action research programs such as the Healthy Workplace Intervention, have decreased errors in the workplace, increased nurse satisfaction and retention rates, and decreased staff turnover. This article includes necessary determinants of teamwork, brief overviews of team-building programs, and examples of research programs that demonstrate how teamwork brings about healthier workplaces that are safer for patients. Teamwork programs can bring about these positive results when implemented and supported by the hospital system. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:739,
      author={P. R. Clark},
      year={2009},
      month={Jul-Sep},
      title={Teamwork: building healthier workplaces and providing safer patient care },
      journal={Critical care nursing quarterly},
      volume={32},
      number={3},
      pages={221-231},
      note={id: 4439; JID: 8704517; RF: 45; ppublish },
      abstract={A changing healthcare landscape requires nurses to care for more patients with higher acuity during their shift than ever before. These more austere working conditions are leading to increased burnout. In addition, patient safety is not of the quality or level that is required. To build healthier workplaces where safe care is provided, formal teamwork training is recommended. Formal teamwork training programs, such as that provided by the MedTeams group, TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety), or participatory action research programs such as the Healthy Workplace Intervention, have decreased errors in the workplace, increased nurse satisfaction and retention rates, and decreased staff turnover. This article includes necessary determinants of teamwork, brief overviews of team-building programs, and examples of research programs that demonstrate how teamwork brings about healthier workplaces that are safer for patients. Teamwork programs can bring about these positive results when implemented and supported by the hospital system. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Critical Care/organization & administration; Humans; Nurse's Role; Nursing Staff/organization & administration; Occupational Health; Organizational Objectives; Patient Care Team/organization & administration; Quality of Health Care/organization & administration},
      isbn={1550-5111; 1550-5111},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Cole, M.. (2009). Exploring the hand hygiene competence of student nurses: a case of flawed self assessment . Nurse education today, 29(4), 380-388.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Hand hygiene remains the single most effective measure to prevent hospital acquired infection and yet poor compliance is reported repeatedly. Nurses represent the largest labour group and perform the greatest amount of direct patient care in the contemporary National Health Service. They receive their initial hand hygiene training in the pre-registration curriculum within a competence framework based on knowledge, skills and attitudes. The pre-eminent training method is one that delivers behavioural competence, making the tacit assumption that compliance will follow. In this study a mixed methods approach demonstrated that students overestimated their knowledge and skills, found it difficult to give an objective account of their performance, and reported an improbable level of compliance. The reasons why people can be self serving in their judgements may be due to information processing errors, exacerbated by the model of education and training. Flawed self assessments may present major barriers to improved performance if students view their compliance as better than it actually is. Conceptualising hand hygiene as a taxonomy of learning and introducing the cognitive strategies of reflection and self assessment would better enable students to problem solve, seek out new information, draw on past experience and gain greater and deeper understanding of the complex topic of hand hygiene behaviour. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:764,
      author={M. Cole},
      year={2009},
      month={May},
      title={Exploring the hand hygiene competence of student nurses: a case of flawed self assessment },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={29},
      number={4},
      pages={380-388},
      note={id: 3709; JID: 8511379; 2007/09/03 [received]; 2008/09/25 [revised]; 2008/10/18 [accepted]; 2008/12/04 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={Hand hygiene remains the single most effective measure to prevent hospital acquired infection and yet poor compliance is reported repeatedly. Nurses represent the largest labour group and perform the greatest amount of direct patient care in the contemporary National Health Service. They receive their initial hand hygiene training in the pre-registration curriculum within a competence framework based on knowledge, skills and attitudes. The pre-eminent training method is one that delivers behavioural competence, making the tacit assumption that compliance will follow. In this study a mixed methods approach demonstrated that students overestimated their knowledge and skills, found it difficult to give an objective account of their performance, and reported an improbable level of compliance. The reasons why people can be self serving in their judgements may be due to information processing errors, exacerbated by the model of education and training. Flawed self assessments may present major barriers to improved performance if students view their compliance as better than it actually is. Conceptualising hand hygiene as a taxonomy of learning and introducing the cognitive strategies of reflection and self assessment would better enable students to problem solve, seek out new information, draw on past experience and gain greater and deeper understanding of the complex topic of hand hygiene behaviour. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1532-2793},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Cox, K. R., Scott, S. D., Hall, L. W., Aud, M. A., Headrick, L. A., & Madsen, R.. (2009). Uncovering differences among health professions trainees exposed to an interprofessional patient safety curriculum . Quality management in health care, 18(3), 182-193.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In response to the Institute of Medicine challenge to improve patient safety and quality of care, an office directing patient safety/quality of care at an academic medical center and faculty from health professions schools collaborated on design, delivery, and evaluation of an interprofessional student curriculum on patient safety, quality, and teamwork. Annually for 6 years, second-year medical students, senior baccalaureate nursing students, second-year masters in health administration students, and junior baccalaureate respiratory therapy students participated. A pre-/postsurvey assessing students’ attitudes about quality, safety, and teamwork was developed and modified to reflect course revisions. Survey items were grouped into 1 of the 6 subscales: human fallibility, disclosure, teamwork/communication, error reporting, systems of care, and curricular time spent with other professionals. At pretest, there were significant professional group differences in all the 6 subscales. At completion, differences in 4 subscales were resolved with the exception of human fallibility (P

    @article{RefWorks:740,
      author={K. R. Cox and S. D. Scott and L. W. Hall and M. A. Aud and L. A. Headrick and R. Madsen},
      year={2009},
      month={Jul-Sep},
      title={Uncovering differences among health professions trainees exposed to an interprofessional patient safety curriculum },
      journal={Quality management in health care},
      volume={18},
      number={3},
      pages={182-193},
      note={id: 4246; JID: 9306156; ppublish },
      abstract={In response to the Institute of Medicine challenge to improve patient safety and quality of care, an office directing patient safety/quality of care at an academic medical center and faculty from health professions schools collaborated on design, delivery, and evaluation of an interprofessional student curriculum on patient safety, quality, and teamwork. Annually for 6 years, second-year medical students, senior baccalaureate nursing students, second-year masters in health administration students, and junior baccalaureate respiratory therapy students participated. A pre-/postsurvey assessing students' attitudes about quality, safety, and teamwork was developed and modified to reflect course revisions. Survey items were grouped into 1 of the 6 subscales: human fallibility, disclosure, teamwork/communication, error reporting, systems of care, and curricular time spent with other professionals. At pretest, there were significant professional group differences in all the 6 subscales. At completion, differences in 4 subscales were resolved with the exception of human fallibility (P },
      keywords={Cooperative Behavior; Curriculum; Data Collection; Humans; Interdisciplinary Communication; Quality of Health Care; Safety Management},
      isbn={1063-8628},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Cronenwett, L., Sherwood, G., Pohl, J., Barnsteiner, J., Moore, S., Sullivan, D. T., Ward, D., & Warren, J.. (2009). Quality and safety education for advanced nursing practice . Nursing outlook, 57(6), 338-348.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project is a national initiative to transform nursing education to integrate quality and safety competencies. This article describes a two-year process to generate educational objectives related to quality and safety competency development in graduate programs that prepare advanced practice nurses in clinical roles. Knowledge, skills, and attitudes for each of 6 competencies are proposed to stimulate development of teaching strategies in programs preparing the next generation of advanced practice nurses. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:742,
      author={L. Cronenwett and G. Sherwood and J. Pohl and J. Barnsteiner and S. Moore and D. T. Sullivan and D. Ward and J. Warren},
      year={2009},
      month={Nov-Dec},
      title={Quality and safety education for advanced nursing practice },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={57},
      number={6},
      pages={338-348},
      note={id: 4339; JID: 0401075; 2009/02/27 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project is a national initiative to transform nursing education to integrate quality and safety competencies. This article describes a two-year process to generate educational objectives related to quality and safety competency development in graduate programs that prepare advanced practice nurses in clinical roles. Knowledge, skills, and attitudes for each of 6 competencies are proposed to stimulate development of teaching strategies in programs preparing the next generation of advanced practice nurses. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1528-3968},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Cronenwett, L., Sherwood, G., & Gelmon, S. B.. (2009). Improving quality and safety education: The QSEN Learning Collaborative . Nursing outlook, 57(6), 304-312.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    As part of a national initiative to improve quality and safety education in prelicensure nursing programs, 15 schools participated in a 15-month learning collaborative sponsored by Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. This article presents the rationale, design, activities, and outcomes of the collaborative. Collaborative members revised curricula, developed new teaching strategies, and established the foundation for future faculty development efforts to advance teaching of quality and safety concepts in nursing education. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:741,
      author={L. Cronenwett and G. Sherwood and S. B. Gelmon},
      year={2009},
      month={Nov-Dec},
      title={Improving quality and safety education: The QSEN Learning Collaborative },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={57},
      number={6},
      pages={304-312},
      note={id: 4343; JID: 0401075; ppublish },
      abstract={As part of a national initiative to improve quality and safety education in prelicensure nursing programs, 15 schools participated in a 15-month learning collaborative sponsored by Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. This article presents the rationale, design, activities, and outcomes of the collaborative. Collaborative members revised curricula, developed new teaching strategies, and established the foundation for future faculty development efforts to advance teaching of quality and safety concepts in nursing education. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1528-3968},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Currie, L. M., Desjardins, K. S., Levine, E. S., Stone, P. W., Schnall, R., Li, J., & Bakken, S.. (2009). Web-based hazard and near-miss reporting as part of a patient safety curriculum . The Journal of nursing education, 48(12), 669-677.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    As part of a patient safety curriculum, we developed a Web-based hazard and near-miss reporting system for postbaccalaureate nursing students to use during their clinical experiences in the first year of their combined BS-MS advanced practice nurse program. The 25-week clinical rotations included 2 days per week for 5 weeks each in community, medical-surgical, obstetrics, pediatrics, and psychiatric settings. During a 3-year period, 453 students made 21,276 reports. Of the 10,206 positive (yes) responses to a hazard or near miss, 6,005 hazards (59%) and 4,200 near misses (41%) were reported. The most common reports were related to infection, medication, environmental, fall, and equipment issues. Of the near misses, 1,996 (48%) had planned interceptions and 2,240 (52%) had unplanned interceptions. Types of hazards and near misses varied by rotation. Incorporating hazard and near-miss reporting into the patient safety curriculum was an innovative strategy to promote mindfulness among nursing students. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:789,
      author={L. M. Currie and K. S. Desjardins and E. S. Levine and P. W. Stone and R. Schnall and J. Li and S. Bakken},
      year={2009},
      month={Dec},
      title={Web-based hazard and near-miss reporting as part of a patient safety curriculum },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={48},
      number={12},
      pages={669-677},
      note={id: 4666; GR: D11 HP07346/PHS HHS/United States; JID: 7705432; 2009/04/09 [received]; 2009/09/13 [accepted]; ppublish },
      abstract={As part of a patient safety curriculum, we developed a Web-based hazard and near-miss reporting system for postbaccalaureate nursing students to use during their clinical experiences in the first year of their combined BS-MS advanced practice nurse program. The 25-week clinical rotations included 2 days per week for 5 weeks each in community, medical-surgical, obstetrics, pediatrics, and psychiatric settings. During a 3-year period, 453 students made 21,276 reports. Of the 10,206 positive (yes) responses to a hazard or near miss, 6,005 hazards (59%) and 4,200 near misses (41%) were reported. The most common reports were related to infection, medication, environmental, fall, and equipment issues. Of the near misses, 1,996 (48%) had planned interceptions and 2,240 (52%) had unplanned interceptions. Types of hazards and near misses varied by rotation. Incorporating hazard and near-miss reporting into the patient safety curriculum was an innovative strategy to promote mindfulness among nursing students. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Adult; Awareness; Competency-Based Education/methods; Curriculum; Documentation; Education, Nursing, Graduate/methods; Female; Humans; Internet; Male; Medical Errors/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Middle Aged; Safety Management; United States},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Dillard, N., Sideras, S., yan, M., Carlton, K. H., Lasater, K., & Siktberg, L.. (2009). A collaborative project to apply and evaluate the clinical judgment model through simulation . Nursing Education Perspectives, 30(2), 99-104.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As use of simulations increases in nursing education, nurse educators are challenged to evaluate students’ clinical judgment skills. The purpose of this article is to describe faculty development in the use of the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR); faculty application of LCJR in evaluating students’ clinical judgment skills during a simulation scenario; and faculty and students’ perception transference from the simulation to the clinical setting. Tanner’s Clinical Judgment Model was used in an assigned adult health simulation. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from faculty and student evaluations and students’ reflective statements. Findings support the importance of simulation’s contribution to clinical judgment development. However, more work remains to improve the integration of clinical judgment and use of a conceptual framework and evidence-based rubric. For long-term change, both faculty and students need ongoing practice and encouragement in applying the clinical judgment framework to clinical and simulation experiences. For application of the model, a recommendation is to incorporate the clinical judgment language into course syllabi, course assignments, and evaluations. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:765,
      author={N. Dillard and S. Sideras and M. yan and K. H. Carlton and K. Lasater and L. Siktberg},
      year={2009},
      month={03},
      title={A collaborative project to apply and evaluate the clinical judgment model through simulation },
      journal={Nursing Education Perspectives},
      volume={30},
      number={2},
      pages={99-104},
      note={id: 3670; JF: Nursing Education Perspectives },
      abstract={As use of simulations increases in nursing education, nurse educators are challenged to evaluate students' clinical judgment skills. The purpose of this article is to describe faculty development in the use of the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR); faculty application of LCJR in evaluating students' clinical judgment skills during a simulation scenario; and faculty and students' perception transference from the simulation to the clinical setting. Tanner's Clinical Judgment Model was used in an assigned adult health simulation. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from faculty and student evaluations and students' reflective statements. Findings support the importance of simulation's contribution to clinical judgment development. However, more work remains to improve the integration of clinical judgment and use of a conceptual framework and evidence-based rubric. For long-term change, both faculty and students need ongoing practice and encouragement in applying the clinical judgment framework to clinical and simulation experiences. For application of the model, a recommendation is to incorporate the clinical judgment language into course syllabi, course assignments, and evaluations. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1536-5026},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010258648&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Dolansky, M. A., Singh, M. K., & Neuhauser, D. B.. (2009). Quality and safety education: foreground and background . Quality management in health care, 18(3), 151-157.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Since 1988, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), through its School of Medicine, Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, and Division of Public Health, has committed to the development and implementation of quality improvement and safety education as a formal part of its health professions curriculum. Faculty moved quality and safety education from the "background" of implicit learning to the "foreground" of established curriculum. The transformation has affected not only course content but also many academic careers in the process. This article highlights 3 of the many quality and safety education activities that have evolved at the CWRU: the graduate-level course on quality improvement, medical student education, and doctoral education. Based on these activities, 4 key elements are presented as essential for a successful and sustainable quality and safety education program: quality improvement role models and champions, strong academic-practice partnerships, a variety of educational modalities, and a supportive learning environment. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:766,
      author={M. A. Dolansky and M. K. Singh and D. B. Neuhauser},
      year={2009},
      month={Jul-Sep},
      title={Quality and safety education: foreground and background },
      journal={Quality management in health care},
      volume={18},
      number={3},
      pages={151-157},
      note={id: 4185; JID: 9306156; ppublish },
      abstract={Since 1988, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), through its School of Medicine, Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, and Division of Public Health, has committed to the development and implementation of quality improvement and safety education as a formal part of its health professions curriculum. Faculty moved quality and safety education from the "background" of implicit learning to the "foreground" of established curriculum. The transformation has affected not only course content but also many academic careers in the process. This article highlights 3 of the many quality and safety education activities that have evolved at the CWRU: the graduate-level course on quality improvement, medical student education, and doctoral education. Based on these activities, 4 key elements are presented as essential for a successful and sustainable quality and safety education program: quality improvement role models and champions, strong academic-practice partnerships, a variety of educational modalities, and a supportive learning environment. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1063-8628},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Dycus, P., & McKeon, L.. (2009). Using QSEN to measure quality and safety knowledge, skills, and attitudes of experienced pediatric oncology nurses: an international study . Quality management in health care, 18(3), 202-208.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study describes the development of an instrument to measure nursing quality knowledge, skills, and attitudes for practicing pediatric oncology nurses. Because many nurse leaders of academic centers are responsible for outcomes at both local and global level, ensuring nursing quality is critical, given the variability in practice outcomes. METHODS: Quality Improvement Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (QulSKA), a 73-item electronic questionnaire was developed using QSEN competencies; the six domains include: quality improvement (QI), safety, evidence-based practice, teamwork, patient-centered care, and informatics. Content validity was established by pediatric oncology, QI, and test-construction experts. Nurses from St Jude Children’s Research Hospital and US and Latin American affiliate sites were surveyed. RESULTS: Thirty-seven of 216 RNs surveyed participated in the study. The QulSKA inter-item correlation coefficient was 0.839 (P = .001). The mean knowledge score (based on 100) was 69.2 +/- 11.3. Scores were highest for safety (82.9%) and lowest for teamwork (48.6%). The mean skills rating was 3.3 +/- 0.74 (used 2-4 times). Lowest rated skills were in analysis and QI tools. The mean attitude rating was 3.8 +/- 0.25 (highly important). CONCLUSION: Data suggest that QulSKA may be reliable to measure quality knowledge, skills, and attitudes among pediatric oncology nurses-nurses were knowledgeable in QI, yet they lacked skills in practice application. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:768,
      author={P. Dycus and L. McKeon},
      year={2009},
      month={Jul-Sep},
      title={Using QSEN to measure quality and safety knowledge, skills, and attitudes of experienced pediatric oncology nurses: an international study },
      journal={Quality management in health care},
      volume={18},
      number={3},
      pages={202-208},
      note={id: 4181; JID: 9306156; ppublish },
      abstract={OBJECTIVE: This pilot study describes the development of an instrument to measure nursing quality knowledge, skills, and attitudes for practicing pediatric oncology nurses. Because many nurse leaders of academic centers are responsible for outcomes at both local and global level, ensuring nursing quality is critical, given the variability in practice outcomes. METHODS: Quality Improvement Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (QulSKA), a 73-item electronic questionnaire was developed using QSEN competencies; the six domains include: quality improvement (QI), safety, evidence-based practice, teamwork, patient-centered care, and informatics. Content validity was established by pediatric oncology, QI, and test-construction experts. Nurses from St Jude Children's Research Hospital and US and Latin American affiliate sites were surveyed. RESULTS: Thirty-seven of 216 RNs surveyed participated in the study. The QulSKA inter-item correlation coefficient was 0.839 (P = .001). The mean knowledge score (based on 100) was 69.2 +/- 11.3. Scores were highest for safety (82.9%) and lowest for teamwork (48.6%). The mean skills rating was 3.3 +/- 0.74 (used 2-4 times). Lowest rated skills were in analysis and QI tools. The mean attitude rating was 3.8 +/- 0.25 (highly important). CONCLUSION: Data suggest that QulSKA may be reliable to measure quality knowledge, skills, and attitudes among pediatric oncology nurses-nurses were knowledgeable in QI, yet they lacked skills in practice application. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1063-8628},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Forbes, M. O., & Hickey, M. T.. (2009). Curriculum reform in baccalaureate nursing education: review of the literature . International journal of nursing education scholarship, 6(1), Article27.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The debate surrounding the need for reform in nursing education has been heard for well over a decade. Recently, deficiencies in the quality of patient care, as well as patient safety issues, have led to calls for change in health professions education by nursing organizations and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The rationale and scope of any proposed curricular revision or changes in teaching practices must be firmly grounded in a comprehensive review of the literature and based on current research findings. This article synthesizes the recent literature related to curriculum reform and innovation in nursing education. Four themes were identified in the literature: incorporating safety and quality in nursing education, re-designing conceptual frameworks, strategies to address content laden curricula, and teaching using alternative pedagogies. Synthesis of the recent literature in the field will assist faculty who are beginning the curriculum evaluation and revision process in their own schools. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:743,
      author={M. O. Forbes and M. T. Hickey},
      year={2009},
      title={Curriculum reform in baccalaureate nursing education: review of the literature },
      journal={International journal of nursing education scholarship},
      volume={6},
      number={1},
      pages={Article27},
      note={id: 4215; JID: 101214977; 2009/08/14 [epublish]; ppublish },
      abstract={The debate surrounding the need for reform in nursing education has been heard for well over a decade. Recently, deficiencies in the quality of patient care, as well as patient safety issues, have led to calls for change in health professions education by nursing organizations and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The rationale and scope of any proposed curricular revision or changes in teaching practices must be firmly grounded in a comprehensive review of the literature and based on current research findings. This article synthesizes the recent literature related to curriculum reform and innovation in nursing education. Four themes were identified in the literature: incorporating safety and quality in nursing education, re-designing conceptual frameworks, strategies to address content laden curricula, and teaching using alternative pedagogies. Synthesis of the recent literature in the field will assist faculty who are beginning the curriculum evaluation and revision process in their own schools. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1548-923X},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Gillespi, M., & Peterson, B. L.. (2009). Helping novice nurses make effective clinical decisions: the situated clinical decision-making framework . Nursing Education Perspectives, 30(3), 164-170.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The nature of novice nurses’ clinical decision-making has been well documented as linear, based on limited knowledge and experience in the profession, and frequently focused on single tasks or problems. Theorists suggest that, with sufficient experience in the clinical setting, novice nurses will move from reliance on abstract principles to the application of concrete experience and to view a clinical situation within its context and as a whole. In the current health care environment, novice nurses frequently work with few clinical supports and mentors while facing complex patient situations that demand skilled decision-making. The Situated Clinical Decision-Making Framework is presented for use by educators and novice nurses to support development of clinical decision-making. It provides novice nurses with a tool that a) assists them in making decisions; b) can be used to guide retrospective reflection on decision-making processes and outcomes; c) socializes them to an understanding of the nature of decision-making in nursing; and d) fosters the development of their knowledge, skill, and confidence as nurses.This article provides an overview of the framework, including its theoretical foundations and a schematic representation of its components. A case exemplar illustrates one application of the framework in assisting novice nurses in developing their decision-making skills. Future directions regarding the use and study of this framework in nursing education are considered. (Source: CINAHL)

    @article{RefWorks:769,
      author={M. Gillespi and B. L. Peterson},
      year={2009},
      month={05},
      title={Helping novice nurses make effective clinical decisions: the situated clinical decision-making framework },
      journal={Nursing Education Perspectives},
      volume={30},
      number={3},
      pages={164-170},
      note={id: 4136},
      abstract={The nature of novice nurses' clinical decision-making has been well documented as linear, based on limited knowledge and experience in the profession, and frequently focused on single tasks or problems. Theorists suggest that, with sufficient experience in the clinical setting, novice nurses will move from reliance on abstract principles to the application of concrete experience and to view a clinical situation within its context and as a whole. In the current health care environment, novice nurses frequently work with few clinical supports and mentors while facing complex patient situations that demand skilled decision-making. The Situated Clinical Decision-Making Framework is presented for use by educators and novice nurses to support development of clinical decision-making. It provides novice nurses with a tool that a) assists them in making decisions; b) can be used to guide retrospective reflection on decision-making processes and outcomes; c) socializes them to an understanding of the nature of decision-making in nursing; and d) fosters the development of their knowledge, skill, and confidence as nurses.This article provides an overview of the framework, including its theoretical foundations and a schematic representation of its components. A case exemplar illustrates one application of the framework in assisting novice nurses in developing their decision-making skills. Future directions regarding the use and study of this framework in nursing education are considered. (Source: CINAHL) },
      isbn={1536-5026},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010319531&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Girdley, D., Johnsen, C., & Kwekkeboom, K.. (2009). Facilitating a culture of safety and patient-centered care through use of a clinical assessment tool in undergraduate nursing education . The Journal of nursing education, 48(12), 702-705.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Although delivery of safe, patient-centered care has long been a priority among nursing educators, nursing students may not be able to adequately translate concepts learned within the classroom into nursing practice. Nurse educators must develop teaching strategies to provide nursing students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to provide quality patient care. Within the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses project, a set of key nursing competencies was established. This article describes the development and use of a clinical assessment tool in undergraduate clinical nursing courses to enhance mastery of two of these key nursing competencies: safety and patient-centered care. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:792,
      author={D. Girdley and C. Johnsen and K. Kwekkeboom},
      year={2009},
      month={Dec},
      title={Facilitating a culture of safety and patient-centered care through use of a clinical assessment tool in undergraduate nursing education },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={48},
      number={12},
      pages={702-705},
      note={id: 4661; JID: 7705432; 2009/01/12 [received]; 2009/08/24 [accepted]; ppublish },
      abstract={Although delivery of safe, patient-centered care has long been a priority among nursing educators, nursing students may not be able to adequately translate concepts learned within the classroom into nursing practice. Nurse educators must develop teaching strategies to provide nursing students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to provide quality patient care. Within the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses project, a set of key nursing competencies was established. This article describes the development and use of a clinical assessment tool in undergraduate clinical nursing courses to enhance mastery of two of these key nursing competencies: safety and patient-centered care. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Competency-Based Education/methods; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods; Educational Measurement/methods; Humans; Patient-Centered Care; Safety Management; United States},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Gregory, D., Guse, L., Dick, D. D., Davis, P., & Russell, C. K.. (2009). What clinical learning contracts reveal about nursing education and patient safety . The Canadian nurse, 105(8), 20-25.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    While it is widely accepted that adopting a systems perspective is important for understanding and addressing patient safety issues, nurse educators typically address these issues from the perspective of individual student performance. In this study, the authors explored unsafe patient care events recorded in 60 randomly selected clinical learning contracts initiated for students in years 2, 3, and 4 of the undergraduate nursing program at the University of Manitoba. The contracts had been drawn up for students whose nursing care did not meet clinical learning objectives and standards or whose performance was deemed unsafe. Using qualitative content analysis, the authors categorized data pertaining to 154 unsafe patient care events recorded in these contracts.Thirty-seven students precipitated these events. Most events were related to medication administration (56%) and skill application (20%). A breakdown of medication administration events showed that the highest number were errors related to time (33%) and dosage (24%). International students and male students were responsible for a higher number of events than their numbers in the sample would lead one to expect. The findings support further study related to patient safety and nursing education. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:745,
      author={D. Gregory and L. Guse and D. D. Dick and P. Davis and C. K. Russell},
      year={2009},
      month={Oct},
      title={What clinical learning contracts reveal about nursing education and patient safety },
      journal={The Canadian nurse},
      volume={105},
      number={8},
      pages={20-25},
      note={id: 4435; JID: 0405504; ppublish },
      abstract={While it is widely accepted that adopting a systems perspective is important for understanding and addressing patient safety issues, nurse educators typically address these issues from the perspective of individual student performance. In this study, the authors explored unsafe patient care events recorded in 60 randomly selected clinical learning contracts initiated for students in years 2, 3, and 4 of the undergraduate nursing program at the University of Manitoba. The contracts had been drawn up for students whose nursing care did not meet clinical learning objectives and standards or whose performance was deemed unsafe. Using qualitative content analysis, the authors categorized data pertaining to 154 unsafe patient care events recorded in these contracts.Thirty-seven students precipitated these events. Most events were related to medication administration (56%) and skill application (20%). A breakdown of medication administration events showed that the highest number were errors related to time (33%) and dosage (24%). International students and male students were responsible for a higher number of events than their numbers in the sample would lead one to expect. The findings support further study related to patient safety and nursing education. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={0008-4581; 0008-4581},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Harvey, S., Murphy, F., Lake, R., Jenkins, L., Cavanna, A., & Tait, M.. (2009). Diagnosing the problem: Using a tool to identify pre-registration nursing students’ mathematical ability . Nurse education in practice.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Mathematical ability is a skill nurses need to safely administer medicines and fluids to patients (Elliott, M., Joyce, J., 2005. Mapping drug calculation skills in an undergraduate nursing curriculum. Nurse Education in Practice 5, 225-229). However some nurses and nursing students lack mathematical proficiency (Hilton, D.E., 1999. Considering academic qualification in mathematics as an entry requirement for a diploma in nursing programme. Nurse Education Today 19, 543-547). A tool was devised to assess the mathematical abilities of nursing students. This was administered to 304 nursing students in one Higher Education Institution (HEI) in Wales, United Kingdom (UK) on entry to a pre-registration undergraduate nursing course. The students completed a diagnostic mathematics test comprising of 25 non-clinical General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) level multiple choice questions with a pass mark set at 72%. The key findings were that only 19% (n=53) of students passed the test. Students appeared to have difficulties with questions involving decimals, SI units, formulae and fractions. The key demographic variable that influenced test scores was previous mathematical qualifications on entry to the course. The tool proved useful in two ways. First, in identifying those students who needed extra tutorial support in mathematics. Second, in identifying those areas of mathematics that presented difficulties for students. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:770,
      author={S. Harvey and F. Murphy and R. Lake and L. Jenkins and A. Cavanna and M. Tait},
      year={2009},
      month={May 23},
      title={Diagnosing the problem: Using a tool to identify pre-registration nursing students' mathematical ability },
      journal={Nurse education in practice},
      note={id: 4086; JID: 101090848; 2008/05/14 [received]; 2009/04/01 [revised]; 2009/04/21 [accepted]; aheadofprint },
      abstract={Mathematical ability is a skill nurses need to safely administer medicines and fluids to patients (Elliott, M., Joyce, J., 2005. Mapping drug calculation skills in an undergraduate nursing curriculum. Nurse Education in Practice 5, 225-229). However some nurses and nursing students lack mathematical proficiency (Hilton, D.E., 1999. Considering academic qualification in mathematics as an entry requirement for a diploma in nursing programme. Nurse Education Today 19, 543-547). A tool was devised to assess the mathematical abilities of nursing students. This was administered to 304 nursing students in one Higher Education Institution (HEI) in Wales, United Kingdom (UK) on entry to a pre-registration undergraduate nursing course. The students completed a diagnostic mathematics test comprising of 25 non-clinical General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) level multiple choice questions with a pass mark set at 72%. The key findings were that only 19% (n=53) of students passed the test. Students appeared to have difficulties with questions involving decimals, SI units, formulae and fractions. The key demographic variable that influenced test scores was previous mathematical qualifications on entry to the course. The tool proved useful in two ways. First, in identifying those students who needed extra tutorial support in mathematics. Second, in identifying those areas of mathematics that presented difficulties for students. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1873-5223},
      language={ENG}
    }

  • Hughes, R. G., & Clancy, C. M.. (2009). AHRQ commentary. Nurses’ role in patient safety . Journal of nursing care quality, 24(1), 1-4.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    AHRQ has long been a partner in the national endeavor to improve health quality. Our mission, “to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of healthcare for all Americans,” reflects the need to fund and publish research that will support and drive quality improvement. We need to make sure that the findings, knowledge, and tools that result from research are broadly applied to improve health and healthcare. It is our hope that Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses stands as a contribution to that endeavor. For more information or to access this invaluable resource, Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses, visit AHRQ’s Web site: www.ahrq.gov/qual/nurseshdbk . (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:773,
      author={R. G. Hughes and C. M. Clancy},
      year={2009},
      month={2009 Jan-Mar},
      title={AHRQ commentary. Nurses' role in patient safety },
      journal={Journal of nursing care quality},
      volume={24},
      number={1},
      pages={1-4},
      note={id: 3260; Accession Number: 2010145228. Language: English. Entry Date: 20090213. Revision Date: 20090213. Publication Type: journal article. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Patient Safety; Quality Assurance. No. of Refs: 6 ref. NLM UID: 9200672. Email: Ronda.Hughes@ahrq.hhs.gov. },
      abstract={AHRQ has long been a partner in the national endeavor to improve health quality. Our mission, “to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of healthcare for all Americans,” reflects the need to fund and publish research that will support and drive quality improvement. We need to make sure that the findings, knowledge, and tools that result from research are broadly applied to improve health and healthcare. It is our hope that Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses stands as a contribution to that endeavor. For more information or to access this invaluable resource, Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses, visit AHRQ's Web site: www.ahrq.gov/qual/nurseshdbk . (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Nursing Role; Patient Safety; Leadership; Organizational Culture; Quality Improvement; Quality of Health Care},
      isbn={1057-3631},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010145228&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • for Improvement, I. H.. (2009). What students think: The surgical safety checklist and the ICU walker . Healthcare executive, 24(3), 76-77.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Almost every year, IHI President and CEO Donald Berwick, MD, gives a lecture about quality improvement to first-year medical school students at Harvard. In this one, he relates the story of how eight biomédical engineering undergraduate students at Johns Hopkins University who decided to design a walker that would allow ICU patients to get out of bed and walk around safely. The final product reduces the chaos of several life support devices attached to the patient, making it safer to walk, requires only a respiratory therapist to monitor and walk with the tower and a physical therapist to stand behind the patient and walker, and can be easily maneuvered through typical hospital corridors. The ICU walkers are now in use at Johns Hopkins. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:774,
      author={Institute for Healthcare Improvement},
      year={2009},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={What students think: The surgical safety checklist and the ICU walker },
      journal={Healthcare executive},
      volume={24},
      number={3},
      pages={76-77},
      note={id: 3988; JID: 8612808; ppublish },
      abstract={Almost every year, IHI President and CEO Donald Berwick, MD, gives a lecture about quality improvement to first-year medical school students at Harvard. In this one, he relates the story of how eight biomédical engineering undergraduate students at Johns Hopkins University who decided to design a walker that would allow ICU patients to get out of bed and walk around safely. The final product reduces the chaos of several life support devices attached to the patient, making it safer to walk, requires only a respiratory therapist to monitor and walk with the tower and a physical therapist to stand behind the patient and walker, and can be easily maneuvered through typical hospital corridors. The ICU walkers are now in use at Johns Hopkins. (Source: Publisher) },
      isbn={0883-5381},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Ironside, P. M., & Sitterding, M.. (2009). Embedding quality and safety competencies in nursing education . The Journal of nursing education, 48(12), 659-660.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    If a central feature of the formation of the next generation of nurses is the development of quality and safety competencies, then these competencies cannot be taught as isolated content within a single course or only during the final term of a program. Learning about and achieving quality and safety competencies must be learned as part of every aspect of practice. The centrality of quality and safety competencies will also require that learning experiences across the curriculum overcome the narrow conceptualization of knowledge acquisition (in classrooms) and its application (in clinical experiences). (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:795,
      author={P. M. Ironside and M. Sitterding},
      year={2009},
      month={Dec},
      title={Embedding quality and safety competencies in nursing education },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={48},
      number={12},
      pages={659-660},
      note={id: 4667; JID: 7705432; ppublish },
      abstract={If a central feature of the formation of the next generation of nurses is the development of quality and safety competencies, then these competencies cannot be taught as isolated content within a single course or only during the final term of a program. Learning about and achieving quality and safety competencies must be learned as part of every aspect of practice. The centrality of quality and safety competencies will also require that learning experiences across the curriculum overcome the narrow conceptualization of knowledge acquisition (in classrooms) and its application (in clinical experiences). (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Competency-Based Education; Curriculum; Education, Nursing; Humans; Quality of Health Care; Safety Management; United States},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Ironside, P. M., Jeffries, P. R., & Martin, A.. (2009). Fostering patient safety competencies using multiple-patient simulation experiences . Nursing outlook, 57(6), 332-337.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This multisite study examined the impact of multiple-patient simulation experiences on the development of nursing students’ patient safety competencies in the final semester of their baccalaureate or associate degree nursing program. It extends the Jeffries Simulation Model by investigating how the student factors of tolerance for ambiguity and self-reported grade point average (GPA), in addition to age, relate to the outcomes of simulation. The study showed that students’ safety competencies improved significantly from the first to the second simulation. Student age, GPA, and tolerance of ambiguity were not significantly correlated to the students’ demonstration of patient safety competencies. The findings of this study contribute to the science of nursing education by providing evidence for nursing educators related to the impact of multiple-patient simulations on improving and documenting students’ patient safety competencies before their entry into the workforce. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:746,
      author={P. M. Ironside and P. R. Jeffries and A. Martin},
      year={2009},
      month={Nov-Dec},
      title={Fostering patient safety competencies using multiple-patient simulation experiences },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={57},
      number={6},
      pages={332-337},
      note={id: 4340; JID: 0401075; 2009/03/01 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={This multisite study examined the impact of multiple-patient simulation experiences on the development of nursing students' patient safety competencies in the final semester of their baccalaureate or associate degree nursing program. It extends the Jeffries Simulation Model by investigating how the student factors of tolerance for ambiguity and self-reported grade point average (GPA), in addition to age, relate to the outcomes of simulation. The study showed that students' safety competencies improved significantly from the first to the second simulation. Student age, GPA, and tolerance of ambiguity were not significantly correlated to the students' demonstration of patient safety competencies. The findings of this study contribute to the science of nursing education by providing evidence for nursing educators related to the impact of multiple-patient simulations on improving and documenting students' patient safety competencies before their entry into the workforce. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1528-3968},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Jones, C. B., Mayer, C., & Mandelkehr, L. K.. (2009). Innovations at the intersection of academia and practice: facilitating graduate nursing students’ learning about quality improvement and patient safety . Quality management in health care, 18(3), 158-164.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    OBJECTIVE: Quality and safety are high priorities for US hospitals today. This focus is likely to intensify, given the rapidly changing and complex health care environment. While health care organizations are initiating a number of strategies to improve care and respond to changing regulatory and policy requirements, many clinicians practicing in them have not received training on quality and safety as a part of their formal education. We describe an academic-practice partnership formed to educate graduate-level nursing students about health care quality and safety. METHODS: Our approach combines theories, methods, and tools of improvement with practice-based learning, thus providing students with an opportunity to apply improvement theories and methods in a health care setting. Student teams are paired with organizational preceptors to conduct projects that address improvement opportunities in health care organizations. RESULTS: We share the structures-processes-outcomes of our partnership, including the content of our course, development of projects, and how projects are used to facilitate shared student-faculty-organizational learning. CONCLUSIONS: Suggestions are offered that address continued course improvement as well as broader improvements in the education of health professionals about quality and patient safety. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:747,
      author={C. B. Jones and C. Mayer and L. K. Mandelkehr},
      year={2009},
      month={Jul-Sep},
      title={Innovations at the intersection of academia and practice: facilitating graduate nursing students' learning about quality improvement and patient safety },
      journal={Quality management in health care},
      volume={18},
      number={3},
      pages={158-164},
      note={id: 4233; JID: 9306156; ppublish },
      abstract={OBJECTIVE: Quality and safety are high priorities for US hospitals today. This focus is likely to intensify, given the rapidly changing and complex health care environment. While health care organizations are initiating a number of strategies to improve care and respond to changing regulatory and policy requirements, many clinicians practicing in them have not received training on quality and safety as a part of their formal education. We describe an academic-practice partnership formed to educate graduate-level nursing students about health care quality and safety. METHODS: Our approach combines theories, methods, and tools of improvement with practice-based learning, thus providing students with an opportunity to apply improvement theories and methods in a health care setting. Student teams are paired with organizational preceptors to conduct projects that address improvement opportunities in health care organizations. RESULTS: We share the structures-processes-outcomes of our partnership, including the content of our course, development of projects, and how projects are used to facilitate shared student-faculty-organizational learning. CONCLUSIONS: Suggestions are offered that address continued course improvement as well as broader improvements in the education of health professionals about quality and patient safety. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Curriculum; Diffusion of Innovation; Education, Nursing, Graduate; Humans; Nursing Process; Quality Assurance, Health Care; Safety Management},
      isbn={1063-8628},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Kliger, J., Blegen, M. A., Gootee, D., & O’Neil, E.. (2009). Empowering frontline nurses: a structured intervention enables nurses to improve medication administration accuracy . Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources, 35(12), 604-612.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    BACKGROUND: Seven hospitals from the San Francisco Bay Area participated in an 18-month-long Integrated Nurse Leadership Program, which was designed to improve the reliability of medication administration by developing and deploying nurse leadership and process improvement skills on one medical/surgical inpatient unit. METHODS: Each hospital formed a nurse-led project team that worked on six safety processes to improve the accuracy of medication administration: Compare medication to the medication administration record, keep medication labeled from preparation to administration, check two forms of patient identification, explain drug to patient (if applicable), chart immediately after administration, and protect process from distractions and interruptions. RESULTS: For the six hospitals included in the analysis, the accuracy of medication administration (as measured by the percent of correct doses administered) improved from 85% in the baseline period to 92% six months after the intervention and 96% 18 months after the intervention. The sum of the six safety processes completed also improved significantly, from 4.8 on a 0-6 scale at baseline to 5.6 at 6 months to 5.75 at 18 months. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that frontline nurses and other hospital-based staff, if given the training, resources, and authority, are well positioned to improve patient care and safety processes on hospital patient units. Frontline clinicians have the unique opportunity to see what is and is not working in the direct provision of patient care. To address the sustainability of the program’s changes after the official project ended, each team was required to develop a sustainability plan entailing monitoring of progress, actions to ensure the improvements are built into the organizational infrastructure, and staff’s interaction with leaders to ensure that the work could continue. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:797,
      author={J. Kliger and M. A. Blegen and D. Gootee and E. O'Neil},
      year={2009},
      month={Dec},
      title={Empowering frontline nurses: a structured intervention enables nurses to improve medication administration accuracy },
      journal={Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources},
      volume={35},
      number={12},
      pages={604-612},
      note={id: 4447; JID: 101238023; ppublish },
      abstract={BACKGROUND: Seven hospitals from the San Francisco Bay Area participated in an 18-month-long Integrated Nurse Leadership Program, which was designed to improve the reliability of medication administration by developing and deploying nurse leadership and process improvement skills on one medical/surgical inpatient unit. METHODS: Each hospital formed a nurse-led project team that worked on six safety processes to improve the accuracy of medication administration: Compare medication to the medication administration record, keep medication labeled from preparation to administration, check two forms of patient identification, explain drug to patient (if applicable), chart immediately after administration, and protect process from distractions and interruptions. RESULTS: For the six hospitals included in the analysis, the accuracy of medication administration (as measured by the percent of correct doses administered) improved from 85% in the baseline period to 92% six months after the intervention and 96% 18 months after the intervention. The sum of the six safety processes completed also improved significantly, from 4.8 on a 0-6 scale at baseline to 5.6 at 6 months to 5.75 at 18 months. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that frontline nurses and other hospital-based staff, if given the training, resources, and authority, are well positioned to improve patient care and safety processes on hospital patient units. Frontline clinicians have the unique opportunity to see what is and is not working in the direct provision of patient care. To address the sustainability of the program's changes after the official project ended, each team was required to develop a sustainability plan entailing monitoring of progress, actions to ensure the improvements are built into the organizational infrastructure, and staff's interaction with leaders to ensure that the work could continue. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1553-7250},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Lamb, G.. (2009). Guest Editorial: Quality, safety, and hope . Nursing outlook, 57(6), 299-301.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Only 2 years ago, the first set of quality and safety competencies for baccalaureate education were published in Nursing Outlook. In her editorial, Marla Salmon challenged us to honor and, at the same time, look beyond our traditional perspectives to drive the quality and safety movement in concert with administrators, other healthcare groups, and consumers. We have made numerous advances. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Project (QSEN) funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) has now entered an exciting third phase. We can look with great satisfaction at the groundbreaking research linking nursing practice to quality and safety outcomes coming out of the RWJF-funded Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative (INQRI). Nurses and nursing organizations have expanded their roles and influence in major initiatives at the National Quality Forum (NQF) and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). Nurses at the bedside are spearheading hundreds of new ways to improve patient care in RWJF’s Transforming Care at the Bedside. These are only a few of the important nursing and interdisciplinary initiatives underway focused on improving quality and safety education, research, and practice. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:748,
      author={G. Lamb},
      year={2009},
      month={Nov-Dec},
      title={Guest Editorial: Quality, safety, and hope },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={57},
      number={6},
      pages={299-301},
      note={id: 4344; JID: 0401075; 2009/08/31 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={Only 2 years ago, the first set of quality and safety competencies for baccalaureate education were published in Nursing Outlook. In her editorial, Marla Salmon challenged us to honor and, at the same time, look beyond our traditional perspectives to drive the quality and safety movement in concert with administrators, other healthcare groups, and consumers. We have made numerous advances. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Project (QSEN) funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) has now entered an exciting third phase. We can look with great satisfaction at the groundbreaking research linking nursing practice to quality and safety outcomes coming out of the RWJF-funded Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative (INQRI). Nurses and nursing organizations have expanded their roles and influence in major initiatives at the National Quality Forum (NQF) and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). Nurses at the bedside are spearheading hundreds of new ways to improve patient care in RWJF's Transforming Care at the Bedside. These are only a few of the important nursing and interdisciplinary initiatives underway focused on improving quality and safety education, research, and practice. (Source: Publisher) },
      isbn={1528-3968},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Lasater, K., & Nielsen, A.. (2009). The influence of concept-based learning activities on students’ clinical judgment development . The Journal of nursing education, 48(8), 441-446.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The traditional nursing clinical education model of total patient care is becoming inadequate. New models are needed to foster deeper clinical thinking, thereby affecting students’ development of clinical judgment. Concept-based learning activities, first introduced in 1990, offer a focus on a specific concept. This study evaluated the effect of concept-based learning activities on the development of clinical judgment in baccalaureate nursing students. The clinical judgment of students who were and were not exposed to concept-based learning activities was compared. Quantitative data were analyzed using a univariate analysis. In addition, a focus group consisting of members of the treatment group provided qualitative data. Results suggest concept-based learning activities are a clinical learning strategy that should be considered by faculty to deepen clinical thinking in preparation for reaching sound clinical judgments. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:749,
      author={K. Lasater and A. Nielsen},
      year={2009},
      month={Aug},
      title={The influence of concept-based learning activities on students' clinical judgment development },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={48},
      number={8},
      pages={441-446},
      note={id: 4278; CI: Copyright 2009; JID: 7705432; 2008/08/06 [received]; 2008/11/03 [accepted]; 2009/05/28 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={The traditional nursing clinical education model of total patient care is becoming inadequate. New models are needed to foster deeper clinical thinking, thereby affecting students' development of clinical judgment. Concept-based learning activities, first introduced in 1990, offer a focus on a specific concept. This study evaluated the effect of concept-based learning activities on the development of clinical judgment in baccalaureate nursing students. The clinical judgment of students who were and were not exposed to concept-based learning activities was compared. Quantitative data were analyzed using a univariate analysis. In addition, a focus group consisting of members of the treatment group provided qualitative data. Results suggest concept-based learning activities are a clinical learning strategy that should be considered by faculty to deepen clinical thinking in preparation for reaching sound clinical judgments. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Analysis of Variance; Attitude of Health Personnel; Clinical Competence; Concept Formation; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods; Female; Focus Groups; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Judgment; Male; Maternal-Child Nursing/education; Models, Educational; Models, Nursing; Nursing Education Research; Nursing Methodology Research; Nursing Theory; Pediatric Nursing/education; Qualitative Research; Students, Nursing/psychology; Thinking},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Lenburg, C. B., Klein, C., Abdur-Rahman, V., Spencer, T., & Boyer, S.. (2009). The COPA Model: a comprehensive framework designed to promote quality care and competence for patient safety . Nursing Education Perspectives, 30(5), 312-317.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Patient safety and quality care are issues of major concern for nursing and all health care professions. Initiatives driven by these concerns have been undertaken during the past decade by organizations and agencies at the local, state, and national levels. One comprehensive framework used by many schools and agencies is Lenburg’s Competency Outcomes and Performance Assessment Model (COPA). This article explores the basic concepts and related principles that are fundamental in refocusing the curriculum to promote practice-based competence. The framework emphasizes eight core practice competencies; competency-based outcomes; practice-driven learning; and competency performance examinations. The article also highlights Klein’s doctoral research, which compares the effects on teaching and learning in a sample of diverse nursing programs, some of which use and some that do not use the model. Key findings are summarized with recommendations for further study. The COPA Model also is briefly compared to an emerging competency initiative. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:750,
      author={C. B. Lenburg and C. Klein and V. Abdur-Rahman and T. Spencer and S. Boyer},
      year={2009},
      month={2009},
      title={The COPA Model: a comprehensive framework designed to promote quality care and competence for patient safety },
      journal={Nursing Education Perspectives},
      volume={30},
      number={5},
      pages={312-317},
      note={id: 4334},
      abstract={Patient safety and quality care are issues of major concern for nursing and all health care professions. Initiatives driven by these concerns have been undertaken during the past decade by organizations and agencies at the local, state, and national levels. One comprehensive framework used by many schools and agencies is Lenburg's Competency Outcomes and Performance Assessment Model (COPA). This article explores the basic concepts and related principles that are fundamental in refocusing the curriculum to promote practice-based competence. The framework emphasizes eight core practice competencies; competency-based outcomes; practice-driven learning; and competency performance examinations. The article also highlights Klein's doctoral research, which compares the effects on teaching and learning in a sample of diverse nursing programs, some of which use and some that do not use the model. Key findings are summarized with recommendations for further study. The COPA Model also is briefly compared to an emerging competency initiative. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1536-5026},
      language={English},
      url={https://auth.lib.unc.edu/ezproxy_auth.php?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010428410&site=ehost-live&scope=site}
    }

  • Long, L. E., Burkett, K., & McGee, S.. (2009). Promotion of safe outcomes: Incorporating evidence into policies and procedures . The Nursing clinics of North America, 44(1), 57-70, x-xi.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This article describes the process of incorporating evidence into policies and procedures, resulting in the establishment of evidence as a basis for safe practice. The process described includes use of the Rosswurm and Larrabee model for change to evidence-based practice. The model guided the work of evidence-based practice mentors in developing a template, system, and educational plan for dissemination of evidence-based policies and procedures into patient care. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:776,
      author={L. E. Long and K. Burkett and S. McGee},
      year={2009},
      month={Mar},
      title={Promotion of safe outcomes: Incorporating evidence into policies and procedures },
      journal={The Nursing clinics of North America},
      volume={44},
      number={1},
      pages={57-70, x-xi},
      note={id: 3697; JID: 0042033; ppublish },
      abstract={This article describes the process of incorporating evidence into policies and procedures, resulting in the establishment of evidence as a basis for safe practice. The process described includes use of the Rosswurm and Larrabee model for change to evidence-based practice. The model guided the work of evidence-based practice mentors in developing a template, system, and educational plan for dissemination of evidence-based policies and procedures into patient care. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Data Collection; Diffusion of Innovation; Documentation; Education, Nursing, Continuing/organization & administration; Evidence-Based Nursing/education/organization & administration; Hospitals, Pediatric; Humans; Information Dissemination; Mentors; Models, Nursing; Needs Assessment/organization & administration; Nursing Research/education/organization & administration; Ohio; Organizational Innovation; Organizational Policy; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Point-of-Care Systems/organization & administration; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Professional Staff Committees/organization & administration; Research Design; Safety Management/organization & administration},
      isbn={0029-6465},
      language={eng}
    }

  • MacPhee, M., Espezel, H., Clauson, M., & Gustavson, K.. (2009). A collaborative model to introduce quality and safety content into the undergraduate nursing leadership curriculum . Journal of nursing care quality, 24(1), 83-89.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Today’s nursing students need an understanding of quality and safety (Q/S) concepts as well as the nurse’s role in all phases of Q/S activities. Nursing students’ Q/S learning experiences are typically anecdotal. This article describes a practice-academic partnership that raised students’ awareness of Q/S within the practice environment. This partnership also resulted in healthcare providers’ increased commitment to a culture of safety. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:751,
      author={M. MacPhee and H. Espezel and M. Clauson and K. Gustavson},
      year={2009},
      month={Jan-Mar},
      title={A collaborative model to introduce quality and safety content into the undergraduate nursing leadership curriculum },
      journal={Journal of nursing care quality},
      volume={24},
      number={1},
      pages={83-89},
      note={id: 4234; JID: 9200672; ppublish },
      abstract={Today's nursing students need an understanding of quality and safety (Q/S) concepts as well as the nurse's role in all phases of Q/S activities. Nursing students' Q/S learning experiences are typically anecdotal. This article describes a practice-academic partnership that raised students' awareness of Q/S within the practice environment. This partnership also resulted in healthcare providers' increased commitment to a culture of safety. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Cooperative Behavior; Curriculum; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods; Humans; Leadership; Models, Nursing; Nursing Education Research; Safety Management/methods},
      isbn={1550-5065},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Mayer, D. K.. (2009). First, do no harm . Clinical journal of oncology nursing, 13(1), 11-11.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Patients have to worry about cancer, but they shouldn’t have to worry about the care they are receiving. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:778,
      author={D. K. Mayer},
      year={2009},
      month={02},
      title={First, do no harm },
      journal={Clinical journal of oncology nursing},
      volume={13},
      number={1},
      pages={11-11},
      note={id: 3564; Accession Number: 2010190235. Language: English. Entry Date: In Process. Revision Date: 20090227. Publication Type: journal article. Journal Subset: Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Oncologic Care. No. of Refs: 4 ref. NLM UID: 9705336. },
      abstract={Patients have to worry about cancer, but they shouldn’t have to worry about the care they are receiving. (Source: Publisher) },
      isbn={1092-1095},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010190235&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Mayer, D., Klamen, D. L., Gunderson, A., Barach, P., & Roundtable, T. I.. (2009). Designing a patient safety undergraduate medical curriculum: the Telluride Interdisciplinary Roundtable experience . Teaching and learning in medicine, 21(1), 52-58.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    PURPOSE: Patient safety has emerged as a global concern in the provision of quality health care, and yet, to date, few medical schools have created and/or implemented patient safety curricula. The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to one model of a patient safety undergraduate medical curriculum, as designed by a group of experts attending an annual interdisciplinary roundtable assembled for this purpose. SUMMARY: The Annual Telluride Interdisciplinary Roundtable met in 2005 and 2006 to design what it considered to be a comprehensive patient safety curriculum for medical students. Invited members included stakeholders from a variety of fields, including health care providers, senior health care administration, students, residents, patient advocacy leaders, and curriculum development/assessment experts. The group developed a list of general curricular principles, followed by 11 specific elements felt to be essential to an effective patient safety curriculum for undergraduate medical education students. It also identified a number of challenges to implementing such a curriculum. CONCLUSIONS: A patient safety curriculum, developed by a group of experts for an undergraduate medical education population, was successfully developed over a two-year period of time. Future meetings of the Telluride Roundtable group have centered on evaluation and refinement of these curricular elements as pilots occur in a number of medical schools, and new curricular ideas continue to be developed. Continued interprofessional dialogue and collaborative research will enable the development and implementation of a standardized longitudinal patient safety student curriculum. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:710,
      author={D. Mayer and D. L. Klamen and A. Gunderson and P. Barach and Telluride Interdisciplinary Roundtable},
      year={2009},
      month={Jan-Mar},
      title={Designing a patient safety undergraduate medical curriculum: the Telluride Interdisciplinary Roundtable experience },
      journal={Teaching and learning in medicine},
      volume={21},
      number={1},
      pages={52-58},
      note={id: 5155; JID: 8910884; ppublish },
      abstract={PURPOSE: Patient safety has emerged as a global concern in the provision of quality health care, and yet, to date, few medical schools have created and/or implemented patient safety curricula. The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to one model of a patient safety undergraduate medical curriculum, as designed by a group of experts attending an annual interdisciplinary roundtable assembled for this purpose. SUMMARY: The Annual Telluride Interdisciplinary Roundtable met in 2005 and 2006 to design what it considered to be a comprehensive patient safety curriculum for medical students. Invited members included stakeholders from a variety of fields, including health care providers, senior health care administration, students, residents, patient advocacy leaders, and curriculum development/assessment experts. The group developed a list of general curricular principles, followed by 11 specific elements felt to be essential to an effective patient safety curriculum for undergraduate medical education students. It also identified a number of challenges to implementing such a curriculum. CONCLUSIONS: A patient safety curriculum, developed by a group of experts for an undergraduate medical education population, was successfully developed over a two-year period of time. Future meetings of the Telluride Roundtable group have centered on evaluation and refinement of these curricular elements as pilots occur in a number of medical schools, and new curricular ideas continue to be developed. Continued interprofessional dialogue and collaborative research will enable the development and implementation of a standardized longitudinal patient safety student curriculum. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Curriculum; Education, Medical, Undergraduate; Humans; Interdisciplinary Communication; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Program Development; Safety Management},
      isbn={1532-8015; 1040-1334},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Miller, C. L., & LaFramboise, L.. (2009). Student learning outcomes after integration of quality and safety education competencies into a senior-level critical care course . The Journal of nursing education, 48(12), 678-685.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Nursing education must respond to reports from the Institute of Medicine and others that health care education must focus more on safety and quality so graduates are empowered to positively impact patient safety. Effective teaching strategies must be developed and tested that result in positive student outcomes. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effects of structured classroom and clinical content related to safety and quality of health care systems on a group of senior-level nursing students. A mixed-method study was conducted using repeated-measures analysis of variance quantitative data from the Student Perception of Safety and Quality Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes Questionnaire and content analysis for the qualitative data collected from focus group discussions. Results suggest a combination of classroom and clinical learning activities have the strongest impact on student knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to safety and quality. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:801,
      author={C. L. Miller and L. LaFramboise},
      year={2009},
      month={Dec},
      title={Student learning outcomes after integration of quality and safety education competencies into a senior-level critical care course },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={48},
      number={12},
      pages={678-685},
      note={id: 4665; JID: 7705432; 2009/03/31 [received]; 2009/09/30 [accepted]; ppublish },
      abstract={Nursing education must respond to reports from the Institute of Medicine and others that health care education must focus more on safety and quality so graduates are empowered to positively impact patient safety. Effective teaching strategies must be developed and tested that result in positive student outcomes. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effects of structured classroom and clinical content related to safety and quality of health care systems on a group of senior-level nursing students. A mixed-method study was conducted using repeated-measures analysis of variance quantitative data from the Student Perception of Safety and Quality Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes Questionnaire and content analysis for the qualitative data collected from focus group discussions. Results suggest a combination of classroom and clinical learning activities have the strongest impact on student knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to safety and quality. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Adult; Analysis of Variance; Competency-Based Education/methods; Critical Care; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods; Female; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Male; Midwestern United States; Pilot Projects; Quality of Health Care; Safety Management},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Moskowitz, E. J., & Nash, D. B.. (2009). Teaching trainees the tenets of quality and safety: an annotated bibliography . American Journal of Medical Quality : The Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality, 24(4), 333-343.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    No modern reference material exists that adequately defines the core competencies for quality and safety from an educational perspective. However, a few major institutions in the United States have begun to offer graduate level degree programs in health care quality and safety and, as a result, have placed themselves at the forefront of the development of these competencies. This annotated bibliography was created to highlight those articles in the literature that focus on teaching a spectrum of health care trainees these key tenets of quality and safety. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:752,
      author={E. J. Moskowitz and D. B. Nash},
      year={2009},
      month={Jul-Aug},
      title={Teaching trainees the tenets of quality and safety: an annotated bibliography },
      journal={American Journal of Medical Quality : The Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality},
      volume={24},
      number={4},
      pages={333-343},
      note={id: 4243; JID: 9300756; 2009/06/04 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={No modern reference material exists that adequately defines the core competencies for quality and safety from an educational perspective. However, a few major institutions in the United States have begun to offer graduate level degree programs in health care quality and safety and, as a result, have placed themselves at the forefront of the development of these competencies. This annotated bibliography was created to highlight those articles in the literature that focus on teaching a spectrum of health care trainees these key tenets of quality and safety. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Evidence-Based Medicine; Humans; Quality Assurance, Health Care; Safety Management; Students, Medical; Students, Nursing},
      isbn={1062-8606},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Mulready-Shick, J., Kafel, K. W., Banister, G., & Mylott, L.. (2009). Enhancing quality and safety competency development at the unit level: an initial evaluation of student learning and clinical teaching on dedicated education units . The Journal of nursing education, 48(12), 716-719.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The need to attend to quality and safety competency development, increase capacity in nursing education programs, address the faculty and nursing shortages, and find new ways to keep step with an ever-changing health care environment has brought forth numerous creative curricular responses and collaborative efforts. To tackle these multiple needs and challenges simultaneously, a new academic-service partnership was created to collaboratively develop an innovative clinical education delivery model. The designed dedicated education unit model not only promoted student learning about quality and safety competencies via unit-based projects but also supported quality improvements in nursing care delivery. Following the initial semester of the model’s implementation, a pilot study was conducted. The findings generated the evidence required to take this innovation to the next level. Moreover, the education-practice partnership, which was created to implement the clinical education delivery model, was strengthened as a result of this preliminary evaluation. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:802,
      author={J. Mulready-Shick and K. W. Kafel and G. Banister and L. Mylott},
      year={2009},
      month={Dec},
      title={Enhancing quality and safety competency development at the unit level: an initial evaluation of student learning and clinical teaching on dedicated education units },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={48},
      number={12},
      pages={716-719},
      note={id: 4659; JID: 7705432; 2009/04/01 [received]; 2009/07/21 [accepted]; ppublish },
      abstract={The need to attend to quality and safety competency development, increase capacity in nursing education programs, address the faculty and nursing shortages, and find new ways to keep step with an ever-changing health care environment has brought forth numerous creative curricular responses and collaborative efforts. To tackle these multiple needs and challenges simultaneously, a new academic-service partnership was created to collaboratively develop an innovative clinical education delivery model. The designed dedicated education unit model not only promoted student learning about quality and safety competencies via unit-based projects but also supported quality improvements in nursing care delivery. Following the initial semester of the model's implementation, a pilot study was conducted. The findings generated the evidence required to take this innovation to the next level. Moreover, the education-practice partnership, which was created to implement the clinical education delivery model, was strengthened as a result of this preliminary evaluation. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Adult; Competency-Based Education/methods; Education, Nursing/methods; Female; Focus Groups; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Models, Educational; Pilot Projects; Quality of Health Care; Safety Management; United States},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Pohl, J. M., Savrin, C., Fiandt, K., Beauchesne, M., Drayton-Brooks, S., Scheibmeir, M., Brackley, M., & Werner, K. E.. (2009). Quality and safety in graduate nursing education: Cross-mapping QSEN graduate competencies with NONPF’s NP core and practice doctorate competencies . Nursing outlook, 57(6), 349-354.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    To ensure that nurse practitioners are prepared to deliver safe, high-quality health care, the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF) publishes documents that outline the expected competencies for nurse practitioner (NP) practice (Domains and Core Competencies of Nurse Practitioner Practice and Practice Doctorate Nurse Practitioner Entry-Level Competencies). Having participated in the development of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies for graduate education, NONPF convened a task force to compare NONPF competencies with QSEN competencies for graduate education. This paper reports the first step of that cross-mapping process, comparing NONPF competencies with the QSEN knowledge objectives. Overall findings indicate close congruence across the 2 sets of competencies; however there are areas in which gaps are noted or for which clarification is required. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:753,
      author={J. M. Pohl and C. Savrin and K. Fiandt and M. Beauchesne and S. Drayton-Brooks and M. Scheibmeir and M. Brackley and K. E. Werner},
      year={2009},
      month={Nov-Dec},
      title={Quality and safety in graduate nursing education: Cross-mapping QSEN graduate competencies with NONPF's NP core and practice doctorate competencies },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={57},
      number={6},
      pages={349-354},
      note={id: 4338; JID: 0401075; 2009/03/03 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={To ensure that nurse practitioners are prepared to deliver safe, high-quality health care, the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF) publishes documents that outline the expected competencies for nurse practitioner (NP) practice (Domains and Core Competencies of Nurse Practitioner Practice and Practice Doctorate Nurse Practitioner Entry-Level Competencies). Having participated in the development of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies for graduate education, NONPF convened a task force to compare NONPF competencies with QSEN competencies for graduate education. This paper reports the first step of that cross-mapping process, comparing NONPF competencies with the QSEN knowledge objectives. Overall findings indicate close congruence across the 2 sets of competencies; however there are areas in which gaps are noted or for which clarification is required. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1528-3968},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Preheim, G. J., Armstrong, G. E., & Barton, A. J.. (2009). The new fundamentals in nursing: introducing beginning quality and safety education for nurses’ competencies . The Journal of nursing education, 48(12), 694-697.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This article describes the redesign of the fundamentals of nursing course using an organizing framework and teaching strategies identified in the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) initiative. Six QSEN competencies (patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics) are essential for nursing practice. Beginning knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) associated with each competency were identified in a preliminary Delphi survey as important to incorporate early in prelicensure nursing curricula. Redesign requires a shift in focus from task-training and psychomotor skills development to incorporation of a systems context, reflecting redefined values and interventions associated with safety, quality, and professional nursing roles. A course revision, based on the QSEN competencies definitions, selected beginning KSAs, exemplar resources, and teaching strategies, is described. The reframing of fundamentals of nursing is essential to prepare new graduates for contemporary practice. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:806,
      author={G. J. Preheim and G. E. Armstrong and A. J. Barton},
      year={2009},
      month={Dec},
      title={The new fundamentals in nursing: introducing beginning quality and safety education for nurses' competencies },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={48},
      number={12},
      pages={694-697},
      note={id: 4663; JID: 7705432; 2009/03/30 [received]; 2009/09/23 [accepted]; ppublish },
      abstract={This article describes the redesign of the fundamentals of nursing course using an organizing framework and teaching strategies identified in the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) initiative. Six QSEN competencies (patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics) are essential for nursing practice. Beginning knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) associated with each competency were identified in a preliminary Delphi survey as important to incorporate early in prelicensure nursing curricula. Redesign requires a shift in focus from task-training and psychomotor skills development to incorporation of a systems context, reflecting redefined values and interventions associated with safety, quality, and professional nursing roles. A course revision, based on the QSEN competencies definitions, selected beginning KSAs, exemplar resources, and teaching strategies, is described. The reframing of fundamentals of nursing is essential to prepare new graduates for contemporary practice. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Competency-Based Education/methods; Education, Nursing/methods; Evidence-Based Nursing/education; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Models, Educational; Nursing Informatics/education; Patient Care Team; Patient-Centered Care; Quality of Health Care; Safety Management; United States},
      isbn={0148-4834; 0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Redding, D. A., & Robinson, S.. (2009). Interruptions and geographic challenges to nurses’ cognitive workload . Journal of nursing care quality, 24(3), 194-200; quiz 201-2.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The cognitive workload of nurses needs to be protected from interruptions as much as possible to prevent untoward patient outcomes. In this study, the type and frequency of work interruptions for nurses in medical-surgical units in a midwestern tertiary care medical center were identified. In addition, nurses’ travel patterns were observed and recorded as they provided care. The intent was to identify methods for reducing interruptions and improving nurses’ cognitive work efficiency. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:779,
      author={D. A. Redding and S. Robinson},
      year={2009},
      month={Jul-Sep},
      title={Interruptions and geographic challenges to nurses' cognitive workload },
      journal={Journal of nursing care quality},
      volume={24},
      number={3},
      pages={194-200; quiz 201-2},
      note={id: 4122; JID: 9200672; ppublish },
      abstract={The cognitive workload of nurses needs to be protected from interruptions as much as possible to prevent untoward patient outcomes. In this study, the type and frequency of work interruptions for nurses in medical-surgical units in a midwestern tertiary care medical center were identified. In addition, nurses' travel patterns were observed and recorded as they provided care. The intent was to identify methods for reducing interruptions and improving nurses' cognitive work efficiency. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1550-5065},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Richardson, L., Resick, L., Leonardo, M., & Pearsall, C.. (2009). Undergraduate students as standardized patients to assess advanced practice nursing student competencies . Nurse educator, 34(1), 12-16.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Evaluating clinical skills of students in an online distance education program can be challenging because of the diverse location of students. The authors describe a unique and cost-efficient method of using standardized patients to evaluate these skills. The project involved undergraduate students representing standardized patients for graduate advanced practice nurse students. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:780,
      author={L. Richardson and L. Resick and M. Leonardo and C. Pearsall},
      year={2009},
      month={Jan-Feb},
      title={Undergraduate students as standardized patients to assess advanced practice nursing student competencies },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={34},
      number={1},
      pages={12-16},
      note={id: 3708; JID: 7701902; ppublish },
      abstract={Evaluating clinical skills of students in an online distance education program can be challenging because of the diverse location of students. The authors describe a unique and cost-efficient method of using standardized patients to evaluate these skills. The project involved undergraduate students representing standardized patients for graduate advanced practice nurse students. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Clinical Competence; Education, Distance; Education, Nursing, Graduate/methods; Educational Measurement; Humans; Models, Educational; Nurse Clinicians/education; Nursing Education Research; Patient Simulation; Program Evaluation; Students, Nursing},
      isbn={1538-9855},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Struth, D.. (2009). TCAB in the curriculum: creating a safer environment through nursing education . The American Journal of Nursing, 109(11 Suppl), 55-58.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    We realized that transformational leadership, prototype, tests of change, and rapid-cycle improvement had to be more than just words in a presentation. Nursing faculty needed to embrace the TCAB framework before transformation could begin. Our task as an education partner was to develop structured learning activities to teach prelicensure (student) nurses about TCAB. This article describes how our faculty developed clinical and didactic curricula to do this. Our work made the TCAB design targets related to safe and reliable care, value-added care, and patient-centered care come to life for our students. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:755,
      author={D. Struth},
      year={2009},
      month={Nov},
      title={TCAB in the curriculum: creating a safer environment through nursing education },
      journal={The American Journal of Nursing},
      volume={109},
      number={11 Suppl},
      pages={55-58},
      note={id: 4434; JID: 0372646; ppublish },
      abstract={We realized that transformational leadership, prototype, tests of change, and rapid-cycle improvement had to be more than just words in a presentation. Nursing faculty needed to embrace the TCAB framework before transformation could begin. Our task as an education partner was to develop structured learning activities to teach prelicensure (student) nurses about TCAB. This article describes how our faculty developed clinical and didactic curricula to do this. Our work made the TCAB design targets related to safe and reliable care, value-added care, and patient-centered care come to life for our students. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Academies and Institutes/organization & administration; Curriculum; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Faculty, Nursing/organization & administration; Foundations/organization & administration; Health Facility Environment/organization & administration; Humans; Interinstitutional Relations; Needs Assessment; Nursing Assessment; Organizational Innovation; Organizational Objectives; Patient-Centered Care/organization & administration; Pennsylvania; Professional Competence; Program Development; Safety Management/organization & administration; Schools, Nursing/organization & administration; Total Quality Management/organization & administration},
      isbn={1538-7488; 1538-7488},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Sullivan, D. T., Hirst, D., & Cronenwett, L.. (2009). Assessing quality and safety competencies of graduating prelicensure nursing students . Nursing outlook, 57(6), 323-331.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project is focused on enhancing nursing curricula and fostering faculty development to support student achievement of quality and safety competencies. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess student perspectives of quality and safety content in their nursing programs along with self-reported levels of preparedness and perceived importance of the 6 QSEN competencies. Graduating students (n = 565) from 17 US schools of nursing completed an electronic student evaluation survey. Students reported exposure to QSEN knowledge areas, more often in classroom and clinical learning settings than in skills lab/simulation settings. Clinical experience outside of formal education was associated with perceptions of a higher level of preparedness for QSEN skills in several competencies. In general, students reported relatively high levels of preparedness in all types of prelicensure nursing programs and endorsed the importance of quality and safety competencies to professional practice. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:756,
      author={D. T. Sullivan and D. Hirst and L. Cronenwett},
      year={2009},
      month={Nov-Dec},
      title={Assessing quality and safety competencies of graduating prelicensure nursing students },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={57},
      number={6},
      pages={323-331},
      note={id: 4341; JID: 0401075; 2009/03/06 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project is focused on enhancing nursing curricula and fostering faculty development to support student achievement of quality and safety competencies. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess student perspectives of quality and safety content in their nursing programs along with self-reported levels of preparedness and perceived importance of the 6 QSEN competencies. Graduating students (n = 565) from 17 US schools of nursing completed an electronic student evaluation survey. Students reported exposure to QSEN knowledge areas, more often in classroom and clinical learning settings than in skills lab/simulation settings. Clinical experience outside of formal education was associated with perceptions of a higher level of preparedness for QSEN skills in several competencies. In general, students reported relatively high levels of preparedness in all types of prelicensure nursing programs and endorsed the importance of quality and safety competencies to professional practice. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1528-3968},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Vieira, E., & Kumar, S.. (2009). Safety analysis of patient transfers and handling tasks . Quality & safety in health care, 18(5), 380-384.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    BACKGROUND: Low-back disorders are related to biomechanical demands, and nurses are among the professionals with the highest rates. Quantification of risk factors is important for safety assessment and reduction of low-back disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify physical demands of frequent nursing tasks and provide evidence-based recommendations to increase low-back safety. METHODS: Thirty-six volunteer female nurses participated in a cross-sectional study of nine nursing tasks. Lumbar range of motion (ROM) and motion during nursing tasks were measured. Compression and shear forces at L5/S1, ligament strain and percentage of population without sufficient torso strength to perform 14 phases of nine nursing tasks were estimated. RESULTS: Peak flexions during trolley-to-bed, bed-to-chair and chair-to-bed transfers reached the maximum flexion ROM of the nurses. Average lumbar flexion during trolley-to-bed transfers was >50% of flexion ROM, being higher than during all other tasks. Mean (SD) compression at L5/S1 (4754 N (437 N)) and population without sufficient torso strength (37% (9%)) were highest during the pushing phase of bed-to-trolley transfers. Shear force (487 N (40 N)) and ligament strain (14% (5%)) were highest during the pulling phase of trolley-to-bed transfers. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing tasks impose high biomechanical demands on the lumbar spine. Excessive lumbar flexion and forces are critical aspects of manual transfers requiring most of the nurses’ capabilities. Evidence-based recommendations to improve low-back safety in common nursing tasks were provided. Fitness to work, job modifications and training programs can now be designed and assessed based on the results. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:758,
      author={E. Vieira and S. Kumar},
      year={2009},
      month={Oct},
      title={Safety analysis of patient transfers and handling tasks },
      journal={Quality & safety in health care},
      volume={18},
      number={5},
      pages={380-384},
      note={id: 4437; JID: 101136980; ppublish },
      abstract={BACKGROUND: Low-back disorders are related to biomechanical demands, and nurses are among the professionals with the highest rates. Quantification of risk factors is important for safety assessment and reduction of low-back disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify physical demands of frequent nursing tasks and provide evidence-based recommendations to increase low-back safety. METHODS: Thirty-six volunteer female nurses participated in a cross-sectional study of nine nursing tasks. Lumbar range of motion (ROM) and motion during nursing tasks were measured. Compression and shear forces at L5/S1, ligament strain and percentage of population without sufficient torso strength to perform 14 phases of nine nursing tasks were estimated. RESULTS: Peak flexions during trolley-to-bed, bed-to-chair and chair-to-bed transfers reached the maximum flexion ROM of the nurses. Average lumbar flexion during trolley-to-bed transfers was >50% of flexion ROM, being higher than during all other tasks. Mean (SD) compression at L5/S1 (4754 N (437 N)) and population without sufficient torso strength (37% (9%)) were highest during the pushing phase of bed-to-trolley transfers. Shear force (487 N (40 N)) and ligament strain (14% (5%)) were highest during the pulling phase of trolley-to-bed transfers. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing tasks impose high biomechanical demands on the lumbar spine. Excessive lumbar flexion and forces are critical aspects of manual transfers requiring most of the nurses' capabilities. Evidence-based recommendations to improve low-back safety in common nursing tasks were provided. Fitness to work, job modifications and training programs can now be designed and assessed based on the results. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1475-3901; 1475-3901},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Voorhis, V. K. T., & Willis, T. S.. (2009). Implementing a pediatric rapid response system to improve quality and patient safety . Pediatric clinics of North America, 56(4), 919-933.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Life-threatening events are common in today’s hospitals, where an increasing proportion of patients with urgent admission are cared for by understaffed, often inexperienced personnel. Medical errors play a key role in causing adverse events and failure to rescue deteriorating patients. In-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes are generally poor, but these events are often preceded by a pattern of deterioration with abnormal vital signs and mental status. When hospital staff or family members observe warning signs and trigger timely intervention by a rapid response team, rates of cardiac arrest and mortality can be reduced. Rapid response team involvement can be used to trigger careful review of preceding events to help uncover important systems issues and allow for further improvements in patient safety. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:757,
      author={K. T. Van Voorhis and T. S. Willis},
      year={2009},
      month={Aug},
      title={Implementing a pediatric rapid response system to improve quality and patient safety },
      journal={Pediatric clinics of North America},
      volume={56},
      number={4},
      pages={919-933},
      note={id: 4214; JID: 0401126; ppublish },
      abstract={Life-threatening events are common in today's hospitals, where an increasing proportion of patients with urgent admission are cared for by understaffed, often inexperienced personnel. Medical errors play a key role in causing adverse events and failure to rescue deteriorating patients. In-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes are generally poor, but these events are often preceded by a pattern of deterioration with abnormal vital signs and mental status. When hospital staff or family members observe warning signs and trigger timely intervention by a rapid response team, rates of cardiac arrest and mortality can be reduced. Rapid response team involvement can be used to trigger careful review of preceding events to help uncover important systems issues and allow for further improvements in patient safety. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Adult; Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; Child; Emergency Medical Services/standards/trends; Emergency Service, Hospital/standards; Heart Arrest/diagnosis/therapy; Hospitals, Pediatric/standards; Humans; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Medical Records; North Carolina; Organizational Case Studies; Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care); Pediatrics/standards; Quality of Health Care/standards/trends; Safety Management; United States},
      isbn={1557-8240},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Wolf, Z. R., Hicks, R. W., Altmiller, G., & Bicknell, P.. (2009). Nursing student medication errors involving tubing and catheters: A descriptive study . Nurse education today.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This retrospective case study examined reports (N=27) of medication errors made by nursing students involving tubing and catheter misconnections. Characteristics of misconnection errors included attributes of events recorded on MEDMARX((R)) error reports of the United States Pharmacopeia. Two near miss errors or Category B errors (medication error occurred, did not reach patient) were identified, with 21 Category C medication errors (occurred, with no resulting patient harm), and four Category D errors (need for increased patient monitoring, no patient harm) reported. Reported intravenous tubing errors were more frequent than other type of tubing errors and problems with clamps were present in 12 error reports. Registered nurses discovered most of the errors; some were implicated in the mistakes along with the students. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:783,
      author={Z. R. Wolf and R. W. Hicks and G. Altmiller and P. Bicknell},
      year={2009},
      month={Mar 31},
      title={Nursing student medication errors involving tubing and catheters: A descriptive study },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      note={id: 3702; JID: 8511379; 2008/07/18 [received]; 2009/02/12 [revised]; 2009/02/21 [accepted]; aheadofprint },
      abstract={This retrospective case study examined reports (N=27) of medication errors made by nursing students involving tubing and catheter misconnections. Characteristics of misconnection errors included attributes of events recorded on MEDMARX((R)) error reports of the United States Pharmacopeia. Two near miss errors or Category B errors (medication error occurred, did not reach patient) were identified, with 21 Category C medication errors (occurred, with no resulting patient harm), and four Category D errors (need for increased patient monitoring, no patient harm) reported. Reported intravenous tubing errors were more frequent than other type of tubing errors and problems with clamps were present in 12 error reports. Registered nurses discovered most of the errors; some were implicated in the mistakes along with the students. (Source: PubMed) },
      language={ENG}
    }

  • Wright, K.. (2009). Supporting the development of calculating skills in nurses . British journal of nursing, 18(7), 399-402.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This article discusses a well-known model in mathematical problem solving developed by Polya (1957) and suggests that this could be a beneficial framework to support the development of medication calculation skills. The model outlines four stages to problem solving: understanding the problem, devising a plan, carrying out the plan and examining the solution. These four stages are discussed in relation to the teaching and assessing of medication skills, drawing on literature from nursing, mathematics education and cognitive psychology. The article emphasizes the importance of clinical experience and knowledge and the cognitive structures that support the development of medication skills. This is the first part of a three-part series. Part two will examine the different methods that can be used to solve medication calculations and part three the resources that are required to support use of these methods. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:786,
      author={K. Wright},
      year={2009},
      month={Apr 9-22},
      title={Supporting the development of calculating skills in nurses },
      journal={British journal of nursing},
      volume={18},
      number={7},
      pages={399-402},
      note={id: 4087; JID: 9212059; ppublish },
      abstract={This article discusses a well-known model in mathematical problem solving developed by Polya (1957) and suggests that this could be a beneficial framework to support the development of medication calculation skills. The model outlines four stages to problem solving: understanding the problem, devising a plan, carrying out the plan and examining the solution. These four stages are discussed in relation to the teaching and assessing of medication skills, drawing on literature from nursing, mathematics education and cognitive psychology. The article emphasizes the importance of clinical experience and knowledge and the cognitive structures that support the development of medication skills. This is the first part of a three-part series. Part two will examine the different methods that can be used to solve medication calculations and part three the resources that are required to support use of these methods. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={0966-0461},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Wright, K.. (2009). Developing methods for solving drug dosage calculations . British journal of nursing, 18(11), 685-689.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This second part of a three-part series of articles examining drug calculation skills, focuses on the different methods that can be used to solve drug calculations. It builds on Part 1 (Supporting the development of calculating skills in nurses, 18(7): 399-402), and provides examples of different methods that can be used to plan and solve a range of common calculations, such as weight-based calculations and weight and volume calculations. The framework introduced in Part 1 is used to support the planning and solving of drug administration calculations. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:785,
      author={K. Wright},
      year={2009},
      month={Jun 11-24},
      title={Developing methods for solving drug dosage calculations },
      journal={British journal of nursing},
      volume={18},
      number={11},
      pages={685-689},
      note={id: 4085; JID: 9212059; ppublish },
      abstract={This second part of a three-part series of articles examining drug calculation skills, focuses on the different methods that can be used to solve drug calculations. It builds on Part 1 (Supporting the development of calculating skills in nurses, 18(7): 399-402), and provides examples of different methods that can be used to plan and solve a range of common calculations, such as weight-based calculations and weight and volume calculations. The framework introduced in Part 1 is used to support the planning and solving of drug administration calculations. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={0966-0461},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Wright, K.. (2009). The assessment and development of drug calculation skills in nurse education–a critical debate . Nurse education today, 29(5), 544-548.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The drug calculation skill of nurses continues to be a national concern. The continued concern has led to the introduction of mandatory drug calculation skills tests which students must pass in order to go on to the nursing register. However, there is little evidence to demonstrate that nurses are poor at solving drug calculation in practice. This paper argues that nurse educationalists have inadvertently created a problem that arguably does not exist in practice through use of invalid written drug assessment tests and have introduced their own pedagogical practice of solving written drug calculations. This paper will draw on literature across mathematics, philosophy, psychology and nurse education to demonstrate why written drug assessments are invalid, why learning must take place predominantly in the clinical area and why the key focus on numeracy and formal mathematical skills as essential knowledge for nurses is potentially unnecessary. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:784,
      author={K. Wright},
      year={2009},
      month={Jul},
      title={The assessment and development of drug calculation skills in nurse education--a critical debate },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={29},
      number={5},
      pages={544-548},
      note={id: 4088; JID: 8511379; 2008/05/01 [received]; 2008/08/08 [revised]; 2008/08/26 [accepted]; 2009/03/25 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={The drug calculation skill of nurses continues to be a national concern. The continued concern has led to the introduction of mandatory drug calculation skills tests which students must pass in order to go on to the nursing register. However, there is little evidence to demonstrate that nurses are poor at solving drug calculation in practice. This paper argues that nurse educationalists have inadvertently created a problem that arguably does not exist in practice through use of invalid written drug assessment tests and have introduced their own pedagogical practice of solving written drug calculations. This paper will draw on literature across mathematics, philosophy, psychology and nurse education to demonstrate why written drug assessments are invalid, why learning must take place predominantly in the clinical area and why the key focus on numeracy and formal mathematical skills as essential knowledge for nurses is potentially unnecessary. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1532-2793},
      language={eng}
    }

2008

  • (2008). Patient safety and quality: An evidence-based handbook for nurses . Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This handbook prepared by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation provides a comprehensive summary of important patient safety and quality improvement concepts for frontline nurses. Experts in each topic area reviewed the latest published evidence to assemble sections on providing patient-centered care, nurses’ working conditions and work environment, critical opportunities for improving quality and safety, and practical tools for implementing patient safety interventions for practicing nurses. (Source: Publisher)

    @book{RefWorks:1167,
      year={2008},
      title={Patient safety and quality: An evidence-based handbook for nurses },
      publisher={Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality},
      address={Rockville, MD},
      note={id: 2245},
      abstract={This handbook prepared by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation provides a comprehensive summary of important patient safety and quality improvement concepts for frontline nurses. Experts in each topic area reviewed the latest published evidence to assemble sections on providing patient-centered care, nurses' working conditions and work environment, critical opportunities for improving quality and safety, and practical tools for implementing patient safety interventions for practicing nurses. (Source: Publisher) },
      url={http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nurseshdbk}
    }

  • Cahill, K., Cruz, E., Guilbert, M. B., & Oser, M. O.. (2008). Root cause analysis following nephrectomy after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) . Urologic nursing : official journal of the American Urological Association Allied, 28(6), 445-453.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    An adverse event after a routine extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy procedure set into motion a root cause analysis methodology to decipher why and how the event occurred and offer a solution to prevent it from happening again. The process of performing a root cause analysis is discussed in detail. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:763,
      author={K. Cahill and E. Cruz and M. B. Guilbert and M. O. Oser},
      year={2008},
      month={Dec},
      title={Root cause analysis following nephrectomy after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) },
      journal={Urologic nursing : official journal of the American Urological Association Allied},
      volume={28},
      number={6},
      pages={445-453},
      note={id: 3605; JID: 8812256; ppublish },
      abstract={An adverse event after a routine extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy procedure set into motion a root cause analysis methodology to decipher why and how the event occurred and offer a solution to prevent it from happening again. The process of performing a root cause analysis is discussed in detail. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1053-816X},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Harding, L., & Petrick, T.. (2008). Nursing student medication errors: A retrospective review . Journal of Nursing Education, 47(1), 43-47.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This article presents the findings of a retrospective review of medication errors made and reported by nursing students in a 4-year baccalaureate program. Data were examined in relation to the semester of the program, kind of error according to the rights of medication administration, and contributing factors. Three categories of contributing factors were identified: rights violations, system factors, and knowledge and understanding. It became apparent that system factors, or the context in which medication administration takes place, are not fully considered when students are taught about medication administration. Teaching strategies need to account for the dynamic complexity of this process and incorporate experiential knowledge. This review raised several important questions about how this information guides our practice as educators in the clinical and classroom settings and how we can work collaboratively with practice partners to influence change and increase patient safety. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1206,
      author={L. Harding and T. Petrick},
      year={2008},
      title={Nursing student medication errors: A retrospective review },
      journal={Journal of Nursing Education},
      volume={47},
      number={1},
      pages={43-47},
      note={id: 2155; Language: English. Entry Date: 20080215. Revision Date: 20080328. Publication Type: journal article; research. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Education; Patient Safety. No. of Refs: 13 ref. NLM UID: 7705432. },
      abstract={This article presents the findings of a retrospective review of medication errors made and reported by nursing students in a 4-year baccalaureate program. Data were examined in relation to the semester of the program, kind of error according to the rights of medication administration, and contributing factors. Three categories of contributing factors were identified: rights violations, system factors, and knowledge and understanding. It became apparent that system factors, or the context in which medication administration takes place, are not fully considered when students are taught about medication administration. Teaching strategies need to account for the dynamic complexity of this process and incorporate experiential knowledge. This review raised several important questions about how this information guides our practice as educators in the clinical and classroom settings and how we can work collaboratively with practice partners to influence change and increase patient safety. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Medication Errors; Students, Nursing; Adverse Drug Event; Data Collection Methods; Drug Administration; Education, Clinical; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Incident Reports; Medical Orders; Medication Systems; Retrospective Design; Student Knowledge},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=227&accno=2009775915; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009775915&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Hicks, R. W., Becker, S. C., & Jackson, D. G.. (2008). Understanding medication errors: discussion of a case involving a urinary catheter implicated in a wrong route error . Urologic Nursing, 28(6), 454-459.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Medication errors represent a failure in the medication use process leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality. In an effort to standardize reporting, evaluating, and trending of medication errors, the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) developed and maintains a medication error taxonomy. A case study involving a medication intended for administration via rectal tube and inadvertently given through a Foley catheter is discussed using the NCC MERP medication error taxonomy and critiqued using recent national findings. Awareness of national trends for patient safety, including emerging changes leading to best practices, updates to National Patient Safety Goals, and changes in national policy, can reduce the risk of error involvement. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:771,
      author={R. W. Hicks and S. C. Becker and D. G. Jackson},
      year={2008},
      month={12},
      title={Understanding medication errors: discussion of a case involving a urinary catheter implicated in a wrong route error },
      journal={Urologic Nursing},
      volume={28},
      number={6},
      pages={454-459},
      note={id: 3268; Accession Number: 2010155884. Language: English. Entry Date: In Process. Revision Date: 20090206. Publication Type: journal article. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. No. of Refs: 11 ref. NLM UID: 8812256. },
      abstract={Medication errors represent a failure in the medication use process leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality. In an effort to standardize reporting, evaluating, and trending of medication errors, the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) developed and maintains a medication error taxonomy. A case study involving a medication intended for administration via rectal tube and inadvertently given through a Foley catheter is discussed using the NCC MERP medication error taxonomy and critiqued using recent national findings. Awareness of national trends for patient safety, including emerging changes leading to best practices, updates to National Patient Safety Goals, and changes in national policy, can reduce the risk of error involvement. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1053-816X},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010155884&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Hoffman, J. J.. (2008). Chapter 12. Teaching strategies to facilitate nursing students’ critical thinking . Annual Review of Nursing Education, 6, 225-236.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nurses must possess critical thinking competencies in order to maintain pace with the ever-changing treatment modalities and technological advances. Outdated teaching methodologies based on content and knowledge must be replaced by a focus on outcomes, such as critical thinking. Nursing faculty responsible for student learning in classroom and clinical settings must be equipped to assist students in learning "how" to find the answers, not merely "what" are the answers. Nurses must recognize that it is an expectation of professional practice that they update and maintain their competency and knowledge base. Due to the increasingly complex health care environment, memorization of facts is no longer sufficient, because there are too many facts to memorize and what is memorized quickly becomes outdated. Equipping nursing students to be engaged and independent in their learning is essential to critical thinking, lifelong learning, and maintaining competency in order to provide safe nursing care. Teaching strategies that include directed reading, case studies, and questioning can be valuable in not only assisting the student to learn new materials, but also as approaches to thinking that can be used independently in the practice setting after graduation. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:772,
      author={J. J. Hoffman},
      year={2008},
      title={Chapter 12. Teaching strategies to facilitate nursing students' critical thinking },
      journal={Annual Review of Nursing Education},
      volume={6},
      pages={225-236},
      note={id: 3739},
      abstract={Nurses must possess critical thinking competencies in order to maintain pace with the ever-changing treatment modalities and technological advances. Outdated teaching methodologies based on content and knowledge must be replaced by a focus on outcomes, such as critical thinking. Nursing faculty responsible for student learning in classroom and clinical settings must be equipped to assist students in learning "how" to find the answers, not merely "what" are the answers. Nurses must recognize that it is an expectation of professional practice that they update and maintain their competency and knowledge base. Due to the increasingly complex health care environment, memorization of facts is no longer sufficient, because there are too many facts to memorize and what is memorized quickly becomes outdated. Equipping nursing students to be engaged and independent in their learning is essential to critical thinking, lifelong learning, and maintaining competency in order to provide safe nursing care. Teaching strategies that include directed reading, case studies, and questioning can be valuable in not only assisting the student to learn new materials, but also as approaches to thinking that can be used independently in the practice setting after graduation. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Case Studies; Critical Thinking -- Education; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Teaching Methods; Curriculum; Education, Clinical; Problem-Based Learning; Reading},
      isbn={1542-412X},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009811145&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Jarzemsky, P. A., & McGrath, J.. (2008). Look before you leap: Lessons learned when introducing clinical simulation . Nurse educator, 33(2), 90-95.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Before investing in a human patient simulator, we designed a preliminary study that examined student responses to a laboratory exercise that used lower-fidelity simulation. Our purpose was to compare beginning-level, baccalaureate nursing students’ self-reported assessment in the domains of confidence, ability, stress, and critical thinking before and after they participated in the simulation. Results showed statistically significant improvement in all domains for skills in urinary catheterization, intravenous and nasogastric medication administration, and sterile dressing change. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1214,
      author={P. A. Jarzemsky and J. McGrath},
      year={2008},
      month={Mar-Apr},
      title={Look before you leap: Lessons learned when introducing clinical simulation },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={33},
      number={2},
      pages={90-95},
      note={id: 2203; PUBM: Print; JID: 7701902; ppublish },
      abstract={Before investing in a human patient simulator, we designed a preliminary study that examined student responses to a laboratory exercise that used lower-fidelity simulation. Our purpose was to compare beginning-level, baccalaureate nursing students' self-reported assessment in the domains of confidence, ability, stress, and critical thinking before and after they participated in the simulation. Results showed statistically significant improvement in all domains for skills in urinary catheterization, intravenous and nasogastric medication administration, and sterile dressing change. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={0363-3624},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Mayer, C. M., & Cronin, D.. (2008). Organizational accountability in a just culture . Urologic Nursing, 28(6), 427-430.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Policies and procedures exist to safeguard patients and protect them from harm; however, a deeper understanding as to why a particular sentinel event occurred and less focus on the individual who made the error can have positive outcomes. Nursing leaders should strive to maintain a just culture to promote reporting and learning in their facility, thereby creating a culture of safety for patients. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:777,
      author={C. M. Mayer and D. Cronin},
      year={2008},
      month={12},
      title={Organizational accountability in a just culture },
      journal={Urologic Nursing},
      volume={28},
      number={6},
      pages={427-430},
      note={id: 3264; Accession Number: 2010155847. Language: English. Entry Date: In Process. Revision Date: 20090206. Publication Type: journal article. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. No. of Refs: 22 ref. NLM UID: 8812256. },
      abstract={Policies and procedures exist to safeguard patients and protect them from harm; however, a deeper understanding as to why a particular sentinel event occurred and less focus on the individual who made the error can have positive outcomes. Nursing leaders should strive to maintain a just culture to promote reporting and learning in their facility, thereby creating a culture of safety for patients. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1053-816X},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2010155847&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Nehring, W. M.. (2008). U.S. boards of nursing and the use of high-fidelity patient simulators in nursing education . Journal of professional nursing : Official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 24(2), 109-117.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    High-fidelity patient simulation is becoming an essential component of prelicensure nursing education. A survey was mailed to the boards of nursing in all states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico to ascertain the use of high-fidelity patient simulators for clinical time in current regulations. Participants were asked if high-fidelity patient simulation could be substituted for clinical time in the regulations and, if so, for what percentage. If not, they were asked whether they gave approval to nursing programs to substitute clinical time with high-fidelity patient simulators and, if so, for what percentage. Finally, the participants were asked whether they felt that the regulations would be changed in the future to allow the use of high-fidelity patient simulators to substitute for clinical time. Five states and Puerto Rico have made regulation changes to allow for such substitution, but only Florida has indicated a percentage of time. Sixteen states currently give approval for simulation substitution, and 17 states may consider regulation changes concerning high-fidelity patient simulation in the future. Such findings have implications for alterations in the prelicensure nursing curriculum that could examine patient safety and quality concerns addressed by the public and leading health and nursing organizations. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1241,
      author={W. M. Nehring},
      year={2008},
      month={Mar-Apr},
      title={U.S. boards of nursing and the use of high-fidelity patient simulators in nursing education },
      journal={Journal of professional nursing : Official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing},
      volume={24},
      number={2},
      pages={109-117},
      note={id: 2169; PUBM: Print; JID: 8511298; 2006/09/04 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={High-fidelity patient simulation is becoming an essential component of prelicensure nursing education. A survey was mailed to the boards of nursing in all states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico to ascertain the use of high-fidelity patient simulators for clinical time in current regulations. Participants were asked if high-fidelity patient simulation could be substituted for clinical time in the regulations and, if so, for what percentage. If not, they were asked whether they gave approval to nursing programs to substitute clinical time with high-fidelity patient simulators and, if so, for what percentage. Finally, the participants were asked whether they felt that the regulations would be changed in the future to allow the use of high-fidelity patient simulators to substitute for clinical time. Five states and Puerto Rico have made regulation changes to allow for such substitution, but only Florida has indicated a percentage of time. Sixteen states currently give approval for simulation substitution, and 17 states may consider regulation changes concerning high-fidelity patient simulation in the future. Such findings have implications for alterations in the prelicensure nursing curriculum that could examine patient safety and quality concerns addressed by the public and leading health and nursing organizations. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1532-8481},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Rosenstein, A. H., & O’Daniel, M.. (2008). A survey of the impact of disruptive behaviors and communication defects on patient safety . Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources, 34(8), 464-471.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    BACKGROUND: A recent survey was conducted to assess the significance of disruptive behaviors and their effect on communication and collaboration and impact on patient care. SURVEY: VHA West Coast administered a 22-question survey instrument–Nurse-Physician: Impact of Disruptive Behavior on Patient Care–to a convenience sample. Of the 388 member hospitals (in four VHA regions) invited, 102 hospitals participated in the survey (26% response rate). Results from surveys received from January 2004 though March 2007 are represented. Of the 4,530 participants, 2,846 listed their titles as nurses, 944 as physicians, 40 as administrative executives, and 700 as "other." RESULTS: A total of 77% of the respondents reported that they had witnessed disruptive behavior in physicians–88% of the nurses and 51% of the physicians. Sixty-five percent of the respondents reported witnessing disruptive behavior in nurses at their hospitals–73% of the nurses and 48% of the physicians. Sixty-seven percent of the respondents agreed that disruptive behaviors were linked with adverse events; the result for medical errors was 71%, and patient mortality, 27%. DISCUSSION: The results from the survey show that disruptive behaviors lead to potentially preventable adverse events, errors, compromises in safety and quality, and patient mortality. Strategies to address disruptive behaviors should (1) prevent disruptive events from occurring, (2) deal with events in real time to prevent staff or patient harm, and (3) initiate postevent review, actions, and follow-up. RECOMMENDATIONS: Twelve recommendations–including recognition and awareness, policies and procedures, incident reporting, education and training, communication tools, discussion forums, and intervention strategies–address what hospitals and other organizations can do now to address disruptive behaviors. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:781,
      author={A. H. Rosenstein and M. O'Daniel},
      year={2008},
      month={Aug},
      title={A survey of the impact of disruptive behaviors and communication defects on patient safety },
      journal={Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources},
      volume={34},
      number={8},
      pages={464-471},
      note={id: 3256; JID: 101238023; ppublish },
      abstract={BACKGROUND: A recent survey was conducted to assess the significance of disruptive behaviors and their effect on communication and collaboration and impact on patient care. SURVEY: VHA West Coast administered a 22-question survey instrument--Nurse-Physician: Impact of Disruptive Behavior on Patient Care--to a convenience sample. Of the 388 member hospitals (in four VHA regions) invited, 102 hospitals participated in the survey (26% response rate). Results from surveys received from January 2004 though March 2007 are represented. Of the 4,530 participants, 2,846 listed their titles as nurses, 944 as physicians, 40 as administrative executives, and 700 as "other." RESULTS: A total of 77% of the respondents reported that they had witnessed disruptive behavior in physicians--88% of the nurses and 51% of the physicians. Sixty-five percent of the respondents reported witnessing disruptive behavior in nurses at their hospitals--73% of the nurses and 48% of the physicians. Sixty-seven percent of the respondents agreed that disruptive behaviors were linked with adverse events; the result for medical errors was 71%, and patient mortality, 27%. DISCUSSION: The results from the survey show that disruptive behaviors lead to potentially preventable adverse events, errors, compromises in safety and quality, and patient mortality. Strategies to address disruptive behaviors should (1) prevent disruptive events from occurring, (2) deal with events in real time to prevent staff or patient harm, and (3) initiate postevent review, actions, and follow-up. RECOMMENDATIONS: Twelve recommendations--including recognition and awareness, policies and procedures, incident reporting, education and training, communication tools, discussion forums, and intervention strategies--address what hospitals and other organizations can do now to address disruptive behaviors. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Agonistic Behavior; Health Care Surveys; Humans; Interdisciplinary Communication; Interprofessional Relations; Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology; Patient Care/standards; Physicians/psychology; Safety Management; United States},
      isbn={1553-7250},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Wakefield, A. B., Carlisle, C., Hall, A. G., & Attree, M. J.. (2008). The expectations and experiences of blended learning approaches to patient safety education . Nurse Education in Practice, 8(1), 54-61.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    E-learning facilitates access to educational programmes via electronic asynchronous or real time communication without the constraints of time or place. However, not all skills can be acquired via e-learning, thus blended approaches have emerged, where traditional academic processes have been combined with e-learning systems. This paper presents qualitative findings from a study evaluating a blended approach to patient safety education. The 3-day face-to-face training in Root Cause Analysis supported by e-learning resources was designed by the National Patient Safety Agency. The study evaluated the efficacy of the blended learning approach, and explored how operational practices in NHS organisations supported staffs’ skill in using electronic resources. Data collection techniques included pre and post-course Confidence Logs, Individual Interviews, Focus Groups and Evaluation Questionnaires. Students’ views on blended learning varied. Some were positive, while others felt e-learning did not suit their preferred learning style, or the subject matter. Many students did not engage with the e-learning resources. Lack of awareness regarding the e-learning component, combined with inconsistent access to computing facilities may have contributed to this. For this reason a series of recommendations are outlined to guide those wishing to adopt blended learning approaches in the future. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1278,
      author={A. B. Wakefield and C. Carlisle and A. G. Hall and M. J. Attree},
      year={2008},
      title={The expectations and experiences of blended learning approaches to patient safety education },
      journal={Nurse Education in Practice},
      volume={8},
      number={1},
      pages={54-61},
      note={id: 2156; Language: English. Entry Date: 20080328. Publication Type: journal article; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; UK & Ireland. Special Interest: Nursing Education. No. of Refs: 30 ref. NLM UID: 101090848. },
      abstract={E-learning facilitates access to educational programmes via electronic asynchronous or real time communication without the constraints of time or place. However, not all skills can be acquired via e-learning, thus blended approaches have emerged, where traditional academic processes have been combined with e-learning systems. This paper presents qualitative findings from a study evaluating a blended approach to patient safety education. The 3-day face-to-face training in Root Cause Analysis supported by e-learning resources was designed by the National Patient Safety Agency. The study evaluated the efficacy of the blended learning approach, and explored how operational practices in NHS organisations supported staffs' skill in using electronic resources. Data collection techniques included pre and post-course Confidence Logs, Individual Interviews, Focus Groups and Evaluation Questionnaires. Students' views on blended learning varied. Some were positive, while others felt e-learning did not suit their preferred learning style, or the subject matter. Many students did not engage with the e-learning resources. Lack of awareness regarding the e-learning component, combined with inconsistent access to computing facilities may have contributed to this. For this reason a series of recommendations are outlined to guide those wishing to adopt blended learning approaches in the future. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Computer Assisted Instruction; Course Evaluation; Education, Non-Traditional -- Evaluation; Patient Safety -- Education; Root Cause Analysis -- Education; Conceptual Framework; Content Analysis; Evaluation Research; Focus Groups; Interview Guides; Interviews; Learning Theory; National Health Programs -- United Kingdom; Nurse Attitudes; Program Evaluation; Qualitative Studies; Questionnaires; United Kingdom},
      isbn={1471-5953},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=2736&accno=2009807042; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009807042&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • White, K. M., & Walrath, J. M.. (2008). Chapter 4. An innovative approach to quality and safety education for baccalaureate nursing students . Annual Review of Nursing Education, 6, 65-82.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This article describes an innovative program, the Fuld Leadership Fellows in Clinical Nursing, a partnership between the JHUSON and Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM). Through this program, quality and safety improvement became the vehicle for honing leadership skills of baccalaureate student nurses enrolled in both the accelerated and traditional courses of study. While this program may not be totally replicable, we believe that many aspects of the program could be used in any academic medical center setting. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:782,
      author={K. M. White and J. M. Walrath},
      year={2008},
      title={Chapter 4. An innovative approach to quality and safety education for baccalaureate nursing students },
      journal={Annual Review of Nursing Education},
      volume={6},
      pages={65-82},
      note={id: 3740},
      abstract={This article describes an innovative program, the Fuld Leadership Fellows in Clinical Nursing, a partnership between the JHUSON and Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM). Through this program, quality and safety improvement became the vehicle for honing leadership skills of baccalaureate student nurses enrolled in both the accelerated and traditional courses of study. While this program may not be totally replicable, we believe that many aspects of the program could be used in any academic medical center setting. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Education, Clinical; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Leadership -- Education; American Association of Colleges of Nursing; Experiential Learning; Faculty, Nursing; Mentorship; Patient Safety -- Education; Program Evaluation; Quality Improvement -- Education; Schools, Nursing; Seminars and Workshops; Students, Nursing, Baccalaureate},
      isbn={1542-412X},
      language={English},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009811137&site=ehost-live}
    }

2007

  • Ackermann, A. D., Kenny, G., & Walker, C.. (2007). Simulator programs for new nurses’ orientation: a retention strategy . Journal for nurses in staff development : JNSD : Official journal of the National Nursing Staff Development Organization, 23(3), 136-139.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The phenomenon of role transition for new nurses has been a topic of research and concern for practicing nurses, educators, and administrators for many years. This transition has an impact on the job retention of new nurses. Stress, lack of confidence, and unmet expectations have been found to influence patient safety and outcomes. Simulator programs have enhanced the experiences of students and nurses in the clinical setting. Within this safe environment of simulation, nurses find the opportunity to develop critical thinking, decision making, and clinical confidence. A simulator program was developed in Vassar Brothers Medical Center to assist in the transition of new graduate registered nurses to acute care practice. This article describes the process of developing a program and suggestions for instructors who are interested in developing a simulation program. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1169,
      author={A. D. Ackermann and G. Kenny and C. Walker},
      year={2007},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={Simulator programs for new nurses' orientation: a retention strategy },
      journal={Journal for nurses in staff development : JNSD : Official journal of the National Nursing Staff Development Organization},
      volume={23},
      number={3},
      pages={136-139},
      note={id: 1416; PUBM: Print; JID: 9809908; ppublish },
      abstract={The phenomenon of role transition for new nurses has been a topic of research and concern for practicing nurses, educators, and administrators for many years. This transition has an impact on the job retention of new nurses. Stress, lack of confidence, and unmet expectations have been found to influence patient safety and outcomes. Simulator programs have enhanced the experiences of students and nurses in the clinical setting. Within this safe environment of simulation, nurses find the opportunity to develop critical thinking, decision making, and clinical confidence. A simulator program was developed in Vassar Brothers Medical Center to assist in the transition of new graduate registered nurses to acute care practice. This article describes the process of developing a program and suggestions for instructors who are interested in developing a simulation program. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Attitude of Health Personnel; Clinical Competence; Education, Nursing, Continuing/organization & administration; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Services Needs and Demand; Humans; Inservice Training/organization & administration; Manikins; New York; Nurse's Role/psychology; Nursing Education Research; Nursing Process; Nursing Staff, Hospital/education/psychology; Personnel Turnover; Program Development; Program Evaluation; Questionnaires; Safety; Self Efficacy; Social Support; Thinking},
      isbn={1098-7886},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Aspden, P., Wolcott, J., Bootman, L., Cronenwett, L., on Identifying, I. C., & Errors, P. M.. (2007). Preventing medication errors . Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In 1996 the Institute of Medicine launched the Quality Chasm Series, a series of reports focused on assessing and improving the nation s quality of health care. Preventing Medication Errors is the newest volume in the series. Responding to the key messages in earlier volumes of the series To Err Is Human (2000), Crossing the Quality Chasm (2001), and Patient Safety (2004) this book sets forth an agenda for improving the safety of medication use. It begins by providing an overview of the system for drug development, regulation, distribution, and use. Preventing Medication Errors also examines the peer-reviewed literature on the incidence and the cost of medication errors and the effectiveness of error prevention strategies. Presenting data that will foster the reduction of medication errors, the book provides action agendas detailing the measures needed to improve the safety of medication use in both the short- and long-term. Patients, primary health care providers, health care organizations, purchasers of group health care, legislators, and those affiliated with providing medications and medication- related products and services will benefit from this guide to reducing medication errors. (Source: Publisher)

    @book{RefWorks:1173,
      author={P. Aspden and J. Wolcott and L. Bootman and L. Cronenwett and IOM Committee on Identifying and Preventing Medication Errors},
      year={2007},
      title={Preventing medication errors },
      publisher={National Academies Press},
      address={Washington, DC},
      note={id: 422},
      abstract={In 1996 the Institute of Medicine launched the Quality Chasm Series, a series of reports focused on assessing and improving the nation s quality of health care. Preventing Medication Errors is the newest volume in the series. Responding to the key messages in earlier volumes of the series To Err Is Human (2000), Crossing the Quality Chasm (2001), and Patient Safety (2004) this book sets forth an agenda for improving the safety of medication use. It begins by providing an overview of the system for drug development, regulation, distribution, and use. Preventing Medication Errors also examines the peer-reviewed literature on the incidence and the cost of medication errors and the effectiveness of error prevention strategies. Presenting data that will foster the reduction of medication errors, the book provides action agendas detailing the measures needed to improve the safety of medication use in both the short- and long-term. Patients, primary health care providers, health care organizations, purchasers of group health care, legislators, and those affiliated with providing medications and medication- related products and services will benefit from this guide to reducing medication errors. (Source: Publisher) },
      url={http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11623.html}
    }

  • Bargagliotti, L. A., & Lancaster, J.. (2007). Quality and safety education in nursing: More than new wine in old skins . Nursing outlook, 55(3), 156-158.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, has identified 6 core competencies that all pre-licensure nursing students need to master in order to provide high quality, safe nursing care. The core competencies are: patient-centered care; teamwork and collaboration; evidence-based practice; informatics; quality improvement; and safety. Implementation of these competencies throughout nursing education will require shedding the nursing and faculty belief systems and mental models of the past to adopt new ones. (Source: QSEN Team)

    @article{RefWorks:1174,
      author={L. A. Bargagliotti and J. Lancaster},
      year={2007},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={Quality and safety education in nursing: More than new wine in old skins },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={55},
      number={3},
      pages={156-158},
      note={id: 1088; PUBM: Print; JID: 0401075; 2006/11/29 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, has identified 6 core competencies that all pre-licensure nursing students need to master in order to provide high quality, safe nursing care. The core competencies are: patient-centered care; teamwork and collaboration; evidence-based practice; informatics; quality improvement; and safety. Implementation of these competencies throughout nursing education will require shedding the nursing and faculty belief systems and mental models of the past to adopt new ones. (Source: QSEN Team) },
      isbn={0029-6554},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Beyea, S. C., von Reyn, L. K., & Slattery, M. J.. (2007). A nurse residency program for competency development using human patient simulation . Journal for nurses in staff development : JNSD : Official journal of the National Nursing Staff Development Organization, 23(2), 77-82.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    A new graduate registered nurse residency program integrating human patient simulation was developed at an academic medical center. The program focused on orientation through skill-based learning, critical thinking, human factors engineering, and patient safety using simulated experiences for a wide variety of high-risk, low-frequency, as well as high-frequency, commonly occurring clinical events and situations. Structured evaluations demonstrated that simulation serves as a highly effective strategy for developing competency, confidence, and readiness for entry-into-practice. It strengthened assessment and clinical skills, and enhanced nurse residents’ ability to apply critical thinking to simulated patient scenarios. The time and cost of orientation decreased while recent graduate nurse satisfaction with orientation was high. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1177,
      author={S. C. Beyea and L. K. von Reyn and M. J. Slattery},
      year={2007},
      month={Mar-Apr},
      title={A nurse residency program for competency development using human patient simulation },
      journal={Journal for nurses in staff development : JNSD : Official journal of the National Nursing Staff Development Organization},
      volume={23},
      number={2},
      pages={77-82},
      note={id: 1418; PUBM: Print; GR: 1D64HP03100-01-00/PHS; JID: 9809908; ppublish },
      abstract={A new graduate registered nurse residency program integrating human patient simulation was developed at an academic medical center. The program focused on orientation through skill-based learning, critical thinking, human factors engineering, and patient safety using simulated experiences for a wide variety of high-risk, low-frequency, as well as high-frequency, commonly occurring clinical events and situations. Structured evaluations demonstrated that simulation serves as a highly effective strategy for developing competency, confidence, and readiness for entry-into-practice. It strengthened assessment and clinical skills, and enhanced nurse residents' ability to apply critical thinking to simulated patient scenarios. The time and cost of orientation decreased while recent graduate nurse satisfaction with orientation was high. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Education, Nursing, Graduate; Humans; New Hampshire; Patient Simulation; Program Evaluation},
      isbn={1098-7886},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Brown, Y., Neudorf, K., Poitras, C., & Rodger, K.. (2007). Unsafe student clinical performance calls for a systematic approach . The Canadian nurse, 103(3), 29-32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Patient safety is the responsibility of both the system and the individual practitioner. Unsafe incidents are a very real possibility when nursing students are preparing for their profession. The curriculum committee of the Nursing Education Program of Saskatchewan (NEPS) identified the need for a unified and consistent process related to students who demonstrate unsafe clinical performance. Many clinical teachers experience difficulty in identifying and making decisions related to students’ unsafe performance. The authors describe the development of a systematic approach that was adopted by NEPS in June 2005 and is being used across all program years and sites. The approach provides students with a fair and just process and reflects the responsibility of the educational program to prepare graduates who will provide safe, competent care. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1180,
      author={Y. Brown and K. Neudorf and C. Poitras and K. Rodger},
      year={2007},
      month={Mar},
      title={Unsafe student clinical performance calls for a systematic approach },
      journal={The Canadian nurse},
      volume={103},
      number={3},
      pages={29-32},
      note={id: 1405; PUBM: Print; JID: 0405504; ppublish },
      abstract={Patient safety is the responsibility of both the system and the individual practitioner. Unsafe incidents are a very real possibility when nursing students are preparing for their profession. The curriculum committee of the Nursing Education Program of Saskatchewan (NEPS) identified the need for a unified and consistent process related to students who demonstrate unsafe clinical performance. Many clinical teachers experience difficulty in identifying and making decisions related to students' unsafe performance. The authors describe the development of a systematic approach that was adopted by NEPS in June 2005 and is being used across all program years and sites. The approach provides students with a fair and just process and reflects the responsibility of the educational program to prepare graduates who will provide safe, competent care. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Clinical Competence/standards; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Faculty, Nursing/organization & administration; Health Services Needs and Demand; Humans; Medical Errors/nursing/prevention & control; Practice Guidelines; Professional Staff Committees/organization & administration; Safety Management/organization & administration; Saskatchewan; Students, Nursing; Systems Analysis},
      isbn={0008-4581},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Buerhaus, P. I., Donelan, K., Ulrich, B. T., Norman, L., DesRoches, C., & Dittus, R.. (2007). Impact of the nurse shortage on hospital patient care: comparative perspectives . Health affairs, 26(3), 853-862.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    National surveys of registered nurses, physicians, and hospital executives document considerable concern about the U.S. nurse shortage. Substantial proportions of respondents perceived negative impacts on care processes, hospital capacity, nursing practice, and the Institute of Medicine’s six aims for improving health care systems. There were also many areas of divergent opinion within and among these groups, including the impact of the shortage on safety and early detection of patient complications. These divergences in perceptions could be important barriers to resolving the current nurse shortage and improving the quality and safety of patient care. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1181,
      author={P. I. Buerhaus and K. Donelan and B. T. Ulrich and L. Norman and C. DesRoches and R. Dittus},
      year={2007},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={Impact of the nurse shortage on hospital patient care: comparative perspectives },
      journal={Health affairs},
      volume={26},
      number={3},
      pages={853-862},
      note={id: 1043; PUBM: Print; JID: 8303128; ppublish },
      abstract={National surveys of registered nurses, physicians, and hospital executives document considerable concern about the U.S. nurse shortage. Substantial proportions of respondents perceived negative impacts on care processes, hospital capacity, nursing practice, and the Institute of Medicine's six aims for improving health care systems. There were also many areas of divergent opinion within and among these groups, including the impact of the shortage on safety and early detection of patient complications. These divergences in perceptions could be important barriers to resolving the current nurse shortage and improving the quality and safety of patient care. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1544-5208},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Conerly, C.. (2007). Strategies to increase reporting of near misses and adverse events . Journal of nursing care quality, 22(2), 102-106.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The article provides insights and highlights best practices from the field that can be used globally and has significance in the new accreditation process. In this context, the author focuses on the cultural barriers to reporting adverse events and the need to create a change in culture. With this, many healthcare organizations realized that a change in culture has been needed to improve patient safety. (Source: CINAHL)

    @article{RefWorks:1185,
      author={C. Conerly},
      year={2007},
      month={Apr-Jun},
      title={Strategies to increase reporting of near misses and adverse events },
      journal={Journal of nursing care quality},
      volume={22},
      number={2},
      pages={102-106},
      note={id: 1419; PUBM: Print; JID: 9200672; ppublish },
      abstract={The article provides insights and highlights best practices from the field that can be used globally and has significance in the new accreditation process. In this context, the author focuses on the cultural barriers to reporting adverse events and the need to create a change in culture. With this, many healthcare organizations realized that a change in culture has been needed to improve patient safety. (Source: CINAHL) },
      keywords={Health Plan Implementation; Hospitals, Special/standards; Humans; Louisiana; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Organizational Culture; Organizational Innovation; Risk Management/organization & administration},
      isbn={1057-3631},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Constantino, R. E.. (2007). A transdisciplinary team acting on evidence through analyses of moot malpractice cases . Dimensions of critical care nursing : DCCN, 26(4), 150-155.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    A transdiciplinary team is crucial for healthcare systems to act based on evidence in responding to the global demand of the business of caring and patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to outline a transdisciplinary team led by nurses that examines linkages between moot malpractice cases filed against a healthcare system and to the quality of the healthcare system’s ecology, caregiver, and patient safety outcomes. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1186,
      author={R. E. Constantino},
      year={2007},
      month={Jul-Aug},
      title={A transdisciplinary team acting on evidence through analyses of moot malpractice cases },
      journal={Dimensions of critical care nursing : DCCN},
      volume={26},
      number={4},
      pages={150-155},
      note={id: 1415; PUBM: Print; JID: 8211489; ppublish },
      abstract={A transdiciplinary team is crucial for healthcare systems to act based on evidence in responding to the global demand of the business of caring and patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to outline a transdisciplinary team led by nurses that examines linkages between moot malpractice cases filed against a healthcare system and to the quality of the healthcare system's ecology, caregiver, and patient safety outcomes. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={0730-4625},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Cornish, J., & Jones, A.. (2007). Evaluation of moving and handling training for pre-registration nurses and its application to practice . Nurse education in practice, 7(3), 128-134.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This paper describes preliminary questionnaire survey work in a research programme exploring M&H training for student nurses (n=106) and its application to practice. The aim of the study was to provide evidence of the students’ experiences of M&H in the clinical setting to inform future educational development. The students were able to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable practice they observed. Good practice comprised planning and coordination within the nursing team and careful reassurance of the patient. Regarding poor practice, the students identified that equipment was unavailable or not used and that staff demonstrated poor posture in this work or used condemned techniques thought to be detrimental to the staff and the patients. Fewer students had observed: risk assessments, equipment safety checks and use of a hoist for lifting fallen patients, than had seen other accepted M&H procedures. Contrary to the Manual Handling Operations Regulations (HSE. 1992; 1998. Manual Handling Operations Regulations. HMSO, London.) and hospital ‘no-lifting’ policies, 71% of the respondents had been asked to participate in a manoeuvre that they thought was wrong and a similar number had been asked to physically lift patients without using recommended equipment. Perceived injuries to both staff and patients were also described. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1187,
      author={J. Cornish and A. Jones},
      year={2007},
      month={May},
      title={Evaluation of moving and handling training for pre-registration nurses and its application to practice },
      journal={Nurse education in practice},
      volume={7},
      number={3},
      pages={128-134},
      note={id: 1404; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20060622; JID: 101090848; 2005/10/20 [received]; 2006/03/31 [revised]; 2006/04/30 [accepted]; 2006/06/22 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={This paper describes preliminary questionnaire survey work in a research programme exploring M&H training for student nurses (n=106) and its application to practice. The aim of the study was to provide evidence of the students' experiences of M&H in the clinical setting to inform future educational development. The students were able to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable practice they observed. Good practice comprised planning and coordination within the nursing team and careful reassurance of the patient. Regarding poor practice, the students identified that equipment was unavailable or not used and that staff demonstrated poor posture in this work or used condemned techniques thought to be detrimental to the staff and the patients. Fewer students had observed: risk assessments, equipment safety checks and use of a hoist for lifting fallen patients, than had seen other accepted M&H procedures. Contrary to the Manual Handling Operations Regulations (HSE. 1992; 1998. Manual Handling Operations Regulations. HMSO, London.) and hospital 'no-lifting' policies, 71% of the respondents had been asked to participate in a manoeuvre that they thought was wrong and a similar number had been asked to physically lift patients without using recommended equipment. Perceived injuries to both staff and patients were also described. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1873-5223},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Cronenwett, L., Sherwood, G., Barnsteiner, J., Disch, J., Johnson, J., Mitchell, P., Sullivan, D. T., & Warren, J.. (2007). Quality and safety education for nurses . Nursing outlook, 55(3), 122-131.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) addresses the challenge of preparing nurses with the competencies necessary to continuously improve the quality and safety of the health care systems in which they work. The QSEN faculty members adapted the Institute of Medicine competencies for nursing (patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics), proposing definitions that could describe essential features of what it means to be a competent and respected nurse. Using the competency definitions, the authors propose statements of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) for each competency that should be developed during pre-licensure nursing education. Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) faculty and advisory board members invite the profession to comment on the competencies and their definitions and on whether the KSAs for pre-licensure education are appropriate goals for students preparing for basic practice as a registered nurse. (Source:PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1188,
      author={L. Cronenwett and G. Sherwood and J. Barnsteiner and J. Disch and J. Johnson and P. Mitchell and D. T. Sullivan and J. Warren},
      year={2007},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={Quality and safety education for nurses },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={55},
      number={3},
      pages={122-131},
      note={id: 1093; PUBM: Print; JID: 0401075; 2006/11/02 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) addresses the challenge of preparing nurses with the competencies necessary to continuously improve the quality and safety of the health care systems in which they work. The QSEN faculty members adapted the Institute of Medicine competencies for nursing (patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics), proposing definitions that could describe essential features of what it means to be a competent and respected nurse. Using the competency definitions, the authors propose statements of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) for each competency that should be developed during pre-licensure nursing education. Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) faculty and advisory board members invite the profession to comment on the competencies and their definitions and on whether the KSAs for pre-licensure education are appropriate goals for students preparing for basic practice as a registered nurse. (Source:PubMed) },
      isbn={0029-6554},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Day, L., & Smith, E. L.. (2007). Integrating quality and safety content into clinical teaching in the acute care setting . Nursing outlook, 55(3), 138-143.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Teaching the highest quality and safest practice has long been a goal of faculty members in pre-licensure nursing education programs. This article will describe innovative approaches to integrating quality and safety content into existing clinical practica. The core competencies identified by the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses project-patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics-serve as the framework for the teaching/learning exercises. The strategies described require a shift in attention rather than changes in course content and can be included in any clinical rotation in an acute care setting. (Source:PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1189,
      author={L. Day and E. L. Smith},
      year={2007},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={Integrating quality and safety content into clinical teaching in the acute care setting },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={55},
      number={3},
      pages={138-143},
      note={id: 1091; PUBM: Print; JID: 0401075; 2006/11/03 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={Teaching the highest quality and safest practice has long been a goal of faculty members in pre-licensure nursing education programs. This article will describe innovative approaches to integrating quality and safety content into existing clinical practica. The core competencies identified by the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses project-patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics-serve as the framework for the teaching/learning exercises. The strategies described require a shift in attention rather than changes in course content and can be included in any clinical rotation in an acute care setting. (Source:PubMed) },
      isbn={0029-6554},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Dennison, R. D.. (2007). A medication safety education program to reduce the risk of harm caused by medication errors . Journal of continuing education in nursing, 38(4), 176-184.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    A medication safety education program was developed and implemented to reduce the harm caused to patients by medication errors, specifically errors related to the intravenous infusion of high-alert medications. Participants were required to complete two 30-minute computer modules focusing on medication safety. Changes in the climate of safety, nurses’ knowledge and behavior, and the number of infusion pump alerts and reported medication errors were evaluated both before and after completion of the education program. A statistically significant change in knowledge regarding medication errors occurred, but there was no change in the climate of safety scores, the use of behaviors advocated in the medication safety education program to improve medication infusion safety, the number of infusion pump alerts, or the number of reported errors. It was concluded that there was a need for strong administrative support and follow-up to foster changes in behavior, which can lead to a reduction in harm caused by medication errors. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1190,
      author={R. D. Dennison},
      year={2007},
      month={Jul-Aug},
      title={A medication safety education program to reduce the risk of harm caused by medication errors },
      journal={Journal of continuing education in nursing},
      volume={38},
      number={4},
      pages={176-184},
      note={id: 1410; PUBM: Print; JID: 0262321; ppublish },
      abstract={A medication safety education program was developed and implemented to reduce the harm caused to patients by medication errors, specifically errors related to the intravenous infusion of high-alert medications. Participants were required to complete two 30-minute computer modules focusing on medication safety. Changes in the climate of safety, nurses' knowledge and behavior, and the number of infusion pump alerts and reported medication errors were evaluated both before and after completion of the education program. A statistically significant change in knowledge regarding medication errors occurred, but there was no change in the climate of safety scores, the use of behaviors advocated in the medication safety education program to improve medication infusion safety, the number of infusion pump alerts, or the number of reported errors. It was concluded that there was a need for strong administrative support and follow-up to foster changes in behavior, which can lead to a reduction in harm caused by medication errors. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Computer-Assisted Instruction; Education, Nursing, Continuing; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Plan Implementation; Humans; Infusions, Intravenous/nursing; Medication Errors/prevention & control; Nursing Staff, Hospital/education; Program Evaluation; Safety Management; United States},
      isbn={0022-0124},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Finkelman, A. W., & Kenner, C.. (2007). Teaching IOM: Implications of the Institute of Medicine reports for nursing education . Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Teaching IOM focuses on the core competencies derived from the IOM reports on quality and health care and how to use these reports in the classroom. The companion CD-ROM provides additional material for incorporating content into curricula and teaching-learning experiences. It includes PowerPoint presentations with notes on the book’s five major topics; healthcare safety, healthcare quality, public health safety and quality, healthcare diversity, and linkage between research and evidence-based practice. The content is appropriate for graduate or undergraduate students. (Source: QSEN Team)

    @book{RefWorks:1196,
      author={A. W. Finkelman and C. Kenner},
      year={2007},
      title={Teaching IOM: Implications of the Institute of Medicine reports for nursing education },
      publisher={American Nurses Association},
      address={Silver Spring, MD},
      note={id: 1040},
      abstract={Teaching IOM focuses on the core competencies derived from the IOM reports on quality and health care and how to use these reports in the classroom. The companion CD-ROM provides additional material for incorporating content into curricula and teaching-learning experiences. It includes PowerPoint presentations with notes on the book's five major topics; healthcare safety, healthcare quality, public health safety and quality, healthcare diversity, and linkage between research and evidence-based practice. The content is appropriate for graduate or undergraduate students. (Source: QSEN Team) }
    }

  • Glaister, K.. (2007). The presence of mathematics and computer anxiety in nursing students and their effects on medication dosage calculations . Nurse education today, 27(4), 341-347.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    AIM: To determine if the presence of mathematical and computer anxiety in nursing students affects learning of dosage calculations. METHOD: The quasi-experimental study compared learning outcomes at differing levels of mathematical and computer anxiety when integrative and computer based learning approaches were used. Participants involved a cohort of second year nursing students (n=97). RESULTS: Mathematical anxiety exists in 20% (n=19) of the student nurse population, and 14% (n=13) experienced mathematical testing anxiety. Those students more anxious about mathematics and the testing of mathematics benefited from integrative learning to develop conditional knowledge (F(4,66)=2.52 at p

    @article{RefWorks:1199,
      author={K. Glaister},
      year={2007},
      month={May},
      title={The presence of mathematics and computer anxiety in nursing students and their effects on medication dosage calculations },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={27},
      number={4},
      pages={341-347},
      note={id: 1101; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20060720; JID: 8511379; 2005/11/21 [received]; 2006/05/27 [revised]; 2006/05/30 [accepted]; 2006/07/20 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={AIM: To determine if the presence of mathematical and computer anxiety in nursing students affects learning of dosage calculations. METHOD: The quasi-experimental study compared learning outcomes at differing levels of mathematical and computer anxiety when integrative and computer based learning approaches were used. Participants involved a cohort of second year nursing students (n=97). RESULTS: Mathematical anxiety exists in 20% (n=19) of the student nurse population, and 14% (n=13) experienced mathematical testing anxiety. Those students more anxious about mathematics and the testing of mathematics benefited from integrative learning to develop conditional knowledge (F(4,66)=2.52 at p},
      isbn={0260-6917},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Greenfield, S.. (2007). Medication error reduction and the use of PDA technology . The Journal of nursing education, 46(3), 127-131.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether nursing medication errors could be reduced and nursing care provided more efficiently using personal digital assistant (PDA) technology. The sample for this study consisted of junior and senior undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. By self-selection of owning a PDA or not, students were placed in the PDA (experimental) group or the textbook (control) group, provided with a case study to read, and asked to answer six questions (i.e., three medication administration calculations and three clinical decisions based on medication administration). The analysis of collected data, calculated using a t test, revealed that the PDA group answered the six questions with greater accuracy and speed than did the textbook group. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1201,
      author={S. Greenfield},
      year={2007},
      month={Mar},
      title={Medication error reduction and the use of PDA technology },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={46},
      number={3},
      pages={127-131},
      note={id: 1105; PUBM: Print; JID: 7705432; ppublish },
      abstract={The purpose of this study was to determine whether nursing medication errors could be reduced and nursing care provided more efficiently using personal digital assistant (PDA) technology. The sample for this study consisted of junior and senior undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. By self-selection of owning a PDA or not, students were placed in the PDA (experimental) group or the textbook (control) group, provided with a case study to read, and asked to answer six questions (i.e., three medication administration calculations and three clinical decisions based on medication administration). The analysis of collected data, calculated using a t test, revealed that the PDA group answered the six questions with greater accuracy and speed than did the textbook group. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Adult; Clinical Competence/standards; Clinical Pharmacy Information Systems; Computer Literacy; Computers, Handheld/utilization; Drug Information Services; Drug Therapy, Computer-Assisted; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Efficiency, Organizational; Female; Health Services Needs and Demand; Humans; Male; Medication Errors/nursing/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Middle Aged; New York City; Nursing Care/organization & administration; Nursing Education Research; Nursing Evaluation Research; Nursing Informatics/education/organization & administration; Safety Management; Students, Nursing/psychology},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Gregory, D. M., Guse, L. W., Dick, D. D., & Russell, C. K.. (2007). Patient safety: where is nursing education? . Journal of Nursing Education, 46(2), 79-82.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Patient safety is receiving unprecedented attention among clinicians, researchers, and managers in health care systems. In particular, the focus is on the magnitude of systems-based errors and the urgency to identify and prevent these errors. In this new era of patient safety, attending to errors, adverse events, and near misses warrants consideration of both active (individual) and latent (system) errors. However, it is the exclusive focus on individual errors, and not system errors, that is of concern regarding nursing education and patient safety. Educators are encouraged to engage in a culture shift whereby student error is considered from an education systems perspective. Educators and schools are challenged to look within and systematically review how program structures and processes may be contributing to student error and undermining patient safety. Under the rubric of patient safety, the authors also encourage educators to address discontinuities between the educational and practice sectors. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1204,
      author={D. M. Gregory and L. W. Guse and D. D. Dick and C. K. Russell},
      year={2007},
      month={02},
      title={Patient safety: where is nursing education? },
      journal={Journal of Nursing Education},
      volume={46},
      number={2},
      pages={79-82},
      note={id: 845; Entry Date: In Process. Publication Type: journal article. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Education. No. of Refs: 27 ref. NLM UID: 7705432. Email: david.gregory@uleth.ca. },
      abstract={Patient safety is receiving unprecedented attention among clinicians, researchers, and managers in health care systems. In particular, the focus is on the magnitude of systems-based errors and the urgency to identify and prevent these errors. In this new era of patient safety, attending to errors, adverse events, and near misses warrants consideration of both active (individual) and latent (system) errors. However, it is the exclusive focus on individual errors, and not system errors, that is of concern regarding nursing education and patient safety. Educators are encouraged to engage in a culture shift whereby student error is considered from an education systems perspective. Educators and schools are challenged to look within and systematically review how program structures and processes may be contributing to student error and undermining patient safety. Under the rubric of patient safety, the authors also encourage educators to address discontinuities between the educational and practice sectors. (Source: PubMed) }
    }

  • Henneman, E. A., Cunningham, H., Roche, J. P., & Curnin, M. E.. (2007). Human patient simulation: Teaching students to provide safe care . Nurse educator, 32(5), 212-217.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The use of human patient simulation as a teaching methodology for nursing students has become popular. Using human patient simulation effectively demands paying careful attention to the details of the simulation, debriefing, and evaluation processes. Our experience in designing simulation experiences and evaluating student behaviors confirms the resource-intensive nature of human patient simulation and the need for clear, measurable objectives. When used properly, human patient simulation offers a unique opportunity to teach nursing students important patient safety principles. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1209,
      author={E. A. Henneman and H. Cunningham and J. P. Roche and M. E. Curnin},
      year={2007},
      month={09},
      title={Human patient simulation: Teaching students to provide safe care },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={32},
      number={5},
      pages={212-217},
      note={id: 1689; Language: English. Entry Date: 20071123. Publication Type: journal article; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Education. No. of Refs: 25 ref. NLM UID: 7701902. },
      abstract={The use of human patient simulation as a teaching methodology for nursing students has become popular. Using human patient simulation effectively demands paying careful attention to the details of the simulation, debriefing, and evaluation processes. Our experience in designing simulation experiences and evaluating student behaviors confirms the resource-intensive nature of human patient simulation and the need for clear, measurable objectives. When used properly, human patient simulation offers a unique opportunity to teach nursing students important patient safety principles. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Education, Nursing; Patient Simulation; Teaching Methods, Clinical; Accidents, Traffic; Behavioral Objectives; Clinical Competence -- Evaluation},
      isbn={0363-3624}
    }

  • Johnson, K., & Maultsby, C. C.. (2007). A plan for achieving significant improvement in patient safety . Journal of nursing care quality, 22(2), 164-171.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Improvement in systems that ensure safety in the provision of care is a high priority to hospital administrators, clinicians, and patients. Research to determine the approaches and methods that will result in the most significant patient safety improvements is underway but more is needed. This article describes the process for improving patient safety adopted at one hospital. Results of these efforts demonstrate significant improvement in staff understanding of patient safety measures. Staff survey results are supported by improvement in clinical indicators. Recommendations for future action and implications for other hospitals are discussed. (Source:PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1215,
      author={K. Johnson and C. C. Maultsby},
      year={2007},
      month={Apr-Jun},
      title={A plan for achieving significant improvement in patient safety },
      journal={Journal of nursing care quality},
      volume={22},
      number={2},
      pages={164-171},
      note={id: 1160; PUBM: Print; JID: 9200672; ppublish },
      abstract={Improvement in systems that ensure safety in the provision of care is a high priority to hospital administrators, clinicians, and patients. Research to determine the approaches and methods that will result in the most significant patient safety improvements is underway but more is needed. This article describes the process for improving patient safety adopted at one hospital. Results of these efforts demonstrate significant improvement in staff understanding of patient safety measures. Staff survey results are supported by improvement in clinical indicators. Recommendations for future action and implications for other hospitals are discussed. (Source:PubMed) },
      keywords={Health Care Surveys; Humans; Inservice Training; North Carolina; Organizational Culture; Professional Staff Committees; Program Development; Program Evaluation; Safety Management/organization & administration},
      isbn={1057-3631},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Johnstone, M. J., Kanitsaki, O., Currie, T., Smith, E., & McGennisken, C.. (2007). Designing and delivering clinical risk management education for graduate nurses: an Australian study . Nurse education in practice, 7(4), 247-257.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In order to enhance their capabilities in clinical risk management (CRM) and to be integrated into safe and effective patient safety organisational processes and systems, neophyte graduate nurses need to be provided with pertinent information on CRM at the beginning of their employment. What and how such information should be given to new graduate nurses, however, remains open to question and curiously something that has not been the subject either of critique or systematic investigation in the nursing literature. This article reports the findings of the third and final cycle of a 12 month action research (AR) project that has sought to redress this oversight by developing, implementing and evaluating a CRM education program for neophyte graduate nurses. Conducted in the cultural context of regional Victoria, Australia, the design, implementation and evaluation of the package revealed that it was a useful resource, served the intended purpose of ensuring that neophyte graduate nurses were provided with pertinent information on CRM upon the commencement and during their graduate nurse year, and enabled graduate nurses to be facilitated to translate that information into their everyday practice. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1218,
      author={M. J. Johnstone and O. Kanitsaki and T. Currie and E. Smith and C. McGennisken},
      year={2007},
      month={Jul},
      title={Designing and delivering clinical risk management education for graduate nurses: an Australian study },
      journal={Nurse education in practice},
      volume={7},
      number={4},
      pages={247-257},
      note={id: 1412; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20061012; JID: 101090848; 2006/04/11 [received]; 2006/07/24 [revised]; 2006/08/21 [accepted]; 2006/10/12 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={In order to enhance their capabilities in clinical risk management (CRM) and to be integrated into safe and effective patient safety organisational processes and systems, neophyte graduate nurses need to be provided with pertinent information on CRM at the beginning of their employment. What and how such information should be given to new graduate nurses, however, remains open to question and curiously something that has not been the subject either of critique or systematic investigation in the nursing literature. This article reports the findings of the third and final cycle of a 12 month action research (AR) project that has sought to redress this oversight by developing, implementing and evaluating a CRM education program for neophyte graduate nurses. Conducted in the cultural context of regional Victoria, Australia, the design, implementation and evaluation of the package revealed that it was a useful resource, served the intended purpose of ensuring that neophyte graduate nurses were provided with pertinent information on CRM upon the commencement and during their graduate nurse year, and enabled graduate nurses to be facilitated to translate that information into their everyday practice. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1873-5223},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Johnstone, M. J., & Kanitsaki, O.. (2007). Clinical risk management and patient safety education for nurses: a critique . Nurse education today, 27(3), 185-191.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Nurses have a pivotal role to play in clinical risk management (CRM) and promoting patient safety in health care domains. Accordingly, nurses need to be prepared educationally to manage clinical risk effectively when delivering patient care. Just what form the CRM and safety education of nurses should take, however, remains an open question. A recent search of the literature has revealed a surprising lack of evidence substantiating models of effective CRM and safety education for nurses. In this paper, a critical discussion is advanced on the question of CRM and safety education for nurses and the need for nurse education in this area to be reviewed and systematically researched as a strategic priority, nationally and internationally. It is a key contention of this paper that without ‘good’ safety education research it will not be possible to ensure that the educational programs that are being offered to nurses in this area are evidence-based and designed in a manner that will enable nurses to develop the capabilities they need to respond effectively to the multifaceted and complex demands that are inherent in their ethical and professional responsibilities to promote and protect patient safety and quality care in health care domains.

    @article{RefWorks:1217,
      author={M. J. Johnstone and O. Kanitsaki},
      year={2007},
      month={Apr},
      title={Clinical risk management and patient safety education for nurses: a critique },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={27},
      number={3},
      pages={185-191},
      note={id: 1103; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20060707; JID: 8511379; RF: 58; 2005/05/24 [received]; 2006/04/01 [revised]; 2006/04/27 [accepted]; 2006/07/07 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={Nurses have a pivotal role to play in clinical risk management (CRM) and promoting patient safety in health care domains. Accordingly, nurses need to be prepared educationally to manage clinical risk effectively when delivering patient care. Just what form the CRM and safety education of nurses should take, however, remains an open question. A recent search of the literature has revealed a surprising lack of evidence substantiating models of effective CRM and safety education for nurses. In this paper, a critical discussion is advanced on the question of CRM and safety education for nurses and the need for nurse education in this area to be reviewed and systematically researched as a strategic priority, nationally and internationally. It is a key contention of this paper that without 'good' safety education research it will not be possible to ensure that the educational programs that are being offered to nurses in this area are evidence-based and designed in a manner that will enable nurses to develop the capabilities they need to respond effectively to the multifaceted and complex demands that are inherent in their ethical and professional responsibilities to promote and protect patient safety and quality care in health care domains. },
      keywords={Clinical Competence; Curriculum; Decision Making, Organizational; Education, Nursing/organization & administration; Educational Status; Evidence-Based Medicine; Health Services Needs and Demand; Humans; Medical Errors/nursing/prevention & control; Models, Educational; Nurse's Role; Patient Care Team/organization & administration; Patient Rights; Quality Assurance, Health Care; Risk Management/organization & administration; Safety Management/organization & administration; Systems Analysis; Total Quality Management},
      isbn={0260-6917},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Kazaoka, T., Ohtsuka, K., Ueno, K., & Mori, M.. (2007). Why nurses make medication errors: a simulation study . Nurse education today, 27(4), 312-317.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate about the communication problems in the team nursing systems, if the requests for medication between nurses happen. For this study, we developed a simulation involving a nurse giving a medication prepared by another nurse. Baseline data was collected from 100 third-year nursing students and 163 nurses of two municipal hospitals further subdivided into three groups by their service years. The responders attributing to the errors in the simulation were compared. As a result, the more service years the fewer nurses there were who attributed medication errors to no explanation and no confirmation between nurses. The nurses whose service years were less than five years had a low level of awareness regarding no explanation of a nurse leader requesting the medications as well as the students. These findings suggested that there is the possibility that some medication errors occur due to preoccupation that nurses feel it is less necessary to explain and confirm everything related to medication administrations as their length of service increase. Nurses have a communication problem that is influenced by the relationship in the workplace in the team nursing system. Therefore, the requests for medication should no be permitted.

    @article{RefWorks:1220,
      author={T. Kazaoka and K. Ohtsuka and K. Ueno and M. Mori},
      year={2007},
      month={May},
      title={Why nurses make medication errors: a simulation study },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={27},
      number={4},
      pages={312-317},
      note={id: 1100; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20060721; JID: 8511379; 2005/06/11 [received]; 2006/05/24 [revised]; 2006/05/26 [accepted]; 2006/07/21 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={The purpose of this study was to investigate about the communication problems in the team nursing systems, if the requests for medication between nurses happen. For this study, we developed a simulation involving a nurse giving a medication prepared by another nurse. Baseline data was collected from 100 third-year nursing students and 163 nurses of two municipal hospitals further subdivided into three groups by their service years. The responders attributing to the errors in the simulation were compared. As a result, the more service years the fewer nurses there were who attributed medication errors to no explanation and no confirmation between nurses. The nurses whose service years were less than five years had a low level of awareness regarding no explanation of a nurse leader requesting the medications as well as the students. These findings suggested that there is the possibility that some medication errors occur due to preoccupation that nurses feel it is less necessary to explain and confirm everything related to medication administrations as their length of service increase. Nurses have a communication problem that is influenced by the relationship in the workplace in the team nursing system. Therefore, the requests for medication should no be permitted. },
      isbn={0260-6917},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Kneafsey, R., & Haigh, C.. (2007). Learning safe patient handling skills: Student nurse experiences of university and practice based education . Nurse education today, 27(8), 832-839.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    INTRODUCTION: Poor patient handling practices increase nurse injuries and reduce patients’ safety and comfort. BACKGROUND: UK Universities have a duty to prepare student nurses for patient handling activities occurring during clinical placements. This study examines students’ experiences of moving and handling education in academic and clinical settings. METHODS: A 34 item questionnaire was distributed to student nurses at one School of Nursing (n=432, response rate of 75%). RESULTS: Many students undertook unsafe patient handling practices and provided reasons for this. There was a medium statistically significant correlation between the variables ‘provision of supervision’ and ‘awareness of patient handling needs’ (r(s)=.390, p=.000). 40% of students stated that their M&H competency was assessed through direct observation. Twenty six percent of the total sample (n=110), said they had begun to develop musculo-skeletal pain since becoming a student nurse. Forty-eight stated that this was caused by an incident whilst on placement. DISCUSSION: Inadequate patient handling practices threaten student nurse safety in clinical settings. Although some students may be overly confident, they should be supervised when undertaking M&H activities. CONCLUSIONS: Though important, University based M&H education will only be beneficial if students learn in clinical settings that take safe patient handling seriously. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1223,
      author={R. Kneafsey and C. Haigh},
      year={2007},
      month={11},
      title={Learning safe patient handling skills: Student nurse experiences of university and practice based education },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={27},
      number={8},
      pages={832-839},
      note={id: 2157; Language: English. Entry Date: 20080125. Publication Type: journal article; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Nursing; Peer Reviewed; UK & Ireland. Special Interest: Nursing Education. No. of Refs: 34 ref. NLM UID: 8511379. },
      abstract={INTRODUCTION: Poor patient handling practices increase nurse injuries and reduce patients' safety and comfort. BACKGROUND: UK Universities have a duty to prepare student nurses for patient handling activities occurring during clinical placements. This study examines students' experiences of moving and handling education in academic and clinical settings. METHODS: A 34 item questionnaire was distributed to student nurses at one School of Nursing (n=432, response rate of 75%). RESULTS: Many students undertook unsafe patient handling practices and provided reasons for this. There was a medium statistically significant correlation between the variables 'provision of supervision' and 'awareness of patient handling needs' (r(s)=.390, p=.000). 40% of students stated that their M&H competency was assessed through direct observation. Twenty six percent of the total sample (n=110), said they had begun to develop musculo-skeletal pain since becoming a student nurse. Forty-eight stated that this was caused by an incident whilst on placement. DISCUSSION: Inadequate patient handling practices threaten student nurse safety in clinical settings. Although some students may be overly confident, they should be supervised when undertaking M&H activities. CONCLUSIONS: Though important, University based M&H education will only be beneficial if students learn in clinical settings that take safe patient handling seriously. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Education, Nursing, Diploma Programs; Lifting -- Education; Occupational Safety -- Education; Occupational-Related Injuries -- Prevention and Control; Patient Safety -- Education; Adult; Confidence -- Evaluation; Convenience Sample; Course Content -- Evaluation; Descriptive Research; Descriptive Statistics; Education, Clinical; Female; Male; Questionnaires; Schools, Nursing; Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient; Student Attitudes -- Evaluation; Students, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Students, Nursing, Diploma Programs; Supervisors and Supervision; United Kingdom},
      isbn={0260-6917},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009720649&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Lim, A. G., Honey, M., & Kilpatrick, J.. (2007). Framework for teaching pharmacology to prepare graduate nurse for prescribing in New Zealand . Nurse education in practice, 7(5), 348-353.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The place of nurse prescribing and the preparation for this role is an educational challenge that has been heavily debated in New Zealand and overseas for the past 10 years. Nurse prescribing is relatively new in New Zealand and is related to the expanding roles and opportunities for nurses in health care. Opposition to nurse prescribing in New Zealand has been marked and often this has been linked to concerns over patient safety with the implication that nurses could not be adequately prepared for safe prescribing. The educational framework used to teach pharmacology to nurses by one university in New Zealand is presented, along with early findings on the effectiveness of this approach. Further research is required to confirm that nurse prescribers in New Zealand are well prepared and able to utilise effective decision-making processes for safe prescribing. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1227,
      author={A. G. Lim and M. Honey and J. Kilpatrick},
      year={2007},
      month={Sep},
      title={Framework for teaching pharmacology to prepare graduate nurse for prescribing in New Zealand },
      journal={Nurse education in practice},
      volume={7},
      number={5},
      pages={348-353},
      note={id: 1411; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20070102; JID: 101090848; 2006/03/20 [received]; 2006/10/04 [revised]; 2006/11/12 [accepted]; 2007/01/02 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={The place of nurse prescribing and the preparation for this role is an educational challenge that has been heavily debated in New Zealand and overseas for the past 10 years. Nurse prescribing is relatively new in New Zealand and is related to the expanding roles and opportunities for nurses in health care. Opposition to nurse prescribing in New Zealand has been marked and often this has been linked to concerns over patient safety with the implication that nurses could not be adequately prepared for safe prescribing. The educational framework used to teach pharmacology to nurses by one university in New Zealand is presented, along with early findings on the effectiveness of this approach. Further research is required to confirm that nurse prescribers in New Zealand are well prepared and able to utilise effective decision-making processes for safe prescribing. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Clinical Competence; Drug Therapy/nursing; Education, Nursing, Graduate; Humans; Models, Educational; New Zealand; Pharmacology/education; Prescriptions, Drug; Program Evaluation},
      isbn={1873-5223},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Lorenz, S. G.. (2007). Protection: clarifying the concept for use in nursing practice . Holistic nursing practice, 21(3), 115-123.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The protection of patients is integral in any healthcare setting. Healthcare organizations are increasingly held accountable for preventable medical errors, the attitudes toward safety, and communication among all levels of providers, collaborative practices, and recognition of risks. The concept of protection is inherent in nursing practice. It provides a framework, that further defines healthcare provider’s roles in meeting these imperatives. The scope of protection is considered both globally and individually prominent. Nurses protect patients from environmental hazards, themselves, and any perceived threat. In this analysis of the phenomenon, the concept is clarified, and an evidence-based approach to protection is utilized for theory development and concept measurement. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1228,
      author={S. G. Lorenz},
      year={2007},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={Protection: clarifying the concept for use in nursing practice },
      journal={Holistic nursing practice},
      volume={21},
      number={3},
      pages={115-123},
      note={id: 1417; PUBM: Print; JID: 8702105; RF: 30; ppublish },
      abstract={The protection of patients is integral in any healthcare setting. Healthcare organizations are increasingly held accountable for preventable medical errors, the attitudes toward safety, and communication among all levels of providers, collaborative practices, and recognition of risks. The concept of protection is inherent in nursing practice. It provides a framework, that further defines healthcare provider's roles in meeting these imperatives. The scope of protection is considered both globally and individually prominent. Nurses protect patients from environmental hazards, themselves, and any perceived threat. In this analysis of the phenomenon, the concept is clarified, and an evidence-based approach to protection is utilized for theory development and concept measurement. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Concept Formation; Holistic Nursing/organization & administration; Humans; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Models, Nursing; Nurse's Role; Nursing Assessment/organization & administration; Nursing Evaluation Research; Nursing Methodology Research; Nursing Staff, Hospital/organization & administration; Risk Management/organization & administration; Safety Management/organization & administration; Total Quality Management/organization & administration},
      isbn={0887-9311},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Malloch, K.. (2007). The electronic health record: An essential tool for advancing patient safety . Nursing outlook, 55(3), 159-161.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    According to a recent American Hospital Association survey, 68% of US hospitals reported they had fully or partially implemented electronic health records in 2006. Three applications within the electronic record—computerized physician order entry (CPOE), electronic medication administration records (eMAR), and clinical documentation—are impacting patient safety by decreasing incorrect and unnecessary treatments and medications, as well as improving the timeliness of care. (Source: QSEN Team)

    @article{RefWorks:1230,
      author={K. Malloch},
      year={2007},
      title={The electronic health record: An essential tool for advancing patient safety },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={55},
      number={3},
      pages={159-161},
      note={id: 1074},
      abstract={According to a recent American Hospital Association survey, 68% of US hospitals reported they had fully or partially implemented electronic health records in 2006. Three applications within the electronic record—computerized physician order entry (CPOE), electronic medication administration records (eMAR), and clinical documentation—are impacting patient safety by decreasing incorrect and unnecessary treatments and medications, as well as improving the timeliness of care. (Source: QSEN Team) }
    }

  • Marck, P., Coleman-Miller, G., Hoffman, C., Horsburgh, B., Woolsey, S., Dina, A., Dorfman, T., Nolan, J., Jackson, N., Kwan, J. A., & Hagedorn, K.. (2007). Thinking ecologically for safer healthcare: A summer research student partnership . Canadian journal of nursing leadership, 20(3), 42-51.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As leaders for nursing education, nursing research, healthcare administration and patient safety, we asked one another: How do we use our collective resources to build health system capacity for clinically based research training and safer healthcare? Drawing on knowledge from the field of ecological restoration, which is the study and repair of damaged ecosystems, we partnered the Safer Systems research program of the Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, with Capital Health’s Royal Alexandra Hospital (RAH), the Caritas Health Group, the Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI) and several funding agencies to provide hands-on training in clinical research, infection control and patient safety policy development for nursing students during the summer months. As we plan ahead, our student and staff evaluations show that together, we can make concrete, vital contributions to student education, nursing research, evidence-informed practice, clinical quality improvement and national policy. We are using what we have learned to continually expand the range of undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral clinical learning opportunities in healthcare safety that are available year round. Our shared goal is to support current and future nurses in leading the way for safer healthcare systems and the safest possible healthcare. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1233,
      author={P. Marck and G. Coleman-Miller and C. Hoffman and B. Horsburgh and S. Woolsey and A. Dina and T. Dorfman and J. Nolan and N. Jackson and J. A. Kwan and K. Hagedorn},
      year={2007},
      month={09},
      title={Thinking ecologically for safer healthcare: A summer research student partnership },
      journal={Canadian journal of nursing leadership},
      volume={20},
      number={3},
      pages={42-51},
      note={id: 2158; Language: English. Entry Date: 20080125. Publication Type: journal article; research. Journal Subset: Canada; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed. Special Interest: Evidence-Based Practice; Nursing Administration. Grant Information: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation/Canadian Institutes of Health Research Chair for Better Care; Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council; Health Quality Council of Alberta; Caritas Health Group Research Fund; University of Alberta Faculty of Nursing; and Royal Alexandra Hospital, Capital Health. No. of Refs: 26 ref. NLM UID: 100888575. },
      abstract={As leaders for nursing education, nursing research, healthcare administration and patient safety, we asked one another: How do we use our collective resources to build health system capacity for clinically based research training and safer healthcare? Drawing on knowledge from the field of ecological restoration, which is the study and repair of damaged ecosystems, we partnered the Safer Systems research program of the Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, with Capital Health's Royal Alexandra Hospital (RAH), the Caritas Health Group, the Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI) and several funding agencies to provide hands-on training in clinical research, infection control and patient safety policy development for nursing students during the summer months. As we plan ahead, our student and staff evaluations show that together, we can make concrete, vital contributions to student education, nursing research, evidence-informed practice, clinical quality improvement and national policy. We are using what we have learned to continually expand the range of undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral clinical learning opportunities in healthcare safety that are available year round. Our shared goal is to support current and future nurses in leading the way for safer healthcare systems and the safest possible healthcare. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Clinical Nursing Research -- Education; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate -- Administration; Interinstitutional Relations; Nurse Attitudes; Patient Safety; Students, Nursing -- Psychosocial Factors; Academic Medical Centers -- Administration; Alberta; Ecosystem; Evaluation Research; Funding Source; Health Policy; Infection Control; Nursing Knowledge; Nursing Practice, Evidence-Based; Organizational Efficiency; Program Evaluation; Quality Improvement -- Administration; Schools, Nursing -- Administration; Systems Theory; Thinking},
      isbn={1481-9643},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=1723&accno=2009727828; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009727828&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Menzel, N. N., Hughes, N. L., Waters, T., Shores, L. S., & Nelson, A.. (2007). Preventing musculoskeletal disorders in nurses: a safe patient handling curriculum module for nursing schools . Nurse educator, 32(3), 130-135.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Nursing educators who teach outmoded manual patient handling techniques contribute to the widespread problem of musculoskeletal disorders in student and practicing nurses. The authors discuss the development and implementation of a new safe patient handling curriculum module, which was pilot tested in 26 nursing programs. The module changes the focus of patient handling education from body mechanics to equipment-assisted safe patient lifting programs that have been shown to protect nurses from injury and improve care.

    @article{RefWorks:1238,
      author={N. N. Menzel and N. L. Hughes and T. Waters and L. S. Shores and A. Nelson},
      year={2007},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={Preventing musculoskeletal disorders in nurses: a safe patient handling curriculum module for nursing schools },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={32},
      number={3},
      pages={130-135},
      note={id: 1096; PUBM: Print; GR: 211-2004-M-09042/PHS; JID: 7701902; ppublish },
      abstract={Nursing educators who teach outmoded manual patient handling techniques contribute to the widespread problem of musculoskeletal disorders in student and practicing nurses. The authors discuss the development and implementation of a new safe patient handling curriculum module, which was pilot tested in 26 nursing programs. The module changes the focus of patient handling education from body mechanics to equipment-assisted safe patient lifting programs that have been shown to protect nurses from injury and improve care. },
      isbn={0363-3624},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Mick, J. M., Wood, G. L., & Massey, R. L.. (2007). The Good Catch Pilot Program: Increasing potential error reporting . Journal of Nursing Administration, 37(11), 499-503.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    With only 175 reports submitted into an available close call reporting system during 2.5 years, the Good Catch Program was implemented to promote 3 strategies: (1) changing terminology from "close call" to "good catch," (2) implementing an "end-of-shift safety report," and (3) executive leadership sponsored incentives. The authors discuss the program and its positive outcomes in increasing potential error reporting. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1239,
      author={J. M. Mick and G. L. Wood and R. L. Massey},
      year={2007},
      month={11},
      title={The Good Catch Pilot Program: Increasing potential error reporting },
      journal={Journal of Nursing Administration},
      volume={37},
      number={11},
      pages={499-503},
      note={id: 2220; Language: English. Entry Date: 20080201. Publication Type: journal article. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Administration. No. of Refs: 17 ref. NLM UID: 1263116. Email: jmick@mdanderson.org. },
      abstract={With only 175 reports submitted into an available close call reporting system during 2.5 years, the Good Catch Program was implemented to promote 3 strategies: (1) changing terminology from "close call" to "good catch," (2) implementing an "end-of-shift safety report," and (3) executive leadership sponsored incentives. The authors discuss the program and its positive outcomes in increasing potential error reporting. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Health Care Errors -- Prevention and Control; Interprofessional Relations; Leadership; Nursing Administration -- Administration; Patient Safety; Preceptorship -- Administration; Risk Management -- Administration; Organizational Culture; Outcome Assessment; Program Evaluation; Teamwork -- Administration; Texas},
      isbn={0002-0443},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=217&accno=2009737152; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009737152&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Milligan, F. J.. (2007). Establishing a culture for patient safety – the role of education . Nurse education today, 27(2), 95-102.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This paper argues that the process of making significant moves towards a patient safety culture requires changes in healthcare education. Improvements in patient safety are a shared international priority as too many errors and other forms of unnecessary harm are currently occurring in the process of caring for and treating patients. A description of the patient safety agenda is given followed by a brief analysis of human factors theory and its use in other safety critical industries, most notably aviation. The all too common problem of drug administration errors is used to illustrate the relevance of human factors theory to healthcare education with specific mention made of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS).

    @article{RefWorks:1240,
      author={F. J. Milligan},
      year={2007},
      month={Feb},
      title={Establishing a culture for patient safety - the role of education },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={27},
      number={2},
      pages={95-102},
      note={id: 1108; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20060519; JID: 8511379; RF: 29; 2005/07/26 [received]; 2006/02/23 [revised]; 2006/03/28 [accepted]; 2006/05/19 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={This paper argues that the process of making significant moves towards a patient safety culture requires changes in healthcare education. Improvements in patient safety are a shared international priority as too many errors and other forms of unnecessary harm are currently occurring in the process of caring for and treating patients. A description of the patient safety agenda is given followed by a brief analysis of human factors theory and its use in other safety critical industries, most notably aviation. The all too common problem of drug administration errors is used to illustrate the relevance of human factors theory to healthcare education with specific mention made of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). },
      keywords={Attitude of Health Personnel; Communication; Curriculum; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Great Britain; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Services Needs and Demand; Human Engineering; Humans; Interprofessional Relations; Medical Errors/nursing/prevention & control/psychology; Nursing, Supervisory/organization & administration; Organizational Culture; Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care); Patient-Centered Care/organization & administration; Safety Management/organization & administration; State Medicine/organization & administration; Students, Nursing/psychology; Total Quality Management},
      isbn={0260-6917},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Nelson, A. L., Waters, T. R., & et al Menzel, N. N.. (2007). Effectiveness of an evidence-based curriculum module in nursing schools targeting safe patient handling and movement . International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 4(1), 1-19.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nursing schools in the United States have not been teaching evidence-based practices for safe patient handling, putting their graduates at risk for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The specific aim of this study was to translate research related to safe patient handling into the curricula of nursing schools and evaluate the impact on nurse educators and students’ intentions to use safe patient handling techniques. Nurse educators at 26 nursing schools received curricular materials and training; nursing students received the evidence-based curriculum module. There were three control sites. Questionnaires were used to collect data on knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about safe patient handling for both nurse educators and students, pre- and post-training. In this study, we found that nurse educator and student knowledge improved significantly at intervention schools, as did intention to use mechanical lifting devices in the near future. We concluded that the curriculum module is ready for wide dissemination across nursing schools to reduce the risk of MSDs among nurses. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1242,
      author={A. L. Nelson and T. R. Waters and N. N. et al Menzel},
      year={2007},
      title={Effectiveness of an evidence-based curriculum module in nursing schools targeting safe patient handling and movement },
      journal={International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship},
      volume={4},
      number={1},
      pages={1-19},
      note={id: 2162; Language: English. Entry Date: 20080118. Revision Date: 20080222. Publication Type: journal article; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Evidence-Based Practice; Nursing Education. Instrumentation: Knowledge scale; Attitude scale; Beliefs scale; Social norm scale. Grant Information: Supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), American Nurses Association (ANA), and the Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Patient Safety Center of Inquiry (Tampa, FL). No. of Refs: 23 ref. NLM UID: 101214977. },
      abstract={Nursing schools in the United States have not been teaching evidence-based practices for safe patient handling, putting their graduates at risk for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The specific aim of this study was to translate research related to safe patient handling into the curricula of nursing schools and evaluate the impact on nurse educators and students' intentions to use safe patient handling techniques. Nurse educators at 26 nursing schools received curricular materials and training; nursing students received the evidence-based curriculum module. There were three control sites. Questionnaires were used to collect data on knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about safe patient handling for both nurse educators and students, pre- and post-training. In this study, we found that nurse educator and student knowledge improved significantly at intervention schools, as did intention to use mechanical lifting devices in the near future. We concluded that the curriculum module is ready for wide dissemination across nursing schools to reduce the risk of MSDs among nurses. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Curriculum; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Lifting -- Education; Nursing Practice, Evidence-Based -- Education; Occupational Safety -- Education; Occupational-Related Injuries -- Prevention and Control; Adult; Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior; Attitude Measures; Chi Square Test; Coefficient Alpha; Conceptual Framework; Curriculum Development; Descriptive Statistics; Faculty Attitudes -- Evaluation; Faculty, Nursing; Female; Funding Source; Item Analysis; Item-Total Correlations; Lifting and Transfer Equipment -- Utilization; Male; Middle Age; Paired T-Tests; Pretest-Posttest Design; Quasi-Experimental Studies; Questionnaires; Research Subject Recruitment; Schools, Nursing; Student Attitudes -- Evaluation; Student Knowledge -- Evaluation; Summated Rating Scaling; Time Factors; United States; Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test},
      isbn={1548-923X},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=2817&accno=2009745152; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009745152&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • on the of Organizations, J. C. A. H.. (2007). Front line of defense: The role of nurses in preventing sentinel events (2nd ed.). Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Written especially for nurses in all disciplines and health care settings, this book focuses on the hands-on role nurses play in the delivery of care and their unique opportunity and responsibility to identify potential sentinel events. Topics include preventing medication and transfusion errors, as well as preventing suicide, falls, and treatment delays. New chapters address wrong-site surgery perinatal injuries or death, and injuries or death due to criminal events. Learn how to: better recognize the root causes of specific sentinel events; identify strategies to prevent sentinel events from occurring; and overcome obstacles in the areas of staffing, training, culture of safety, and communication among the health care team. (Source: Publisher)

    @book{RefWorks:1219,
      author={Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations},
      year={2007},
      title={Front line of defense: The role of nurses in preventing sentinel events },
      publisher={Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations},
      address={Oakbrook Terrace, IL},
      edition={2nd},
      note={id: 2096},
      abstract={Written especially for nurses in all disciplines and health care settings, this book focuses on the hands-on role nurses play in the delivery of care and their unique opportunity and responsibility to identify potential sentinel events. Topics include preventing medication and transfusion errors, as well as preventing suicide, falls, and treatment delays. New chapters address wrong-site surgery perinatal injuries or death, and injuries or death due to criminal events. Learn how to: better recognize the root causes of specific sentinel events; identify strategies to prevent sentinel events from occurring; and overcome obstacles in the areas of staffing, training, culture of safety, and communication among the health care team. (Source: Publisher) }
    }

  • Page, K., & McKinney, A. A.. (2007). Addressing medication errors–The role of undergraduate nurse education . Nurse education today, 27(3), 219-224.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Medication errors are a persistent problem in today’s National Health Service (NHS). Many factors contribute to drug incidents occurring, from the initial prescription stage through to administration and arise from both individual and system failures. The literature identifies the multi-disciplinary nature of the problem and highlights the important contribution that nurses make with regards to ensuring medication safety. However limited evidence exists in the literature regarding the extent to which the current content of undergraduate pharmacology education prepares nurses for their role in the prevention of errors. The report "Building a safer NHS for patients-improving medication safety" [Department of Health, 2004. Building a Safer NHS for Patients: Improving Medication Safety. The Stationary Office, London] concludes that it is now imperative that undergraduate education should emphasise the issue of medication safety. An educational initiative was therefore introduced to address this problem. A "Medication Safety Day" which focused on the causes of medication errors was implemented to highlight how and why drug incidents may occur. This initiative recognises that nurse education should not only ensure adequate theoretical knowledge of pharmacology but should also equip students with an awareness of how many diverse factors may contribute to the occurrence of medication errors.

    @article{RefWorks:1246,
      author={K. Page and A. A. McKinney},
      year={2007},
      month={Apr},
      title={Addressing medication errors--The role of undergraduate nurse education },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={27},
      number={3},
      pages={219-224},
      note={id: 1102; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20060712; JID: 8511379; RF: 22; 2005/10/04 [received]; 2006/04/25 [revised]; 2006/05/10 [accepted]; 2006/07/12 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={Medication errors are a persistent problem in today's National Health Service (NHS). Many factors contribute to drug incidents occurring, from the initial prescription stage through to administration and arise from both individual and system failures. The literature identifies the multi-disciplinary nature of the problem and highlights the important contribution that nurses make with regards to ensuring medication safety. However limited evidence exists in the literature regarding the extent to which the current content of undergraduate pharmacology education prepares nurses for their role in the prevention of errors. The report "Building a safer NHS for patients-improving medication safety" [Department of Health, 2004. Building a Safer NHS for Patients: Improving Medication Safety. The Stationary Office, London] concludes that it is now imperative that undergraduate education should emphasise the issue of medication safety. An educational initiative was therefore introduced to address this problem. A "Medication Safety Day" which focused on the causes of medication errors was implemented to highlight how and why drug incidents may occur. This initiative recognises that nurse education should not only ensure adequate theoretical knowledge of pharmacology but should also equip students with an awareness of how many diverse factors may contribute to the occurrence of medication errors. },
      keywords={Attitude of Health Personnel; Benchmarking; Causality; Clinical Competence; Curriculum; Drug Therapy/nursing; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Great Britain; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Services Needs and Demand; Humans; Mathematics; Medication Errors/methods/nursing/prevention & control; Nurse's Role; Patient Care Team/organization & administration; Pharmacology/education; Philosophy, Nursing; Safety Management/organization & administration; State Medicine/organization & administration; Students, Nursing/psychology; Systems Analysis; Total Quality Management/organization & administration},
      isbn={0260-6917},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Paparella, S.. (2007). Failure mode and effects analysis: a useful tool for risk identification and injury prevention . Journal of emergency nursing: JEN : Official publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association, 33(4), 367-371.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    By its very nature, the emergency department uses a multitude of processes that would be considered high risk and eligible for study. It is no longer acceptable to rely solely on the competence of individuals and current ED processes without questioning possible risks because “we have always done it that way.” Being a safety-conscious practitioner includes thinking and working proactively (and using FMEA as a tool) before adverse events occur to achieve a safe environment, free from preventable patient harm. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:1247,
      author={S. Paparella},
      year={2007},
      month={Aug},
      title={Failure mode and effects analysis: a useful tool for risk identification and injury prevention },
      journal={Journal of emergency nursing: JEN : Official publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association},
      volume={33},
      number={4},
      pages={367-371},
      note={id: 1413; PUBM: Print; JID: 7605913; RF: 9; ppublish },
      abstract={By its very nature, the emergency department uses a multitude of processes that would be considered high risk and eligible for study. It is no longer acceptable to rely solely on the competence of individuals and current ED processes without questioning possible risks because “we have always done it that way.” Being a safety-conscious practitioner includes thinking and working proactively (and using FMEA as a tool) before adverse events occur to achieve a safe environment, free from preventable patient harm. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Emergency Service, Hospital; Humans; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Medication Systems; Risk Assessment; Risk Management/methods; Task Performance and Analysis; United States},
      isbn={0099-1767},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Patey, R., Flin, R., Cuthbertson, B. H., MacDonald, L., Mearns, K., Cleland, J., & Williams, D.. (2007). Patient safety: Helping medical students understand error in healthcare . Quality & Safety in Health Care, 16(4), 256-259.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    OBJECTIVE: To change the culture of healthcare organisations and improve patient safety, new professionals need to be taught about adverse events and how to trap and mitigate against errors. A literature review did not reveal any patient safety courses in the core undergraduate medical curriculum. Therefore a new module was designed and piloted. DESIGN: A 5-h evidence-based module on understanding error in healthcare was designed with a preliminary evaluation using self-report questionnaires. SETTING: A UK medical school. PARTICIPANTS: 110 final year students. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Participants completed two questionnaires: the first questionnaire was designed to measure students’ self-ratings of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to patient safety and medical error, and was administered before and approximately 1 year after the module; the second formative questionnaire on the teaching process and how it could be improved was administered after completion of the module. CONCLUSIONS: Before attending the module, the students reported they had little understanding of patient safety matters. One year later, only knowledge and the perceived personal control over safety had improved. The students rated the teaching process highly and found the module valuable. Longitudinal follow-up is required to provide more information on the lasting impact of the module. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1250,
      author={R. Patey and R. Flin and B. H. Cuthbertson and L. MacDonald and K. Mearns and J. Cleland and D. Williams},
      year={2007},
      month={08},
      title={Patient safety: Helping medical students understand error in healthcare },
      journal={Quality & Safety in Health Care},
      volume={16},
      number={4},
      pages={256-259},
      note={id: 2159; Language: English. Entry Date: 20080229. Publication Type: journal article; research. Journal Subset: Blind Peer Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Health Services Administration; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; UK & Ireland. Special Interest: Patient Safety; Quality Assurance. No. of Refs: 36 ref. },
      abstract={OBJECTIVE: To change the culture of healthcare organisations and improve patient safety, new professionals need to be taught about adverse events and how to trap and mitigate against errors. A literature review did not reveal any patient safety courses in the core undergraduate medical curriculum. Therefore a new module was designed and piloted. DESIGN: A 5-h evidence-based module on understanding error in healthcare was designed with a preliminary evaluation using self-report questionnaires. SETTING: A UK medical school. PARTICIPANTS: 110 final year students. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Participants completed two questionnaires: the first questionnaire was designed to measure students' self-ratings of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to patient safety and medical error, and was administered before and approximately 1 year after the module; the second formative questionnaire on the teaching process and how it could be improved was administered after completion of the module. CONCLUSIONS: Before attending the module, the students reported they had little understanding of patient safety matters. One year later, only knowledge and the perceived personal control over safety had improved. The students rated the teaching process highly and found the module valuable. Longitudinal follow-up is required to provide more information on the lasting impact of the module. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Curriculum; Education, Medical; Students, Medical -- Psychosocial Factors; Treatment Errors -- Prevention and Control; Attitude to Health; Great Britain; Organizational Culture; Pilot Studies; Program Evaluation; Questionnaires; Safety; Schools, Medical},
      isbn={1475-3898},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=2345&accno=2009656847; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009656847&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Radhakrishnan, K., Roche, J. P., & Cunningham, H.. (2007). Measuring clinical practice parameters with human patient simulation: A pilot study . International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 4(1), 1-11.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Human Patient Simulators (HPS), electronically controlled mannequins as patient models, are increasingly being used in nursing education. However, no studies have validated the influence of systematic practice with HPS on clinical performance of nursing students. This pilot study attempted to identify the nursing clinical practice parameters influenced by HPS by evaluating the clinical performance of 12 senior second degree BSN students in five categories: safety, basic assessment skills, prioritization, problem-focused assessment, ensuing interventions, delegation and communication in a complex two-patient, simulated assignment. Students who practiced with the HIPS in addition to their usual clinical training had significantly higher scores than the control group (usual clinical training alone) on Patient Identification (a subcategory of the safety category; p = 0.001), and on Assessing Vital Signs (a subcategory of the basic assessment category; p = 0.009). The control and intervention groups’ performances were similar in every other category. Replication of this pilot with a larger sample is recommended. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1254,
      author={K. Radhakrishnan and J. P. Roche and H. Cunningham},
      year={2007},
      title={Measuring clinical practice parameters with human patient simulation: A pilot study },
      journal={International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship},
      volume={4},
      number={1},
      pages={1-11},
      note={id: 2163; Language: English. Entry Date: 20070330. Revision Date: 20070420. Publication Type: journal article; questionnaire/scale; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Education. Instrumentation: Clinical Simulation Evaluation Tool (CSET). No. of Refs: 14 ref. NLM UID: 101214977. Email: kavitar6@gmail.com. },
      abstract={Human Patient Simulators (HPS), electronically controlled mannequins as patient models, are increasingly being used in nursing education. However, no studies have validated the influence of systematic practice with HPS on clinical performance of nursing students. This pilot study attempted to identify the nursing clinical practice parameters influenced by HPS by evaluating the clinical performance of 12 senior second degree BSN students in five categories: safety, basic assessment skills, prioritization, problem-focused assessment, ensuing interventions, delegation and communication in a complex two-patient, simulated assignment. Students who practiced with the HIPS in addition to their usual clinical training had significantly higher scores than the control group (usual clinical training alone) on Patient Identification (a subcategory of the safety category; p = 0.001), and on Assessing Vital Signs (a subcategory of the basic assessment category; p = 0.009). The control and intervention groups' performances were similar in every other category. Replication of this pilot with a larger sample is recommended. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Computer Simulation; Education, Clinical; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Students, Nursing, Baccalaureate; Chi Square Test; Convenience Sample; Data Analysis Software; Female; Male; Models, Anatomic; Pilot Studies; Quasi-Experimental Studies; Research Instruments; Student Performance Appraisal},
      isbn={1548-923X},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=2817&accno=2009526959; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009526959&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Rathert, C., & May, D. R.. (2007). Health care work environments, employee satisfaction, and patient safety: Care provider perspectives . Health care management review, 32(1), 2-11.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    BACKGROUND:: Experts continue to decry the lack of progress made in decreasing the alarming frequency of medical errors in health care organizations (. Five years after to err is human: What have we learned?. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(19), 2384-2390). At the same time, other experts are concerned about the lack of job satisfaction and turnover among nurses (. Keeping patients safe: Transforming the work environment of nurses. Washington, DC: National Academy Press). Research and theory suggest that a work environment that facilitates patient-centered care should increase patient safety and nurse satisfaction. PURPOSES:: The present study began with a conceptual model that specifies how work environment variables should be related to both nurse and patient outcomes. Specifically, we proposed that health care work units with climates for patient-centered care should have nurses who are more satisfied with their jobs. Such units should also have higher levels of patient safety, with fewer medication errors. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH:: We examined perceptions of nurses from three acute care hospitals in the eastern United States. FINDINGS:: Nurses who perceived their work units as more patient centered were significantly more satisfied with their jobs than were those whose units were perceived as less patient centered. Those whose work units were more patient centered reported that medication errors occurred less frequently in their units and said that they felt more comfortable reporting errors and near-misses than those in less patient-centered units. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:: Patients and quality leaders continue to call for delivery of patient-centered care. If climates that facilitate such care are also related to improved patient safety and nurse satisfaction, proactive, patient-centered management of the work environment could result in improved patient, employee, and organizational outcomes. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1256,
      author={C. Rathert and D. R. May},
      year={2007},
      month={//2007 Jan-Mar},
      title={Health care work environments, employee satisfaction, and patient safety: Care provider perspectives },
      journal={Health care management review},
      volume={32},
      number={1},
      pages={2-11},
      note={id: 2216; Language: English. Entry Date: 20070803. Publication Type: journal article; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Health Services Administration; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Patient Safety. Grant Information: NRC+Picker. No. of Refs: 35 ref. NLM UID: 7611530. Email: Rathert@health.missouri.edu. },
      abstract={BACKGROUND:: Experts continue to decry the lack of progress made in decreasing the alarming frequency of medical errors in health care organizations (. Five years after to err is human: What have we learned?. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(19), 2384-2390). At the same time, other experts are concerned about the lack of job satisfaction and turnover among nurses (. Keeping patients safe: Transforming the work environment of nurses. Washington, DC: National Academy Press). Research and theory suggest that a work environment that facilitates patient-centered care should increase patient safety and nurse satisfaction. PURPOSES:: The present study began with a conceptual model that specifies how work environment variables should be related to both nurse and patient outcomes. Specifically, we proposed that health care work units with climates for patient-centered care should have nurses who are more satisfied with their jobs. Such units should also have higher levels of patient safety, with fewer medication errors. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH:: We examined perceptions of nurses from three acute care hospitals in the eastern United States. FINDINGS:: Nurses who perceived their work units as more patient centered were significantly more satisfied with their jobs than were those whose units were perceived as less patient centered. Those whose work units were more patient centered reported that medication errors occurred less frequently in their units and said that they felt more comfortable reporting errors and near-misses than those in less patient-centered units. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:: Patients and quality leaders continue to call for delivery of patient-centered care. If climates that facilitate such care are also related to improved patient safety and nurse satisfaction, proactive, patient-centered management of the work environment could result in improved patient, employee, and organizational outcomes. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Hospitals -- Evaluation; Job Satisfaction; Nursing Staff, Hospital -- Psychosocial Factors; Patient Centered Care; Patient Safety; Work Environment; Chi Square Test; Cross Sectional Studies; Descriptive Statistics; Factor Analysis; Funding Source; P-Value; Self Report; Survey Research; Treatment Errors},
      isbn={0361-6274},
      url={http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009502761&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Salmon, M.. (2007). Guest Editorial: Care quality and safety: Same old? . Nursing outlook, 55(3), 117-119.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Healthcare’s increasing focus on quality and safety seem like a "natural" for nursing. The profession has prided itself in being the patient’s advocate and the keeper of quality and safety. While nursing has clearly provided consistent and committed leadership in these arenas, it is also possible that exclusive professional ownership of quality and safety may actually work against the best interest of both nursing and patients. This editorial challenges nursing to reconsider its role in and approach to quality and safety improvement. Building on the important perspectives presented in this issue of Nursing Outlook, the author identifies the need for nursing to advance its own professional contributions through building on the shared values and commitments common to health professions. Establishing common ground and extending the concept of care teams to incorporate others beyond direct-care providers are explored as a fundamental component of nursing’s work in quality and safety improvement. (Source:PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1261,
      author={M. Salmon},
      year={2007},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={Guest Editorial: Care quality and safety: Same old? },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={55},
      number={3},
      pages={117-119},
      note={id: 1094; PUBM: Print; JID: 0401075; 2007/01/19 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={Healthcare's increasing focus on quality and safety seem like a "natural" for nursing. The profession has prided itself in being the patient's advocate and the keeper of quality and safety. While nursing has clearly provided consistent and committed leadership in these arenas, it is also possible that exclusive professional ownership of quality and safety may actually work against the best interest of both nursing and patients. This editorial challenges nursing to reconsider its role in and approach to quality and safety improvement. Building on the important perspectives presented in this issue of Nursing Outlook, the author identifies the need for nursing to advance its own professional contributions through building on the shared values and commitments common to health professions. Establishing common ground and extending the concept of care teams to incorporate others beyond direct-care providers are explored as a fundamental component of nursing's work in quality and safety improvement. (Source:PubMed) },
      isbn={0029-6554},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Salyers, V. L.. (2007). Teaching psychomotor skills to beginning nursing students using a web-enhanced approach: A quasi-experimental study . International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 4(1), 1-12.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    To begin to address the problem of psychomotor skills deficiencies observed in many new graduate nurses, a skills laboratory course was developed using a web-enhanced approach. In this quasi-experimental study, the control group attended weekly lectures, observed skill demonstrations by faculty, practiced skills, and were evaluated on skill performance. The experimental group learned course content using a web-enhanced approach. This allowed students to learn course material outside of class at times convenient for them, thus they had more time during class to perfect psychomotor skills. The experimental group performed better on the final cognitive examination. Students in the traditional sections were more satisfied with the course, however. It was concluded that a web-enhanced approach for teaching psychomotor skills can provide a valid alternative to traditional skills laboratory formats. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1262,
      author={V. L. Salyers},
      year={2007},
      title={Teaching psychomotor skills to beginning nursing students using a web-enhanced approach: A quasi-experimental study },
      journal={International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship},
      volume={4},
      number={1},
      pages={1-12},
      note={id: 2165; Language: English. Entry Date: 20070330. Revision Date: 20070420. Publication Type: journal article; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Education. No. of Refs: 30 ref. NLM UID: 101214977. Email: vsalyers@fullerton.edu. },
      abstract={To begin to address the problem of psychomotor skills deficiencies observed in many new graduate nurses, a skills laboratory course was developed using a web-enhanced approach. In this quasi-experimental study, the control group attended weekly lectures, observed skill demonstrations by faculty, practiced skills, and were evaluated on skill performance. The experimental group learned course content using a web-enhanced approach. This allowed students to learn course material outside of class at times convenient for them, thus they had more time during class to perfect psychomotor skills. The experimental group performed better on the final cognitive examination. Students in the traditional sections were more satisfied with the course, however. It was concluded that a web-enhanced approach for teaching psychomotor skills can provide a valid alternative to traditional skills laboratory formats. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Computer Assisted Instruction; Education, Nursing; Nursing Skills -- Education; Students, Nursing; Teaching Methods; Analysis of Variance; Comparative Studies; Convenience Sample; Correlation Coefficient; Educational Measurement; Female; Lecture; Male; Nursing Skills -- Evaluation; Outcomes (Health Care) -- Education; Post Hoc Analysis; Quasi-Experimental Studies; Software; Student Knowledge -- Evaluation; Student Satisfaction; Time Factors; Validity},
      isbn={1548-923X},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=2817&accno=2009526974; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009526974&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Scherer, Y. K., Bruce, S. A., & Runkawatt, V.. (2007). A comparison of clinical simulation and case study presentation on nurse practitioner students’ knowledge and confidence in managing a cardiac event . International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 4(1), 1-14.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The study was designed to compare the efficacy of controlled simulation mannequin (SM) assisted learning and case study presentation on knowledge and confidence of nurse practitioner (NP) students in managing a cardiac event. Twenty-three volunteer students were randomly assigned to the experimental (simulation) or control (case study presentation) group. All participants were instructed on atrial arrhythmias, were pre- and post-tested on knowledge and confidence, and completed an evaluation of the experience. There were no statistically significant differences in knowledge test scores, although the control group scored significantly higher on post- test confidence (p=.040). Both groups rated their experience as valuable. The simulation and case study presentation had similar outcomes. Additional research is needed to determine the effectiveness of this teaching modality. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1264,
      author={Y. K. Scherer and S. A. Bruce and V. Runkawatt},
      year={2007},
      title={A comparison of clinical simulation and case study presentation on nurse practitioner students' knowledge and confidence in managing a cardiac event },
      journal={International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship},
      volume={4},
      number={1},
      pages={1-14},
      note={id: 2264; Language: English. Entry Date: 20080118. Revision Date: 20080222. Publication Type: journal article; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Advanced Nursing Practice; Nursing Education. Instrumentation: Knowledge Quiz; Confidence Scale; Evaluation Instrument. No. of Refs: 12 ref. NLM UID: 101214977. Email: yscherer@buffalo.edu. },
      abstract={The study was designed to compare the efficacy of controlled simulation mannequin (SM) assisted learning and case study presentation on knowledge and confidence of nurse practitioner (NP) students in managing a cardiac event. Twenty-three volunteer students were randomly assigned to the experimental (simulation) or control (case study presentation) group. All participants were instructed on atrial arrhythmias, were pre- and post-tested on knowledge and confidence, and completed an evaluation of the experience. There were no statistically significant differences in knowledge test scores, although the control group scored significantly higher on post- test confidence (p=.040). Both groups rated their experience as valuable. The simulation and case study presentation had similar outcomes. Additional research is needed to determine the effectiveness of this teaching modality. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Arrhythmia, Atrial -- Education; Case Studies -- Utilization; Confidence; Models, Anatomic; Nurse Practitioners -- Education; Simulations; Student Attitudes; Student Knowledge; Adult; Advanced Cardiac Life Support; Attitude Measures; Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory; Chi Square Test; Confidence -- Evaluation; Control Group; Convenience Sample; Course Evaluation; Education Research; Middle Age; New York; Outcomes of Education -- Evaluation; Pearson's Correlation Coefficient; Pretest-Posttest Design; Quasi-Experimental Studies; Questionnaires; Random Assignment; Schools, Nursing; Student Attitudes -- Evaluation; Student Knowledge -- Evaluation; Summated Rating Scaling; T-Tests; Videorecording},
      isbn={1548-923X},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=2817&accno=2009742614; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009742614&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Sheridan-Leos, N.. (2007). A model of chemotherapy education for novice oncology nurses that supports a culture of safety . Clinical journal of oncology nursing, 11(4), 545-551.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Chemotherapy education at a mid-sized community hospital was redesigned to help novice oncology nurses improve patient safety and their own practice by implementing error prevention techniques during chemotherapy administration. Using a proactive approach with multidisciplinary participation and open communication, a systems analysis was conducted to identify potential chemotherapy errors. Then, chemotherapy processes were devised or strengthened to avoid errors. The project required a philosophical shift from error measurement to safety promotion. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1266,
      author={N. Sheridan-Leos},
      year={2007},
      month={Aug},
      title={A model of chemotherapy education for novice oncology nurses that supports a culture of safety },
      journal={Clinical journal of oncology nursing},
      volume={11},
      number={4},
      pages={545-551},
      note={id: 1409; PUBM: Print; JID: 9705336; ppublish },
      abstract={Chemotherapy education at a mid-sized community hospital was redesigned to help novice oncology nurses improve patient safety and their own practice by implementing error prevention techniques during chemotherapy administration. Using a proactive approach with multidisciplinary participation and open communication, a systems analysis was conducted to identify potential chemotherapy errors. Then, chemotherapy processes were devised or strengthened to avoid errors. The project required a philosophical shift from error measurement to safety promotion. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1092-1095},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Sherwood, G., & Drenkard, K.. (2007). Quality and safety curricula in nursing education: Matching practice realities . Nursing outlook, 55(3), 151-155.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Health care delivery settings are redesigning in the wake of staggering reports of severe quality and safety issues. Sweeping changes underway in health care to address quality and safety outcomes lend urgency to the call to transform nursing curricula so new graduate competencies more closely match practice needs. Emerging views of quality and safety and related competencies as applied in practice have corresponding implications for the redesign of nursing education programs. Nurse executives and nurse educators are called to address the need for faculty development through strategic partnerships. (Source:PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1267,
      author={G. Sherwood and K. Drenkard},
      year={2007},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={Quality and safety curricula in nursing education: Matching practice realities },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={55},
      number={3},
      pages={151-155},
      note={id: 1089; PUBM: Print; JID: 0401075; 2006/11/03 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={Health care delivery settings are redesigning in the wake of staggering reports of severe quality and safety issues. Sweeping changes underway in health care to address quality and safety outcomes lend urgency to the call to transform nursing curricula so new graduate competencies more closely match practice needs. Emerging views of quality and safety and related competencies as applied in practice have corresponding implications for the redesign of nursing education programs. Nurse executives and nurse educators are called to address the need for faculty development through strategic partnerships. (Source:PubMed) },
      isbn={0029-6554},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Shorthall, R.. (2007). Preventing adverse events . Emergency Nurse, 15(3), 26-28.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Roseanne Shorthall reflects on a potentially adverse event that occurred when she was a nursing student to demonstrate how communication failures can hamper patient care. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:1269,
      author={R. Shorthall},
      year={2007},
      month={06},
      title={Preventing adverse events },
      journal={Emergency Nurse},
      volume={15},
      number={3},
      pages={26-28},
      note={id: 2265; Language: English. Entry Date: 20070914. Publication Type: journal article; case study. Journal Subset: Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; UK & Ireland. Special Interest: Emergency Care; Patient Safety. No. of Refs: 22 ref. NLM UID: 9208913. },
      abstract={Roseanne Shorthall reflects on a potentially adverse event that occurred when she was a nursing student to demonstrate how communication failures can hamper patient care. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Adverse Health Care Event -- Prevention and Control; Decision Making, Clinical; Emergency Nursing; Head Injuries -- Nursing; Nursing Assessment; Patient Advocacy; Students, Nursing; Communication; Diagnosis, Differential; Glasgow Coma Scale -- Utilization; Intraprofessional Relations; Judgment; Stereotyping},
      isbn={1354-5752},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=1038&accno=2009608627; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009608627&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Smith, E. L., Cronenwett, L., & Sherwood, G.. (2007). Current assessments of quality and safety education in nursing . Nursing outlook, 55(3), 132-137.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Concerns about the quality and safety of health care have changed practice expectations and created a mandate for change in the preparation of health care professionals. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses project team conducted a survey to assess current levels of integration of quality and safety content in pre-licensure nursing curricula. Views of 195 nursing program leaders are presented, including information about satisfaction with faculty expertise and student competency development related to 6 domains that define quality and safety content: patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics. With competency definitions as the sole reference point, survey respondents indicated that quality and safety content was embedded in current curricula, and they were generally satisfied that students were developing the desired competencies. These data are contrasted with work reported elsewhere in this issue of Nursing Outlook and readers are invited to consider a variety of interpretations of the differences. (Source:PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1270,
      author={E. L. Smith and L. Cronenwett and G. Sherwood},
      year={2007},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={Current assessments of quality and safety education in nursing },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={55},
      number={3},
      pages={132-137},
      note={id: 1092; PUBM: Print; JID: 0401075; 2006/11/05 [received]; ppublish },
      abstract={Concerns about the quality and safety of health care have changed practice expectations and created a mandate for change in the preparation of health care professionals. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses project team conducted a survey to assess current levels of integration of quality and safety content in pre-licensure nursing curricula. Views of 195 nursing program leaders are presented, including information about satisfaction with faculty expertise and student competency development related to 6 domains that define quality and safety content: patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics. With competency definitions as the sole reference point, survey respondents indicated that quality and safety content was embedded in current curricula, and they were generally satisfied that students were developing the desired competencies. These data are contrasted with work reported elsewhere in this issue of Nursing Outlook and readers are invited to consider a variety of interpretations of the differences. (Source:PubMed) },
      isbn={0029-6554},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Throckmorton, T., & Etchegaray, J.. (2007). Patient safety has assumed an international focus. In the past, the focus on detecting and preventing errors was up to the individual clinician, often the registered nurse. With impetus from the Institute of Medicine and other national agencies, a shift to emphasis on systems and processes and near miss and error reporting has occurred. Information from caregiver reporting has taken on new importance. This study was conducted to explore nurses’ willingness to report errors of varying degrees of severity and the factors that impacted that intent. Registered nurses were selected randomly from the Texas Board of Nurse Examiners’ roster and surveyed regarding perceptions of the environment for reporting, perceptions of reasons for not reporting, knowledge of the nursing practice act, and demographic variables. A majority of nurses were willing to report all levels of errors. Primary position, reasons for not reporting, and years since initial licensure were predictors of intent to report incidents with no injury and those with minimal injury. All but four nurses (99%) indicated that they would report incidents resulting in moderate to severe injury or death. (Source: PubMed) . Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 22(6), 400-412.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{RefWorks:1275,
      author={T. Throckmorton and J. Etchegaray},
      year={2007},
      month={12},
      title={Patient safety has assumed an international focus. In the past, the focus on detecting and preventing errors was up to the individual clinician, often the registered nurse. With impetus from the Institute of Medicine and other national agencies, a shift to emphasis on systems and processes and near miss and error reporting has occurred. Information from caregiver reporting has taken on new importance. This study was conducted to explore nurses' willingness to report errors of varying degrees of severity and the factors that impacted that intent. Registered nurses were selected randomly from the Texas Board of Nurse Examiners' roster and surveyed regarding perceptions of the environment for reporting, perceptions of reasons for not reporting, knowledge of the nursing practice act, and demographic variables. A majority of nurses were willing to report all levels of errors. Primary position, reasons for not reporting, and years since initial licensure were predictors of intent to report incidents with no injury and those with minimal injury. All but four nurses (99%) indicated that they would report incidents resulting in moderate to severe injury or death. (Source: PubMed) },
      journal={Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing},
      volume={22},
      number={6},
      pages={400-412},
      note={id: 2221; Language: English. Entry Date: 20080222. Publication Type: journal article; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Nursing; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Patient Safety; Perioperative Care. Instrumentation: Reasons Why Medication Errors Are Not Reported. No. of Refs: 37 ref. NLM UID: 9610507. },
      keywords={Health Care Errors; Incident Reports; Nurse Practice Acts -- Texas; Nursing Knowledge; Registered Nurses; Chi Square Test; Coefficient Alpha; Content Validity; Correlation Coefficient; Descriptive Research; Descriptive Statistics; Discriminant Analysis; Health Facilities -- Classification; Intention -- Evaluation; Kuder-Richardson Coefficient; Licensure, Nursing; Mail; Nurse Attitudes -- Evaluation; Organizational Culture; Questionnaires; Random Sample; Summated Rating Scaling; Survey Research; Texas; Time Factors},
      isbn={1089-9472},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=429&accno=2009743890; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009743890&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Waldner, M. H., & Olson, J. K.. (2007). Taking the patient to the classroom: Applying theoretical frameworks to simulation in nursing education . International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 4(1), 1-14.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Upon completion of their education, nursing students are expected to practice safely and competently. Societal changes and revisions to nursing education have altered the way nursing students learn to competently care for patients. Increasingly, simulation experiences are used to assist students to integrate theoretical knowledge into practice. Reasons for and the variety of simulation activities used in nursing education in light of learning theory are discussed. By combining Benner’s nursing skill acquisition theory with Kolb’s experiential learning theory, theoretical underpinnings for examining the use of simulations in the context of nursing education are provided. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1279,
      author={M. H. Waldner and J. K. Olson},
      year={2007},
      title={Taking the patient to the classroom: Applying theoretical frameworks to simulation in nursing education },
      journal={International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship},
      volume={4},
      number={1},
      pages={1-14},
      note={id: 2164; Language: English. Entry Date: 20080111. Revision Date: 20080222. Publication Type: journal article. Journal Subset: Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Education. No. of Refs: 42 ref. NLM UID: 101214977. Email: mwaldner@ualberta.ca. },
      abstract={Upon completion of their education, nursing students are expected to practice safely and competently. Societal changes and revisions to nursing education have altered the way nursing students learn to competently care for patients. Increasingly, simulation experiences are used to assist students to integrate theoretical knowledge into practice. Reasons for and the variety of simulation activities used in nursing education in light of learning theory are discussed. By combining Benner's nursing skill acquisition theory with Kolb's experiential learning theory, theoretical underpinnings for examining the use of simulations in the context of nursing education are provided. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Education, Nursing, Theory-Based; Models, Educational; Patient Simulation; Skill Acquisition; Benner's Professional Advancement Model; Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory},
      isbn={1548-923X},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=2817&accno=2009738612; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009738612&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Wayman, K. I., Yaeger, K. A., Sharek, P. J., Trotter, S., Wise, L., Flora, J. A., & Halamek, L. P.. (2007). Simulation-based medical error disclosure training for pediatric healthcare professionals . Journal for healthcare quality : Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality, 29(4), 12-19.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Ethical and regulatory guidelines recommend disclosure of medical errors to patients and families. Yet few studies examine how to effectively train healthcare professionals to deliver communications about adverse events to family members of affected pediatric patients. This pilot study uses a preintervention-postintervention study design to investigate the effects of medical error disclosure training in a simulated setting for pediatric oncology nurses (N=16). The results of a paired t test showed statistically significant increases in nurses’ communication self-efficacy to carry out medical disclosure (t = 6.68, p

    @article{RefWorks:1280,
      author={K. I. Wayman and K. A. Yaeger and P. J. Sharek and S. Trotter and L. Wise and J. A. Flora and L. P. Halamek},
      year={2007},
      month={Jul-Aug},
      title={Simulation-based medical error disclosure training for pediatric healthcare professionals },
      journal={Journal for healthcare quality : Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality},
      volume={29},
      number={4},
      pages={12-19},
      note={id: 2198; PUBM: Print; JID: 9202994; ppublish },
      abstract={Ethical and regulatory guidelines recommend disclosure of medical errors to patients and families. Yet few studies examine how to effectively train healthcare professionals to deliver communications about adverse events to family members of affected pediatric patients. This pilot study uses a preintervention-postintervention study design to investigate the effects of medical error disclosure training in a simulated setting for pediatric oncology nurses (N=16). The results of a paired t test showed statistically significant increases in nurses' communication self-efficacy to carry out medical disclosure (t = 6.68, p },
      keywords={Humans; Inservice Training/methods; Medical Errors; Nursing Staff, Hospital/education; Oncology Service, Hospital; Patient Simulation; Pediatrics; Self Efficacy; Truth Disclosure},
      isbn={1062-2551},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Wright, K.. (2007). Student nurses need more than maths to improve their drug calculating skills . Nurse education today, 27(4), 278-285.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Nurses need to be able to calculate accurate drug calculations in order to safely administer drugs to their patients (NMC, 2002). Studies have shown however that nurses do not always have the necessary skills to calculate accurate drug dosages and are potentially administering incorrect dosages of drugs to their patients (Hutton, M. 1998. Nursing Mathematics: the importance of application. Nursing Standard 13(11), 35-38; Kapborg, I. 1994. Calculation and administration of drug dosage by Swedish nurses, Student Nurses and Physicians. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 6(4), 389-395; O’Shea, E. 1999. Factors contributing to medication errors: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 8, 496-504; Wilson, A. 2003. Nurses maths: researching a practical approach. Nursing Standard 17(47), 33-36). The literature indicates that in order to improve drug calculations strategies need to focus on both the mathematical skills and conceptual skills of student nurses so they can interpret clinical data into drug calculations to be solved. A study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of implementing several strategies which focussed on developing the mathematical and conceptual skills of student nurses to improve their drug calculation skills. The study found that implementing a range of strategies which addressed these two developmental areas significantly improved the drug calculation skills of nurses. The study also indicates that a range of strategies has the potential ensuring that the skills taught are retained by the student nurses. Although the strategies significantly improved the drug calculation skills of student nurses, the fact that only 2 students were able to achieve 100% in their drug calculation test indicates a need for further research into this area.

    @article{RefWorks:1282,
      author={K. Wright},
      year={2007},
      month={May},
      title={Student nurses need more than maths to improve their drug calculating skills },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={27},
      number={4},
      pages={278-285},
      note={id: 1099; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20060731; JID: 8511379; 2005/11/30 [received]; 2006/04/05 [revised]; 2006/05/10 [accepted]; 2006/07/31 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={Nurses need to be able to calculate accurate drug calculations in order to safely administer drugs to their patients (NMC, 2002). Studies have shown however that nurses do not always have the necessary skills to calculate accurate drug dosages and are potentially administering incorrect dosages of drugs to their patients (Hutton, M. 1998. Nursing Mathematics: the importance of application. Nursing Standard 13(11), 35-38; Kapborg, I. 1994. Calculation and administration of drug dosage by Swedish nurses, Student Nurses and Physicians. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 6(4), 389-395; O'Shea, E. 1999. Factors contributing to medication errors: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 8, 496-504; Wilson, A. 2003. Nurses maths: researching a practical approach. Nursing Standard 17(47), 33-36). The literature indicates that in order to improve drug calculations strategies need to focus on both the mathematical skills and conceptual skills of student nurses so they can interpret clinical data into drug calculations to be solved. A study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of implementing several strategies which focussed on developing the mathematical and conceptual skills of student nurses to improve their drug calculation skills. The study found that implementing a range of strategies which addressed these two developmental areas significantly improved the drug calculation skills of nurses. The study also indicates that a range of strategies has the potential ensuring that the skills taught are retained by the student nurses. Although the strategies significantly improved the drug calculation skills of student nurses, the fact that only 2 students were able to achieve 100% in their drug calculation test indicates a need for further research into this area. },
      isbn={0260-6917},
      language={eng}
    }

2006

  • (2006). Hallmarks of quality and patient safety: recommended baccalaureate competencies and curricular guidelines to ensure high-quality and safe patient care . Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 22(6), 329-330.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In response to the call to better prepare today’s nurses for professional practice, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) convened a task force on essential patient safety competencies and charged this group with identifying the essential baccalaureate core competencies that should be achieved by professional nurses to ensure high-quality and safe patient care. This article presents the competencies that are the result of the work of the task force. (Source: QSEN Team)

    @article{RefWorks:1168,
      year={2006},
      month={Nov-Dec},
      title={Hallmarks of quality and patient safety: recommended baccalaureate competencies and curricular guidelines to ensure high-quality and safe patient care },
      journal={Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing},
      volume={22},
      number={6},
      pages={329-330},
      note={id: 1106; PUBM: Print; JID: 8511298; ppublish },
      abstract={In response to the call to better prepare today's nurses for professional practice, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) convened a task force on essential patient safety competencies and charged this group with identifying the essential baccalaureate core competencies that should be achieved by professional nurses to ensure high-quality and safe patient care. This article presents the competencies that are the result of the work of the task force. (Source: QSEN Team) },
      keywords={Clinical Competence/standards; Communication; Curriculum/standards; Disease Management; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/standards; Guidelines; Humans; Nurse's Role; Nursing Informatics; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration; Safety Management/organization & administration; Systems Analysis; Thinking},
      isbn={8755-7223},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Amalberti, R., Vincent, C., Auroy, Y., & de Maurice, S. G.. (2006). Violations and migrations in health care: a framework for understanding and management . Quality & safety in health care, 15 Suppl 1, i66-i71.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Violations are deliberate deviations from standard procedure. The usual reaction is to attempt to eliminate them and reprimand those concerned. However, the situation is not that simple. Firstly, violations paradoxically may be markers of high levels of safety because they need constraints and defences to exist. They may even become more frequent than errors in ultrasafe systems. Secondly, violations have both positive and negative aspects. On the one hand they occur frequently, increase system performance and individual satisfaction, are mostly limited to practices with limited safety consequences, and therefore are often tolerated or even encouraged by the hierarchy. On the other hand, extreme violations can lead to real danger or actual harm. This paper proposes a three phase model derived from Rasmussen’s theory of migration to boundaries to explain the mechanism by which the deviance occurs, stabilizes, regresses, or progresses to harm. The model suggests that violations are unavoidable because system dynamics and deviances are markers of adaptation to this dynamicity. Violations cannot be eliminated but they can be managed. Solutions are specific to each step of the model, with a mix of relaxing constraints, increasing peer control (staff), and constraining dangerous individuals. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1170,
      author={R. Amalberti and C. Vincent and Y. Auroy and G. de Saint Maurice},
      year={2006},
      month={Dec},
      title={Violations and migrations in health care: a framework for understanding and management },
      journal={Quality & safety in health care},
      volume={15 Suppl 1},
      pages={i66-i71},
      note={id: 486; PUBM: Print; JID: 101136980; ppublish },
      abstract={Violations are deliberate deviations from standard procedure. The usual reaction is to attempt to eliminate them and reprimand those concerned. However, the situation is not that simple. Firstly, violations paradoxically may be markers of high levels of safety because they need constraints and defences to exist. They may even become more frequent than errors in ultrasafe systems. Secondly, violations have both positive and negative aspects. On the one hand they occur frequently, increase system performance and individual satisfaction, are mostly limited to practices with limited safety consequences, and therefore are often tolerated or even encouraged by the hierarchy. On the other hand, extreme violations can lead to real danger or actual harm. This paper proposes a three phase model derived from Rasmussen's theory of migration to boundaries to explain the mechanism by which the deviance occurs, stabilizes, regresses, or progresses to harm. The model suggests that violations are unavoidable because system dynamics and deviances are markers of adaptation to this dynamicity. Violations cannot be eliminated but they can be managed. Solutions are specific to each step of the model, with a mix of relaxing constraints, increasing peer control (staff), and constraining dangerous individuals. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={1475-3901},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Armstrong, K. J., & Laschinger, H.. (2006). Structural empowerment, Magnet hospital characteristics, and patient safety culture: making the link . Journal of nursing care quality, 21(2), 124-32, quiz 133-4.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Nurse managers are seeking ways to improve patient safety in their organizations. At the same time, they struggle to address nurse recruitment and retention concerns by focusing on the quality of nurses’ work environment. This exploratory study tested a theoretical model, linking the quality of the nursing practice environments to a culture of patient safety. Specific strategies to increase nurses’ access to empowerment structures and thereby increase the culture of patient safety are suggested. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1171,
      author={K. J. Armstrong and H. Laschinger},
      year={2006},
      month={Apr-Jun},
      title={Structural empowerment, Magnet hospital characteristics, and patient safety culture: making the link },
      journal={Journal of nursing care quality},
      volume={21},
      number={2},
      pages={124-32, quiz 133-4},
      note={id: 249; PUBM: Print; JID: 9200672; ppublish },
      abstract={Nurse managers are seeking ways to improve patient safety in their organizations. At the same time, they struggle to address nurse recruitment and retention concerns by focusing on the quality of nurses' work environment. This exploratory study tested a theoretical model, linking the quality of the nursing practice environments to a culture of patient safety. Specific strategies to increase nurses' access to empowerment structures and thereby increase the culture of patient safety are suggested. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Attitude of Health Personnel; Awards and Prizes; Canada; Cooperative Behavior; Credentialing/organization & administration; Decision Making, Organizational; Hospitals, Community/organization & administration; Humans; Interprofessional Relations; Models, Nursing; Models, Organizational; Nurse Administrators/organization & administration/psychology; Nursing Administration Research; Nursing Methodology Research; Nursing Service, Hospital/organization & administration; Nursing Staff, Hospital/organization & administration/psychology; Organizational Culture; Patient Advocacy; Power (Psychology); Questionnaires; Regression Analysis; Safety Management/organization & administration; Social Support; Total Quality Management/organization & administration; Workplace/organization & administration/psychology},
      isbn={1057-3631 (Print)},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Brown, D. L.. (2006). Can you do the math? Mathematic competencies of baccalaureate degree nursing students . Nurse educator, 31(3), 98-100.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Studies show that nursing students, even with the use of calculators, are unable to complete a medication examination with at least 85% accuracy within a predetermined time limit. Although dosage calculation errors are cited as one of the most frequently occurring types of error in medication administration, these areas are seen as one of the most preventable. Based on a survey of 9 BSN (1988) and 10 BSN (2003) accredited schools of nursing, the author offers several recommendations for addressing the problem of mathematically-underprepared students. (Source: QSEN Team)

    @article{RefWorks:1179,
      author={D. L. Brown},
      year={2006},
      month={May-Jun},
      title={Can you do the math? Mathematic competencies of baccalaureate degree nursing students },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={31},
      number={3},
      pages={98-100},
      note={id: 406; PUBM: Print; JID: 7701902; ppublish },
      abstract={Studies show that nursing students, even with the use of calculators, are unable to complete a medication examination with at least 85% accuracy within a predetermined time limit. Although dosage calculation errors are cited as one of the most frequently occurring types of error in medication administration, these areas are seen as one of the most preventable. Based on a survey of 9 BSN (1988) and 10 BSN (2003) accredited schools of nursing, the author offers several recommendations for addressing the problem of mathematically-underprepared students. (Source: QSEN Team) },
      keywords={Adult; Clinical Competence/standards; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/standards; Female; Health Services Needs and Demand; Humans; Male; Mathematics; Medication Errors/nursing/prevention & control; New England; Nursing Education Research; Questionnaires; Students, Nursing},
      isbn={0363-3624},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Carlton, G., & Blegen, M. A.. (2006). Medication-related errors: a literature review of incidence and antecedents . Annual review of nursing research, 24, 19-38.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Patient safety has become a major concern for both society and policymakers. Since nurses are intimately involved in the delivery of medications and are ultimately responsible during the medication administration phase, it is important for nursing to understand factors contributing to medication administration errors. The purpose of this chapter is to identify the incidence of these errors and the associated factors in an attempt to better understand the problem and lessen future error occurrence. Literature review revealed both active failures and latent conditions established in Reason’s theory remain prevalent in current literature where active failures often display themselves in the form of incorrect drug calculations, lack of individual knowledge, and failure to follow established protocol. Latent conditions are evidenced as time pressures, fatigue, understaffing, inexperience, design deficiencies, and inadequate equipment and may lie dormant within a system until combined with active failures to create opportunity for error. Although medication error research has shifted in emphasis toward identification of system problems inherent in error occurrence, no one force emerges as a clear antecedent, reinforcing the need for further research and replication of existing studies with emphasis placed on more dependable reporting measures through which nurses are not threatened by reprisal.

    @article{RefWorks:1183,
      author={G. Carlton and M. A. Blegen},
      year={2006},
      title={Medication-related errors: a literature review of incidence and antecedents },
      journal={Annual review of nursing research},
      volume={24},
      pages={19-38},
      note={id: 1064; Language: English. Entry Date: 20070223. Publication Type: journal article; research; systematic review. Journal Subset: Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Evidence-Based Practice; Patient Safety. No. of Refs: 48 ref. PMID: 17078409 NLM UID: 8406387. },
      abstract={Patient safety has become a major concern for both society and policymakers. Since nurses are intimately involved in the delivery of medications and are ultimately responsible during the medication administration phase, it is important for nursing to understand factors contributing to medication administration errors. The purpose of this chapter is to identify the incidence of these errors and the associated factors in an attempt to better understand the problem and lessen future error occurrence. Literature review revealed both active failures and latent conditions established in Reason's theory remain prevalent in current literature where active failures often display themselves in the form of incorrect drug calculations, lack of individual knowledge, and failure to follow established protocol. Latent conditions are evidenced as time pressures, fatigue, understaffing, inexperience, design deficiencies, and inadequate equipment and may lie dormant within a system until combined with active failures to create opportunity for error. Although medication error research has shifted in emphasis toward identification of system problems inherent in error occurrence, no one force emerges as a clear antecedent, reinforcing the need for further research and replication of existing studies with emphasis placed on more dependable reporting measures through which nurses are not threatened by reprisal. },
      keywords={Medication Errors--Epidemiology; Medication Errors--Etiology; Patient Safety; Accountability; CINAHL Database; Drugs, Prescription--Classification; Medication Errors--Risk Factors; Medline; Patient Classification; RN Mix; Systematic Review}
    }

  • Clarke, S. P.. (2006). Organizational climate and culture factors . Annual Review of Nursing Research, 24, 255-272.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Nurses and others have expressed a great deal of interest in the potential for incorporating notions about organizational culture and climate in research and practice aiming to improve health care safety. In this review, definitions and measures of these terms are explored, the state of the research literature connecting culture and climate with safety is reviewed, and directions for future research and leadership practice are outlined.

    @article{RefWorks:1184,
      author={S. P. Clarke},
      year={2006},
      title={Organizational climate and culture factors },
      journal={Annual Review of Nursing Research},
      volume={24},
      pages={255-272},
      note={id: 1066; Language: English. Entry Date: 20070223. Publication Type: journal article; review. Journal Subset: Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Patient Safety. No. of Refs: 36 ref. PMID: 17078417 NLM UID: 8406387. },
      abstract={Nurses and others have expressed a great deal of interest in the potential for incorporating notions about organizational culture and climate in research and practice aiming to improve health care safety. In this review, definitions and measures of these terms are explored, the state of the research literature connecting culture and climate with safety is reviewed, and directions for future research and leadership practice are outlined. },
      keywords={Organizational Culture; Patient Safety; Organizational Culture--Evaluation; Outcomes (Health Care); Research; Work Environment}
    }

  • Dick, D. D., Weisbrod, L., Gregory, D., Dyck, N., & Neudorf, K.. (2006). Case study: on the leading edge of new curricula concepts: systems and safety in nursing education . Canadian journal of nursing leadership, 19(3), 34-42.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The Nursing Division of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) first included systems and patient safety as a priority in its institutional business and strategic plan in 2003. Three interrelated leading-edge, two-year projects (2004-2006) were launched: Best Practice, Mentorship and Patient Safety, with the intent that each project would enhance the others. This case study focuses on the work of the Patient Safety Project Team. The team developed a project framework and strategic plan, conducted a literature review and identified key concepts related to systems and patient safety. Strategies to integrate these concepts into the school’s 15 nursing education programs are being implemented. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1191,
      author={D. D. Dick and L. Weisbrod and D. Gregory and N. Dyck and K. Neudorf},
      year={2006},
      month={Sep},
      title={Case study: on the leading edge of new curricula concepts: systems and safety in nursing education },
      journal={Canadian journal of nursing leadership},
      volume={19},
      number={3},
      pages={34-42},
      note={id: 402; PUBM: Print; JID: 100888575; RF: 13; ppublish },
      abstract={The Nursing Division of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) first included systems and patient safety as a priority in its institutional business and strategic plan in 2003. Three interrelated leading-edge, two-year projects (2004-2006) were launched: Best Practice, Mentorship and Patient Safety, with the intent that each project would enhance the others. This case study focuses on the work of the Patient Safety Project Team. The team developed a project framework and strategic plan, conducted a literature review and identified key concepts related to systems and patient safety. Strategies to integrate these concepts into the school's 15 nursing education programs are being implemented. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Benchmarking; Curriculum; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Forecasting; Health Services Needs and Demand; Humans; Medical Errors/nursing/prevention & control; Nursing Education Research; Organizational Innovation; Program Development; Safety Management/organization & administration; Saskatchewan; Systems Analysis},
      isbn={1481-9643},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Diefenbeck, C. A., Plowfield, L. A., & Herrman, J. W.. (2006). Clinical immersion: a residency model for nursing education . Nursing education perspectives, 27(2), 72-79.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The education of future generations of nurses is in need of philosophic and programmatic transformation in keeping with the rapidly changing health care delivery system. The Nurse Residency Model is one baccalaureate nursing program’s response to calls for reform. Rooted in a spirit of collegiality and lifelong learning, the three facets of its philosophy include enhanced socialization, improved transition to practice, and increased student accountability. Students gain increased competency and demonstrate increased accountability with each progressive semester in the program, which culminates in clinical immersion in the senior year. Unique programmatic features of this model include field experiences, the simulation lab, and a work requirement. Additional benefits include resource efficiency and patient safety. Implementation remains an ongoing process. Outcome indicators are expected to yield valuable data on which to develop an evidence base in support of the model. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1192,
      author={C. A. Diefenbeck and L. A. Plowfield and J. W. Herrman},
      year={2006},
      month={Mar-Apr},
      title={Clinical immersion: a residency model for nursing education },
      journal={Nursing education perspectives},
      volume={27},
      number={2},
      pages={72-79},
      note={id: 405; PUBM: Print; JID: 101140025; ppublish },
      abstract={The education of future generations of nurses is in need of philosophic and programmatic transformation in keeping with the rapidly changing health care delivery system. The Nurse Residency Model is one baccalaureate nursing program's response to calls for reform. Rooted in a spirit of collegiality and lifelong learning, the three facets of its philosophy include enhanced socialization, improved transition to practice, and increased student accountability. Students gain increased competency and demonstrate increased accountability with each progressive semester in the program, which culminates in clinical immersion in the senior year. Unique programmatic features of this model include field experiences, the simulation lab, and a work requirement. Additional benefits include resource efficiency and patient safety. Implementation remains an ongoing process. Outcome indicators are expected to yield valuable data on which to develop an evidence base in support of the model. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Attitude of Health Personnel; Clinical Competence/standards; Cooperative Behavior; Curriculum/standards; Delaware; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Evidence-Based Medicine/education/organization & administration; Health Services Needs and Demand; Humans; Interprofessional Relations; Models, Educational; Models, Nursing; Nursing Education Research; Organizational Culture; Organizational Innovation; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Philosophy, Nursing; Preceptorship/organization & administration; Program Evaluation; Self Assessment (Psychology); Social Responsibility; Social Support; Socialization; Students, Nursing/psychology},
      isbn={1536-5026},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Ebright, P. R., Kooken, W. S., Moody, R. C., & AL-Ishaq, L. H. M. A.. (2006). Mindful attention to complexity: implications for teaching and learning patient safety in nursing . Annual Review of Nursing Education, 4, 339-359.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This chapter describes: (a) new evidence of factors in clinical care situations that influence nurses’ decision making in clinical situations, particularly novices; (b) principles and strategies for teaching content related to nurse watchfulness or vigilance in the context of patient care; and (c) implications for assessing nursing students’ motivation and competence in the context of caring, with the ultimate goal of the nursing student supporting optimal patient safety and patient health outcomes. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:1193,
      author={P. R. Ebright and W. S. Kooken and R. C. Moody and M. A. Latif Hassan AL-Ishaq},
      year={2006},
      title={Mindful attention to complexity: implications for teaching and learning patient safety in nursing },
      journal={Annual Review of Nursing Education},
      volume={4},
      pages={339-359},
      note={id: 2168; Language: English. Entry Date: 20070511. Publication Type: journal article; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Expert Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Education; Patient Safety. No. of Refs: 20 ref. NLM UID: 101160782. },
      abstract={This chapter describes: (a) new evidence of factors in clinical care situations that influence nurses' decision making in clinical situations, particularly novices; (b) principles and strategies for teaching content related to nurse watchfulness or vigilance in the context of patient care; and (c) implications for assessing nursing students' motivation and competence in the context of caring, with the ultimate goal of the nursing student supporting optimal patient safety and patient health outcomes. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Education, Nursing; Patient Safety -- Education; Adverse Health Care Event; Cognition; Curriculum; Decision Making, Clinical; Expert Nurses; Faculty, Nursing; Health Care Errors; Learning; Motivation; Novice Nurses; Nursing Practice; Teaching},
      isbn={1542-412X},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=2931&accno=2009566252; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009566252&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • for the of Errors, M. C. P. M.. (2006). When things go wrong: responding to adverse events: a consensus statement of the Harvard Hospitals . Burlington, MA: Massachusetts Coalition for the Prevention of Medical Errors.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In March 2004, responding to evidence of wide variation in the way both Harvard hospitals and hospitals nationally communicate with patients about errors and adverse events, a group of risk managers and clinicians from several Harvard teaching hospitals, the School of Public Health, and the Risk Management Foundation assembled to explore and discuss issues surrounding this subject. Lucian Leape, MD, Adjunct Professor of Health Policy in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health, was a leading contributor to this document. This consensus paper proposes a full disclosure and emotional support to patients and families who experience serious incidents. It also addresses ways to support and educate clinicians involved in such incidents and outlines the administrative components of a comprehensive institutional policy. Two principles guide the recommendations in this document for responding to incidents: medical care must be safe, and it must be patient-centered. (Source: QSEN Team)

    @book{RefWorks:1235,
      author={Massachusetts Coalition for the Prevention of Medical Errors},
      year={2006},
      title={When things go wrong: responding to adverse events: a consensus statement of the Harvard Hospitals },
      publisher={Massachusetts Coalition for the Prevention of Medical Errors},
      address={Burlington, MA},
      note={id: 410},
      abstract={In March 2004, responding to evidence of wide variation in the way both Harvard hospitals and hospitals nationally communicate with patients about errors and adverse events, a group of risk managers and clinicians from several Harvard teaching hospitals, the School of Public Health, and the Risk Management Foundation assembled to explore and discuss issues surrounding this subject. Lucian Leape, MD, Adjunct Professor of Health Policy in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health, was a leading contributor to this document. This consensus paper proposes a full disclosure and emotional support to patients and families who experience serious incidents. It also addresses ways to support and educate clinicians involved in such incidents and outlines the administrative components of a comprehensive institutional policy. Two principles guide the recommendations in this document for responding to incidents: medical care must be safe, and it must be patient-centered. (Source: QSEN Team) }
    }

  • Ervin, N. E., Bickes, J. T., & Schim, S. M.. (2006). Environments of care: a curriculum model for preparing a new generation of nurses . The Journal of nursing education, 45(2), 75-80.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This article provides a perspective on the community-based curriculum model that has guided undergraduate education for the past decade, discusses some of the problems that have emerged with the community-based approach, and proposes an alternative approach for consideration and discussion. The community-based model is discussed in relation to three major areas of concern: faculty and preceptor implementation of the curriculum, entry into practice and hiring pattern disjunctions, and trends and unexpected consequences of changes in the health care system. The Environments of Care Model, proposed as an alternative curriculum approach, conveys a broad perspective on health and illness, based on a multiple determinants of health paradigm and a systems framework. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1195,
      author={N. E. Ervin and J. T. Bickes and S. M. Schim},
      year={2006},
      month={Feb},
      title={Environments of care: a curriculum model for preparing a new generation of nurses },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={45},
      number={2},
      pages={75-80},
      note={id: 409; PUBM: Print; JID: 7705432; RF: 29; ppublish },
      abstract={This article provides a perspective on the community-based curriculum model that has guided undergraduate education for the past decade, discusses some of the problems that have emerged with the community-based approach, and proposes an alternative approach for consideration and discussion. The community-based model is discussed in relation to three major areas of concern: faculty and preceptor implementation of the curriculum, entry into practice and hiring pattern disjunctions, and trends and unexpected consequences of changes in the health care system. The Environments of Care Model, proposed as an alternative curriculum approach, conveys a broad perspective on health and illness, based on a multiple determinants of health paradigm and a systems framework. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Community Health Nursing/education/organization & administration; Curriculum; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Employment; Faculty, Nursing/organization & administration; Forecasting; Health Care Reform/organization & administration; Health Facility Environment/organization & administration; Health Services Needs and Demand; Humans; Licensure, Nursing; Models, Educational; Models, Nursing; Nursing Education Research; Organizational Innovation; Personnel Selection; Philosophy, Nursing; Preceptorship/organization & administration; Professional Competence; Program Development; Social Change; Systems Analysis},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Force, M. V., Deering, L., Hubbe, J., Andersen, M., Hagemann, B., Cooper-Hahn, M., & Peters, W.. (2006). Effective strategies to increase reporting of medication errors in hospitals . Journal of Nursing Administration, 36(1), 34-41.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    A major concern for patient safety in hospitals is accurate medication administration. To improve the medication administration process, nurses and pharmacists must report system problems. Although staff supported the concept of medication error reporting, they did not report errors. Inherent fear of retribution, punitive actions, and professional humiliation prevented self-reporting of medication errors. Our hospital’s quality improvement department developed, implemented, and evaluated a program called LifeSavers. Its purpose was to build a nonpunitive culture and to increase medication error reporting by staff. In one year, the LifeSavers program increased medication error disclosures from 14 to 72 reports per month. The successful development of a nonblame culture of medication error reporting led to identified sources of problems and improvement of the medication administration system. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1197,
      author={M. V. Force and L. Deering and J. Hubbe and M. Andersen and B. Hagemann and M. Cooper-Hahn and W. Peters},
      year={2006},
      title={Effective strategies to increase reporting of medication errors in hospitals },
      journal={Journal of Nursing Administration},
      volume={36},
      number={1},
      pages={34-41},
      note={id: 2222; Language: English. Entry Date: 20060421. Publication Type: journal article; forms; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Administration. No. of Refs: 11 ref. NLM UID: 1263116. Email: mary.force@delnor.com. },
      abstract={A major concern for patient safety in hospitals is accurate medication administration. To improve the medication administration process, nurses and pharmacists must report system problems. Although staff supported the concept of medication error reporting, they did not report errors. Inherent fear of retribution, punitive actions, and professional humiliation prevented self-reporting of medication errors. Our hospital's quality improvement department developed, implemented, and evaluated a program called LifeSavers. Its purpose was to build a nonpunitive culture and to increase medication error reporting by staff. In one year, the LifeSavers program increased medication error disclosures from 14 to 72 reports per month. The successful development of a nonblame culture of medication error reporting led to identified sources of problems and improvement of the medication administration system. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Patient Safety; Risk Management -- Methods; Truth Disclosure; Communication; Descriptive Research; Descriptive Statistics; Focus Groups; Illinois; Nursing Staff, Hospital; Pharmacy Service; Problem Solving; Quality Improvement -- Methods; Voluntary Reporting},
      isbn={0002-0443},
      url={Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=217&accno=2009106868; http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=2009106868&site=ehost-live}
    }

  • Frankel, A. S., Leonard, M. W., & Denham, C. R.. (2006). Fair and just culture, team behavior, and leadership engagement: The tools to achieve high reliability . Health services research, 41(4 Pt 2), 1690-1709.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    BACKGROUND: Disparate health care provider attitudes about autonomy, teamwork, and administrative operations have added to the complexity of health care delivery and are a central factor in medicine’s unacceptably high rate of errors. Other industries have improved their reliability by applying innovative concepts to interpersonal relationships and administrative hierarchical structures (Chandler 1962). In the last 10 years the science of patient safety has become more sophisticated, with practical concepts identified and tested to improve the safety and reliability of care. OBJECTIVE: Three initiatives stand out as worthy regarding interpersonal relationships and the application of provider concerns to shape operational change: The development and implementation of Fair and Just Culture principles, the broad use of Teamwork Training and Communication, and tools like WalkRounds that promote the alignment of leadership and frontline provider perspectives through effective use of adverse event data and provider comments. METHODS: Fair and Just Culture, Teamwork Training, and WalkRounds are described, and implementation examples provided. The argument is made that they must be systematically and consistently implemented in an integrated fashion. CONCLUSIONS: There are excellent examples of institutions applying Just Culture principles, Teamwork Training, and Leadership WalkRounds–but to date, they have not been comprehensively instituted in health care organizations in a cohesive and interdependent manner. To achieve reliability, organizations need to begin thinking about the relationship between these efforts and linking them conceptually. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1198,
      author={A. S. Frankel and M. W. Leonard and C. R. Denham},
      year={2006},
      month={Aug},
      title={Fair and just culture, team behavior, and leadership engagement: The tools to achieve high reliability },
      journal={Health services research},
      volume={41},
      number={4 Pt 2},
      pages={1690-1709},
      note={id: 1020; LR: 20061013; PUBM: Print; JID: 0053006; ppublish },
      abstract={BACKGROUND: Disparate health care provider attitudes about autonomy, teamwork, and administrative operations have added to the complexity of health care delivery and are a central factor in medicine's unacceptably high rate of errors. Other industries have improved their reliability by applying innovative concepts to interpersonal relationships and administrative hierarchical structures (Chandler 1962). In the last 10 years the science of patient safety has become more sophisticated, with practical concepts identified and tested to improve the safety and reliability of care. OBJECTIVE: Three initiatives stand out as worthy regarding interpersonal relationships and the application of provider concerns to shape operational change: The development and implementation of Fair and Just Culture principles, the broad use of Teamwork Training and Communication, and tools like WalkRounds that promote the alignment of leadership and frontline provider perspectives through effective use of adverse event data and provider comments. METHODS: Fair and Just Culture, Teamwork Training, and WalkRounds are described, and implementation examples provided. The argument is made that they must be systematically and consistently implemented in an integrated fashion. CONCLUSIONS: There are excellent examples of institutions applying Just Culture principles, Teamwork Training, and Leadership WalkRounds--but to date, they have not been comprehensively instituted in health care organizations in a cohesive and interdependent manner. To achieve reliability, organizations need to begin thinking about the relationship between these efforts and linking them conceptually. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Attitude of Health Personnel; Cooperative Behavior; Delivery of Health Care/standards; Health Facilities/standards; Humans; Leadership; Organizational Culture; Safety Management/organization & administration; Social Responsibility; United States},
      isbn={0017-9124},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Greenfield, S., Whelan, B., & Cohn, E.. (2006). Use of dimensional analysis to reduce medication errors . The Journal of nursing education, 45(2), 91-94.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether using dimensional analysis as the method of mathematical computation could reduce nursing medication calculation errors. The sample for this study consisted of second-year baccalaureate nursing students in a required clinical skills course. Students in the control group were taught medication calculations using the traditional math method during one semester, whereas students in the experimental group were taught the same material using dimensional analysis during the next semester. Analysis of the collected data from a medication dosage calculation examination revealed the dimensional analysis group scored with greater accuracy than the traditional math group. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1202,
      author={S. Greenfield and B. Whelan and E. Cohn},
      year={2006},
      month={Feb},
      title={Use of dimensional analysis to reduce medication errors },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={45},
      number={2},
      pages={91-94},
      note={id: 401; PUBM: Print; JID: 7705432; ppublish },
      abstract={The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether using dimensional analysis as the method of mathematical computation could reduce nursing medication calculation errors. The sample for this study consisted of second-year baccalaureate nursing students in a required clinical skills course. Students in the control group were taught medication calculations using the traditional math method during one semester, whereas students in the experimental group were taught the same material using dimensional analysis during the next semester. Analysis of the collected data from a medication dosage calculation examination revealed the dimensional analysis group scored with greater accuracy than the traditional math group. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Attitude of Health Personnel; Clinical Competence/standards; Curriculum; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Drug Therapy/nursing; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Humans; Mathematics; Medication Errors/nursing/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; New York; Nursing Education Research; Pilot Projects; Problem Solving; Questionnaires; Safety Management; Students, Nursing/psychology; Thinking},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Greenly, M. A.. (2006). Helping Hippocrates: a cross-functional approach to patient identification . Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety, 32(8), 463-469.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    BACKGROUND: The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations National Patient Safety Goal 1, which requires the use of at least two patient identifiers, is the foundation for other patient safety goals. St. Francis Hospital involved staff and patients in the "Helping Hippocrates" Project, which used a "game" with staff and patients to ensure the accuracy of information on patients’ identification (ID) bands. THE PROJECT: Members of all hospital departments assigned to a specific day were to compare the ID band with the patient census report and identify patients who had no ID band on their wrist and patients who had a band with inaccuracies. They were to also ask patients if the staff had checked the ID band before treatments or procedures. Also, the nurse manager was to select a patient to add to his or her own ID band a special band bearing the name Hippocrates. The department conducting the survey had to find Hippocrates. FINDINGS: Internal data showed that patient identification errors declined from 8.2% to a sustained zero. Patient satisfaction data showed that since the inception of Helping Hippocrates, patients’ perceptions of staffs compliance with ID verification showed steady improvement. CONCLUSION: Helping Hippocrates demonstrates the value of using an innovative problem-solving strategy that engages the entire organization. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1203,
      author={M. A. Greenly},
      year={2006},
      month={Aug},
      title={Helping Hippocrates: a cross-functional approach to patient identification },
      journal={Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety},
      volume={32},
      number={8},
      pages={463-469},
      note={id: 413; PUBM: Print; JID: 101238023; ppublish },
      abstract={BACKGROUND: The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations National Patient Safety Goal 1, which requires the use of at least two patient identifiers, is the foundation for other patient safety goals. St. Francis Hospital involved staff and patients in the "Helping Hippocrates" Project, which used a "game" with staff and patients to ensure the accuracy of information on patients' identification (ID) bands. THE PROJECT: Members of all hospital departments assigned to a specific day were to compare the ID band with the patient census report and identify patients who had no ID band on their wrist and patients who had a band with inaccuracies. They were to also ask patients if the staff had checked the ID band before treatments or procedures. Also, the nurse manager was to select a patient to add to his or her own ID band a special band bearing the name Hippocrates. The department conducting the survey had to find Hippocrates. FINDINGS: Internal data showed that patient identification errors declined from 8.2% to a sustained zero. Patient satisfaction data showed that since the inception of Helping Hippocrates, patients' perceptions of staffs compliance with ID verification showed steady improvement. CONCLUSION: Helping Hippocrates demonstrates the value of using an innovative problem-solving strategy that engages the entire organization. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Humans; Organizational Case Studies; Patient Identification Systems/methods/organization & administration; Quality Assurance, Health Care/methods/organization & administration; Safety},
      isbn={1553-7250},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Henneman, E. A., Blank, F. S., Gawlinski, A., & Henneman, P. L.. (2006). Strategies used by nurses to recover medical errors in an academic emergency department setting . Applied nursing research: ANR, 19(2), 70-77.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to gain insight into how nurses recover medical errors in the emergency department (ED) setting. METHODS: The research method was of exploratory descriptive design with qualitative analysis. Subjects who signed the informed consent participated in one of four focus groups centering on nurse’s role in recovering errors. Questions were asked during the focus groups to elicit information regarding nurse’s role in the three phases of error recovery, namely, identifying, interrupting, and correcting the error. RESULTS: Five themes emerged to describe methods used by nurses to identify errors in the ED setting. These themes included: surveillance, anticipation, double checking, awareness of the "big picture," and experiential "knowing." Five themes emerged as methods used to interrupt errors: patient advocacy, offer of assistance, clarification, verbal interruption, and creation of delay. The themes for correcting an error were assembling the team and involving leadership. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide preliminary evidence of the strategies used by ED nurses in the recovery of medical error. Further research is needed to generalize these findings to other ED settings. Knowledge of effective recovery strategies can ultimately be used to develop interventions for reducing medical error and improving patient safety. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1207,
      author={E. A. Henneman and F. S. Blank and A. Gawlinski and P. L. Henneman},
      year={2006},
      month={05//},
      title={Strategies used by nurses to recover medical errors in an academic emergency department setting },
      journal={Applied nursing research: ANR},
      volume={19},
      number={2},
      pages={70-77},
      note={id: 260; Entry Date: In Process. Publication Type: journal article. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. NLM UID: 8901557. },
      abstract={PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to gain insight into how nurses recover medical errors in the emergency department (ED) setting. METHODS: The research method was of exploratory descriptive design with qualitative analysis. Subjects who signed the informed consent participated in one of four focus groups centering on nurse's role in recovering errors. Questions were asked during the focus groups to elicit information regarding nurse's role in the three phases of error recovery, namely, identifying, interrupting, and correcting the error. RESULTS: Five themes emerged to describe methods used by nurses to identify errors in the ED setting. These themes included: surveillance, anticipation, double checking, awareness of the "big picture," and experiential "knowing." Five themes emerged as methods used to interrupt errors: patient advocacy, offer of assistance, clarification, verbal interruption, and creation of delay. The themes for correcting an error were assembling the team and involving leadership. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide preliminary evidence of the strategies used by ED nurses in the recovery of medical error. Further research is needed to generalize these findings to other ED settings. Knowledge of effective recovery strategies can ultimately be used to develop interventions for reducing medical error and improving patient safety. (Source: PubMed) },
      isbn={0897-1897}
    }

  • Henriksen, K., & Dayton, E.. (2006). Issues in the design of training for quality and safety . Quality & safety in health care, 15 Suppl 1, i17-24.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The US healthcare delivery system is in a state of change. Medical science and technology are advancing at an unprecedented rate, while cost containment and productivity pressures on clinicians make the clinical environment less than ideal for training. Training is one of the vehicles for addressing new knowledge requirements and for enhancing human and system based performance. Yet the theoretical underpinnings and design aspects of training have been largely unrecognized and unexamined in health care. This paper first explores changes in the practice of medicine and the healthcare delivery environment. It then describes how healthcare training and education can benefit from findings in the behavioral and cognitive sciences. It describes the systems approach to training and explores the extent to which a systems approach can be applied to the clinical environment. Finally, the paper examines innovative training and education techniques that are already gaining acceptance in health care.

    @article{RefWorks:1210,
      author={K. Henriksen and E. Dayton},
      year={2006},
      month={Dec},
      title={Issues in the design of training for quality and safety },
      journal={Quality & safety in health care},
      volume={15 Suppl 1},
      pages={i17-24},
      note={id: 1110; PUBM: Print; JID: 101136980; RF: 46; ppublish },
      abstract={The US healthcare delivery system is in a state of change. Medical science and technology are advancing at an unprecedented rate, while cost containment and productivity pressures on clinicians make the clinical environment less than ideal for training. Training is one of the vehicles for addressing new knowledge requirements and for enhancing human and system based performance. Yet the theoretical underpinnings and design aspects of training have been largely unrecognized and unexamined in health care. This paper first explores changes in the practice of medicine and the healthcare delivery environment. It then describes how healthcare training and education can benefit from findings in the behavioral and cognitive sciences. It describes the systems approach to training and explores the extent to which a systems approach can be applied to the clinical environment. Finally, the paper examines innovative training and education techniques that are already gaining acceptance in health care. },
      keywords={Curriculum; Delivery of Health Care/standards/trends; Education, Medical/organization & administration; Education, Medical, Graduate; Education, Medical, Undergraduate; Forecasting; Humans; Internship and Residency; Problem-Based Learning/standards/trends; Quality of Health Care; Safety Management; United States},
      isbn={1475-3901},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Henriksen, K., & Dayton, E.. (2006). Organizational silence and hidden threats to patient safety (add to Safety – ES) . Health services research, 41(4 Pt 2), 1539-1554.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Organizational silence refers to a collective-level phenomenon of saying or doing very little in response to significant problems that face an organization. The paper focuses on some of the less obvious factors contributing to organizational silence that can serve as threats to patient safety. Converging areas of research from the cognitive, social, and organizational sciences and the study of sociotechnical systems help to identify some of the underlying factors that serve to shape and sustain organizational silence. These factors have been organized under three levels of analysis: (1) individual factors, including the availability heuristic, self-serving bias, and the status quo trap; (2) social factors, including conformity, diffusion of responsibility, and microclimates of distrust; and (3) organizational factors, including unchallenged beliefs, the good provider fallacy, and neglect of the interdependencies. Finally, a new role for health care leaders and managers is envisioned. It is one that places high value on understanding system complexity and does not take comfort in organizational silence.

    @article{RefWorks:1211,
      author={K. Henriksen and E. Dayton},
      year={2006},
      month={Aug},
      title={Organizational silence and hidden threats to patient safety (add to Safety - ES) },
      journal={Health services research},
      volume={41},
      number={4 Pt 2},
      pages={1539-1554},
      note={id: 1017; LR: 20061013; PUBM: Print; JID: 0053006; ppublish },
      abstract={Organizational silence refers to a collective-level phenomenon of saying or doing very little in response to significant problems that face an organization. The paper focuses on some of the less obvious factors contributing to organizational silence that can serve as threats to patient safety. Converging areas of research from the cognitive, social, and organizational sciences and the study of sociotechnical systems help to identify some of the underlying factors that serve to shape and sustain organizational silence. These factors have been organized under three levels of analysis: (1) individual factors, including the availability heuristic, self-serving bias, and the status quo trap; (2) social factors, including conformity, diffusion of responsibility, and microclimates of distrust; and (3) organizational factors, including unchallenged beliefs, the good provider fallacy, and neglect of the interdependencies. Finally, a new role for health care leaders and managers is envisioned. It is one that places high value on understanding system complexity and does not take comfort in organizational silence. },
      keywords={Group Processes; Health Facilities; Humans; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Organizational Culture; Safety Management; Social Responsibility; United States},
      isbn={0017-9124},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Iedema, R. A. M., Jorm, C., Braithwaite, J., Travaglia, J., & Lum, M.. (2006). A root cause analysis of clinical error: Confronting the disjunction between formal rules and situated clinical activity . Social science & medicine, 63(5), 1201-1212.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This paper presents evidence from a root cause analysis (RCA) team meeting that was recently conducted in a Sydney Metropolitan Teaching Hospital to investigate an iatrogenic morphine overdose. Analysis of the meeting transcript reveals on three levels that clinical members of the team struggle with framing the uncertain and contradictory details of situated clinical activity and translating these first into ‘root causes’, and then into recommendations for practice change. This analysis puts two challenges into special relief. First, RCA team members find themselves in the unusual position of having to derive organizational-managerial generalizations from the specifics of in situ activity. Second, they are constrained by the expectation inscribed into RCA that their recommendations result in ‘systems improvements’ assumed to flow forth from an extension of formal rules and spread of procedures. We argue that this perspective misrecognizes the importance of RCA as a means to engender solutions that leave the procedural detail of clinical processes unspecified, and produce cross-hospital discussions about the organizational dimensions of care. (Source:PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1213,
      author={R. A. M. Iedema and C. Jorm and J. Braithwaite and J. Travaglia and M. Lum},
      year={2006},
      month={09},
      title={A root cause analysis of clinical error: Confronting the disjunction between formal rules and situated clinical activity },
      journal={Social science & medicine},
      volume={63},
      number={5},
      pages={1201-1212},
      note={id: 1167; Language: English. Entry Date: 20070511. Publication Type: journal article; research. Journal Subset: Allied Health; Biomedical; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Editorial Board Reviewed; Europe; Expert Peer Reviewed; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed. Special Interest: Social Work. No. of Refs: 47 ref. PMID: 16690184 NLM UID: 8303205. },
      abstract={This paper presents evidence from a root cause analysis (RCA) team meeting that was recently conducted in a Sydney Metropolitan Teaching Hospital to investigate an iatrogenic morphine overdose. Analysis of the meeting transcript reveals on three levels that clinical members of the team struggle with framing the uncertain and contradictory details of situated clinical activity and translating these first into 'root causes', and then into recommendations for practice change. This analysis puts two challenges into special relief. First, RCA team members find themselves in the unusual position of having to derive organizational-managerial generalizations from the specifics of in situ activity. Second, they are constrained by the expectation inscribed into RCA that their recommendations result in 'systems improvements' assumed to flow forth from an extension of formal rules and spread of procedures. We argue that this perspective misrecognizes the importance of RCA as a means to engender solutions that leave the procedural detail of clinical processes unspecified, and produce cross-hospital discussions about the organizational dimensions of care. (Source:PubMed) },
      keywords={Hospital Policies; Overdose--Etiology; Root Cause Analysis; Treatment Errors; Academic Medical Centers--Administration; Adult; Communication; Iatrogenic Disease; Morphine--Poisoning; Organizational Change; Organizational Culture; Personnel, Health Facility; Rules and Regulations; Uncertainty}
    }

  • Johnsson, A. C., Kjellberg, A., & Lagerstrom, M. I.. (2006). Evaluation of nursing students’ work technique after proficiency training in patient transfer methods during undergraduate education . Nurse education today, 26(4), 322-331.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if nursing students improved their work technique when assisting a simulated patient from bed to wheelchair after proficiency training, and to investigate whether there was a correlation between the nursing students’ work technique and the simulated patients’ perceptions of the transfer. METHOD: 71 students participated in the study, 35 in the intervention group and 36 in the comparison group. The students assisted a simulated patient to move from a bed to a wheelchair. In the intervention group the students made one transfer before and one after training, and in the comparison group they made two transfers before training. Six variables were evaluated: work technique score; nursing students’ ratings of comfort, work technique and exertion, and the simulated patients’ perceptions of comfort and safety during the transfer. The result showed that nursing students improved their work technique, and that there was a correlation between the work technique and the simulated patients’ subjective ratings of the transfer. In conclusion, nursing students improved their work technique after training in patient transfer methods, and the work technique affected the simulated patients’ perceptions of the transfer. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1216,
      author={A. C. Johnsson and A. Kjellberg and M. I. Lagerstrom},
      year={2006},
      month={May},
      title={Evaluation of nursing students' work technique after proficiency training in patient transfer methods during undergraduate education },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={26},
      number={4},
      pages={322-331},
      note={id: 1433; LR: 20061115; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20060104; JID: 8511379; 2004/06/04 [received]; 2005/10/24 [accepted]; 2006/01/04 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={The aim of this study was to investigate if nursing students improved their work technique when assisting a simulated patient from bed to wheelchair after proficiency training, and to investigate whether there was a correlation between the nursing students' work technique and the simulated patients' perceptions of the transfer. METHOD: 71 students participated in the study, 35 in the intervention group and 36 in the comparison group. The students assisted a simulated patient to move from a bed to a wheelchair. In the intervention group the students made one transfer before and one after training, and in the comparison group they made two transfers before training. Six variables were evaluated: work technique score; nursing students' ratings of comfort, work technique and exertion, and the simulated patients' perceptions of comfort and safety during the transfer. The result showed that nursing students improved their work technique, and that there was a correlation between the work technique and the simulated patients' subjective ratings of the transfer. In conclusion, nursing students improved their work technique after training in patient transfer methods, and the work technique affected the simulated patients' perceptions of the transfer. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Adult; Clinical Competence; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nursing Care/methods; Nursing Education Research; Nursing Staff, Hospital/organization & administration; Patient Satisfaction; Patient Simulation; Safety Management; Statistics, Nonparametric; Students, Nursing; Sweden; Task Performance and Analysis; Transportation of Patients/methods; Wheelchairs; Work Simplification},
      isbn={0260-6917},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Kyrkjebo, J. M., Brattebo, G., & Smith-Strom, H.. (2006). Improving patient safety by using interprofessional simulation training in health professional education . Journal of interprofessional care, 20(5), 507-516.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Modern medicine is complex. Reports and surveys demonstrate that patient safety is a major problem. Health educators focus on professional knowledge and less on how to improve patient care and safety. The ability to act as part of a team, fostering communication, co-operation and leadership is seldom found in health education. This paper reports the findings from pilot testing a simulated training program in interprofessional student teams. Four teams each comprising one medical, nursing, and intensive nursing student (n = 12), were exposed to two simulation scenarios twice. Focus groups were used to evaluate the program. The findings suggest that the students were satisfied with the program, but some of the videos and simulation exercises could be more realistic and more in accordance with each other. Generally they wanted more interprofessional team training, and had learned a lot about their own team performance, personal reactions and lack of certain competencies. Involving students in interprofessional team training seem to be more likely to enhance their learning process. The students’ struggles with roles, competence and team skills underline the need for more focus on combining professional knowledge learning with team training. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1224,
      author={J. M. Kyrkjebo and G. Brattebo and H. Smith-Strom},
      year={2006},
      month={Oct},
      title={Improving patient safety by using interprofessional simulation training in health professional education },
      journal={Journal of interprofessional care},
      volume={20},
      number={5},
      pages={507-516},
      note={id: 1459; PUBM: Print; JID: 9205811; ppublish },
      abstract={Modern medicine is complex. Reports and surveys demonstrate that patient safety is a major problem. Health educators focus on professional knowledge and less on how to improve patient care and safety. The ability to act as part of a team, fostering communication, co-operation and leadership is seldom found in health education. This paper reports the findings from pilot testing a simulated training program in interprofessional student teams. Four teams each comprising one medical, nursing, and intensive nursing student (n = 12), were exposed to two simulation scenarios twice. Focus groups were used to evaluate the program. The findings suggest that the students were satisfied with the program, but some of the videos and simulation exercises could be more realistic and more in accordance with each other. Generally they wanted more interprofessional team training, and had learned a lot about their own team performance, personal reactions and lack of certain competencies. Involving students in interprofessional team training seem to be more likely to enhance their learning process. The students' struggles with roles, competence and team skills underline the need for more focus on combining professional knowledge learning with team training. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Education, Medical, Graduate/methods; Education, Nursing, Graduate/methods; Humans; Interprofessional Relations; Patient Simulation; Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration; Safety Management/organization & administration},
      isbn={1356-1820},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Li, S., & Kenward, K.. (2006). A national survey of nursing education and practice of newly licensed nurses . JONA’s healthcare law, ethics & regulation, 8, 110-115.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Institute of Medicine recommended establishing evidence-based teaching methods and curricula in health professions’ education to meet the needs of the changing healthcare system. In an attempt to provide evidence-based information for nursing education, this study was designed to identify educational elements that best prepare nurses for practice. The study employed a two-tiered survey process for collecting and combining data from programs of nursing education and the graduates of those programs. Administrators of 410 nursing programs responded to questions related to elements of education in their programs (response rate = 51%), whereas 7,497 RN (76.5%) and LPN (23.5%) graduates of respondent programs answered questions related to the adequacy of educational preparation for practice, difficulty with current client care assignments, and other professional and practice issues (response rate = 45.4%). The majority of the nurses reported that their education had adequately prepared them to perform many, but not all, essential areas of the nursing functions examined. Nearly 20% of the RNs and 18% of the LPNs reported having difficulty with client care assignments. Inadequate preparation of several nursing functions were identified as predictive of difficulty with patient care assignments. These areas include working effectively within the healthcare team, administering medications to groups of patients, analyzing multiple types of data when making client-related decisions, delegating tasks to others, and understanding the pathophysiology underlying a client’s conditions. In addition, it was found that the graduates were more likely to feel adequately prepared when nursing programs taught them use of information technology and evidence-based practice; integrated pathophysiology and critical thinking throughout the curriculum; taught content related to the care of client populations as independent courses; and had a higher percentage of faculty teaching both didactic and clinical components of the curriculum. The findings of this study are significant in broadening our understanding of the relationships between educational elements and preparedness of new nurses for practice. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1226,
      author={S. Li and K. Kenward},
      year={2006},
      month={10},
      title={A national survey of nursing education and practice of newly licensed nurses },
      journal={JONA's healthcare law, ethics & regulation},
      volume={8},
      pages={110-115},
      note={id: 1032; Language: English. Entry Date: 20070406. Publication Type: journal article; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Administration. No. of Refs: 2 ref. PMID: 17149038 NLM UID: 100888423.; 4 },
      abstract={The Institute of Medicine recommended establishing evidence-based teaching methods and curricula in health professions' education to meet the needs of the changing healthcare system. In an attempt to provide evidence-based information for nursing education, this study was designed to identify educational elements that best prepare nurses for practice. The study employed a two-tiered survey process for collecting and combining data from programs of nursing education and the graduates of those programs. Administrators of 410 nursing programs responded to questions related to elements of education in their programs (response rate = 51%), whereas 7,497 RN (76.5%) and LPN (23.5%) graduates of respondent programs answered questions related to the adequacy of educational preparation for practice, difficulty with current client care assignments, and other professional and practice issues (response rate = 45.4%). The majority of the nurses reported that their education had adequately prepared them to perform many, but not all, essential areas of the nursing functions examined. Nearly 20% of the RNs and 18% of the LPNs reported having difficulty with client care assignments. Inadequate preparation of several nursing functions were identified as predictive of difficulty with patient care assignments. These areas include working effectively within the healthcare team, administering medications to groups of patients, analyzing multiple types of data when making client-related decisions, delegating tasks to others, and understanding the pathophysiology underlying a client's conditions. In addition, it was found that the graduates were more likely to feel adequately prepared when nursing programs taught them use of information technology and evidence-based practice; integrated pathophysiology and critical thinking throughout the curriculum; taught content related to the care of client populations as independent courses; and had a higher percentage of faculty teaching both didactic and clinical components of the curriculum. The findings of this study are significant in broadening our understanding of the relationships between educational elements and preparedness of new nurses for practice. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Clinical Competence; Curriculum; Education, Nursing; New Graduate Nurses; Descriptive Research; Descriptive Statistics; Faculty, Nursing; Interprofessional Relations; P-Value; Practical Nurses; Registered Nurses; Surveys; Teaching Methods; United States},
      url={Executive Summary of survey is available https://www.ncsbn.org/RB24_06ElementsofNursing.pdf}
    }

  • Manno, M., Hogan, P., Heberlein, V., Nyakiti, J., & Mee, C. L.. (2006). Nursing2006: Patient-safety survey report . Nursing, 36(5), 54-63; quiz 63-4.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In a survey published in Nursing 2005, nurses in the U.S. and Canada were asked to respond to questions pertaining to patient safety in health care facilities. The goal of the survey was to explore nurses’ perceptions about patient safety, including their views on falls, medication safety, and preventable adverse events. It was also designed to reveal whether nurses believe their own facilities have programs that support a culture of patient safety in daily practice. (Source: QSEN Team)

    @article{RefWorks:1232,
      author={M. Manno and P. Hogan and V. Heberlein and J. Nyakiti and C. L. Mee},
      year={2006},
      month={May},
      title={Nursing2006: Patient-safety survey report },
      journal={Nursing},
      volume={36},
      number={5},
      pages={54-63; quiz 63-4},
      note={id: 258; PUBM: Print; JID: 7600137; ppublish },
      abstract={In a survey published in Nursing 2005, nurses in the U.S. and Canada were asked to respond to questions pertaining to patient safety in health care facilities. The goal of the survey was to explore nurses' perceptions about patient safety, including their views on falls, medication safety, and preventable adverse events. It was also designed to reveal whether nurses believe their own facilities have programs that support a culture of patient safety in daily practice. (Source: QSEN Team) },
      keywords={Adult; Aged; Attitude of Health Personnel; Canada; Clinical Competence/standards; Humans; Medication Errors/nursing/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Middle Aged; Nursing Methodology Research; Nursing Staff/education/organization & administration/psychology; Personnel Staffing and Scheduling; Questionnaires; Safety Management/organization & administration; Self Assessment (Psychology); United States},
      isbn={0360-4039 (Print)},
      language={eng}
    }

  • McKeon, L. M., Oswaks, J. D., & Cunningham, P. D.. (2006). Safeguarding patients: complexity science, high reliability organizations, and implications for team training in healthcare . Clinical nurse specialist: The Journal for advanced nursing practice, 20(6), 298-306.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Serious events within healthcare occur daily exposing the failure of the system to safeguard patient and providers. The complex nature of healthcare contributes to myriad ambiguities affecting quality nursing care and patient outcomes. Leaders in healthcare organizations are looking outside the industry for ways to improve care because of the slow rates of improvement in patient safety and insufficient application of evidenced-based research in practice. Military and aviation industry strategies are recognized by clinicians in high-risk care settings such as the operating room, emergency departments, and intensive care units as having great potential to create safe and effective systems of care. Complexity science forms the basis for high reliability teams to recognize even the most minor variances in expected outcomes and take strong action to prevent serious error from occurring. Cultural and system barriers to achieving high reliability performance within healthcare and implications for team training are discussed. (Source:PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1237,
      author={L. M. McKeon and J. D. Oswaks and P. D. Cunningham},
      year={2006},
      month={11},
      title={Safeguarding patients: complexity science, high reliability organizations, and implications for team training in healthcare },
      journal={Clinical nurse specialist: The Journal for advanced nursing practice},
      volume={20},
      number={6},
      pages={298-306},
      note={id: 1164; Language: English. Entry Date: 20070119. Publication Type: journal article; CEU; exam questions; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Advanced Nursing Practice; Patient Safety; Quality Assurance. No. of Refs: 43 ref. PMID: 17149021 NLM UID: 8709115. Email: lmckeon@utmem.edu. },
      abstract={Serious events within healthcare occur daily exposing the failure of the system to safeguard patient and providers. The complex nature of healthcare contributes to myriad ambiguities affecting quality nursing care and patient outcomes. Leaders in healthcare organizations are looking outside the industry for ways to improve care because of the slow rates of improvement in patient safety and insufficient application of evidenced-based research in practice. Military and aviation industry strategies are recognized by clinicians in high-risk care settings such as the operating room, emergency departments, and intensive care units as having great potential to create safe and effective systems of care. Complexity science forms the basis for high reliability teams to recognize even the most minor variances in expected outcomes and take strong action to prevent serious error from occurring. Cultural and system barriers to achieving high reliability performance within healthcare and implications for team training are discussed. (Source:PubMed) },
      keywords={Collaboration; Education, Interdisciplinary; Health Care Errors--Prevention and Control; Models, Theoretical; Organizational Culture; Organizational Theory; Patient Safety; Professional Development; Quality Improvement; Reliability; Teamwork; Adaptation, Psychological; Clinical Nurse Specialists; Communication; Education, Continuing (Credit); Interprofessional Relations; Nursing Role; Power; Success}
    }

  • Orchard, C., Reid-Haughian, C., & Vanderlee, R.. (2006). Health Outcomes for Better Information and Care (HOBIC): integrating patient outcome information into nursing undergraduate curricula . Canadian journal of nursing leadership, 19(3), 28-33.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Nursing-sensitive outcomes provide common information across sectors, thus eliminating duplication that frequently occurs as individuals move across settings. These outcomes also facilitate increased trust among colleagues and support common understandings of patient care needs, thus enhancing continuity of care. Outcomes-oriented information is also likely to increase patient safety and improve overall quality of care. Shared standards and data support consistent decision-making, as nursing decisions can be tracked back over time to assess patient care outcomes. Consequently, nurses will have the means to determine the impact of their interventions on patient outcomes. At the same time, adoption of common approaches to patient assessment leads to greater professional accountability and moves nursing care from a task orientation to an outcomes focus. For administrators, such improvements in monitoring and evaluating patient outcomes translate into improvements in efficiencies and effectiveness, thus providing a return on investment in implementing these outcomes within their agency. For nurses, integration and utilization of outcomes information increases the visibility and significance of their decision-making and patient care. Together with patients, nurses can utilize the outcomes information to make evidence-based decisions and advocate for appropriate care. At an aggregate level, the use of outcomes information creates a continuous feedback loop that is essential to ensuring evidence-based care and the best possible patient outcomes, not only for individuals, but also for families, communities and populations. Outcomes-oriented care provides a gateway for transforming the way we care for patients; puts safe, ethical, high-quality care for patients first; embodies the principles of evidence-based practice; ensures that the value of nursing is clearly understood within the larger system; and ensures that the requirements for measurability and accountability can be achieved. This journey is continuous and is being expanded to engage all other health disciplines in understanding and documenting their contributions to patient care, both as individual practitioners and as members of a healthcare team. Preparing nursing students in an outcomes approach will facilitate systemwide adoption of HOBIC patient outcomes over time and provide a means to determine the impact of nursing care on our patients. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1244,
      author={C. Orchard and C. Reid-Haughian and R. Vanderlee},
      year={2006},
      month={Sep},
      title={Health Outcomes for Better Information and Care (HOBIC): integrating patient outcome information into nursing undergraduate curricula },
      journal={Canadian journal of nursing leadership},
      volume={19},
      number={3},
      pages={28-33},
      note={id: 403; PUBM: Print; JID: 100888575; ppublish },
      abstract={Nursing-sensitive outcomes provide common information across sectors, thus eliminating duplication that frequently occurs as individuals move across settings. These outcomes also facilitate increased trust among colleagues and support common understandings of patient care needs, thus enhancing continuity of care. Outcomes-oriented information is also likely to increase patient safety and improve overall quality of care. Shared standards and data support consistent decision-making, as nursing decisions can be tracked back over time to assess patient care outcomes. Consequently, nurses will have the means to determine the impact of their interventions on patient outcomes. At the same time, adoption of common approaches to patient assessment leads to greater professional accountability and moves nursing care from a task orientation to an outcomes focus. For administrators, such improvements in monitoring and evaluating patient outcomes translate into improvements in efficiencies and effectiveness, thus providing a return on investment in implementing these outcomes within their agency. For nurses, integration and utilization of outcomes information increases the visibility and significance of their decision-making and patient care. Together with patients, nurses can utilize the outcomes information to make evidence-based decisions and advocate for appropriate care. At an aggregate level, the use of outcomes information creates a continuous feedback loop that is essential to ensuring evidence-based care and the best possible patient outcomes, not only for individuals, but also for families, communities and populations. Outcomes-oriented care provides a gateway for transforming the way we care for patients; puts safe, ethical, high-quality care for patients first; embodies the principles of evidence-based practice; ensures that the value of nursing is clearly understood within the larger system; and ensures that the requirements for measurability and accountability can be achieved. This journey is continuous and is being expanded to engage all other health disciplines in understanding and documenting their contributions to patient care, both as individual practitioners and as members of a healthcare team. Preparing nursing students in an outcomes approach will facilitate systemwide adoption of HOBIC patient outcomes over time and provide a means to determine the impact of nursing care on our patients. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Computer User Training; Computer-Assisted Instruction; Curriculum; Data Collection; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Documentation; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Evidence-Based Medicine; Feasibility Studies; Humans; Medical Records Systems, Computerized; Nursing Care/standards; Nursing Education Research; Nursing Informatics/education/organization & administration; Nursing Records; Ontario; Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)/organization & administration},
      isbn={1481-9643},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Quick, B., Nordstrom, S., & Johnson, K.. (2006). Using continuous quality improvement to implement evidence-based medicine . Lippincott’s case management, 11(6), 305-317.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The importance of implementing evidence-based medicine is being driven by public reporting of outcome data and linking these measures to reimbursement. Most hospitals are faced with many challenges in gaining sponsorship, staffing, creating tools, and reporting of evidence-based outcome measures. This article describes the use of the SSM Health Care (SSMHC) Continuous Quality Improvement model in implementing evidence-based practices at SSM DePaul Health Center, a community hospital member of SSMHC, including successes, opportunities for improvement, and lessons learned. Specifically, the article includes two different processes for data collection and interventions with staff, process requirements for each, and outcome data associated with each model. (Source:PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1253,
      author={B. Quick and S. Nordstrom and K. Johnson},
      year={2006},
      month={11},
      title={Using continuous quality improvement to implement evidence-based medicine },
      journal={Lippincott's case management},
      volume={11},
      number={6},
      pages={305-317},
      note={id: 1163; Language: English. Entry Date: 20070216. Publication Type: journal article; CEU; exam questions; forms; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Case Management; Evidence-Based Practice; Quality Assurance. No. of Refs: 3 ref. NLM UID: 100961551. Email: Barbara quick@ssmhc.com. },
      abstract={The importance of implementing evidence-based medicine is being driven by public reporting of outcome data and linking these measures to reimbursement. Most hospitals are faced with many challenges in gaining sponsorship, staffing, creating tools, and reporting of evidence-based outcome measures. This article describes the use of the SSM Health Care (SSMHC) Continuous Quality Improvement model in implementing evidence-based practices at SSM DePaul Health Center, a community hospital member of SSMHC, including successes, opportunities for improvement, and lessons learned. Specifically, the article includes two different processes for data collection and interventions with staff, process requirements for each, and outcome data associated with each model. (Source:PubMed) },
      keywords={Medical Practice, Evidence-Based; Quality Improvement; Benchmarking; Case Managers; Data Analysis; Data Collection; Documentation; Education, Continuing (Credit); Hospitals; Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations; Length of Stay; Missouri; Multidisciplinary Care Team; Organizational Objectives; Teamwork; Time Factors; United States Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services}
    }

  • Rainboth, L., & DeMasi, C.. (2006). Nursing students’ mathematic calculation skills . Nurse education today, 26(8), 655-661.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This mixed method study used a pre-test/post-test design to evaluate the efficacy of a teaching strategy in improving beginning nursing student learning outcomes. During a 4-week student teaching period, a convenience sample of 54 sophomore level nursing students were required to complete calculation assignments, taught one calculation method, and mandated to attend medication calculation classes. These students completed pre- and post-math tests and a major medication mathematic exam. Scores from the intervention student group were compared to those achieved by the previous sophomore class. Results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-test and the students who received the intervention had statistically significantly higher scores on the major medication calculation exam than did the students in the control group. The evaluation completed by the intervention group showed that the students were satisfied with the method and outcome.

    @article{RefWorks:1255,
      author={L. Rainboth and C. DeMasi},
      year={2006},
      month={Dec},
      title={Nursing students' mathematic calculation skills },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={26},
      number={8},
      pages={655-661},
      note={id: 1111; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20061010; JID: 8511379; 2006/07/05 [received]; 2006/07/20 [accepted]; 2006/10/10 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={This mixed method study used a pre-test/post-test design to evaluate the efficacy of a teaching strategy in improving beginning nursing student learning outcomes. During a 4-week student teaching period, a convenience sample of 54 sophomore level nursing students were required to complete calculation assignments, taught one calculation method, and mandated to attend medication calculation classes. These students completed pre- and post-math tests and a major medication mathematic exam. Scores from the intervention student group were compared to those achieved by the previous sophomore class. Results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-test and the students who received the intervention had statistically significantly higher scores on the major medication calculation exam than did the students in the control group. The evaluation completed by the intervention group showed that the students were satisfied with the method and outcome. },
      keywords={Adult; Attitude of Health Personnel; Clinical Competence/standards; Drug Therapy/nursing; Education, Nursing, Diploma Programs/methods/standards; Educational Measurement; Female; Health Services Needs and Demand; Humans; Male; Mandatory Programs; Mathematics; Medication Errors/nursing/prevention & control; Midwestern United States; Nursing Education Research; Nursing Methodology Research; Problem-Based Learning/methods; Program Evaluation; Questionnaires; Safety Management; Students, Nursing/psychology; Teaching/methods},
      isbn={0260-6917},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Reams, S., & Stricklin, S. M.. (2006). Bachelor of science in nursing completion: A matter of patient safety . The Journal of nursing administration, 36(7-8), 354-356.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Nurse leaders need to explore partnerships between education and practice areas, and the statement must be clear that the BSN does make a difference. It is necessary to articulate policy addressing the differentiation of practice that the BSN can achieve. Tuition contracts requiring employment with the organization are one way to insure continued employment of the BSN-prepared nurses. Identifying the motivators and barriers to BSN completion will allow nursing administrators to mobilize efforts to support RNs in the quest for the BSN. This will enhance patient safety in a cost-effective manner while increasing the personal fulfillment of RNs. (Source: QSEN Team)

    @article{RefWorks:1257,
      author={S. Reams and S. M. Stricklin},
      year={2006},
      month={Jul-Aug},
      title={Bachelor of science in nursing completion: A matter of patient safety },
      journal={The Journal of nursing administration},
      volume={36},
      number={7-8},
      pages={354-356},
      note={id: 404; PUBM: Print; JID: 1263116; RF: 15; ppublish },
      abstract={Nurse leaders need to explore partnerships between education and practice areas, and the statement must be clear that the BSN does make a difference. It is necessary to articulate policy addressing the differentiation of practice that the BSN can achieve. Tuition contracts requiring employment with the organization are one way to insure continued employment of the BSN-prepared nurses. Identifying the motivators and barriers to BSN completion will allow nursing administrators to mobilize efforts to support RNs in the quest for the BSN. This will enhance patient safety in a cost-effective manner while increasing the personal fulfillment of RNs. (Source: QSEN Team) },
      keywords={American Nurses' Association; Attitude of Health Personnel; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Education, Professional, Retraining/organization & administration; Guidelines; Humans; Leadership; Licensure, Nursing; Motivation; Nursing Education Research; Nursing Staff/education/organization & administration/psychology; Personnel Turnover/economics; Professional Competence/standards; Quality of Health Care/standards; Safety Management/organization & administration; Thinking; Training Support/organization & administration; United States},
      isbn={0002-0443},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Rothschild, J. M., Hurley, A. C., Landrigan, C. P., Cronin, J. W., Martell-Waldrop, K., Foskett, C., Burdick, E., Czeisler, C. A., & Bates, D. W.. (2006). Recovery from medical errors: the critical care nursing safety net . Joint Commission journal on quality & patient safety, 32(2), 63-72.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Background: Safety initiatives have primarily focused on physicians despite the fact that nurses provide the majority of direct inpatient care. Patient surveillance and preventing errors from harming patients represent essential nursing responsibilities but have received relatively little study.; Methods: The study was conducted between July 2003 and July 2004 in a 10-bed academic coronary care unit. Direct observation of nursing care and solicited and institutional incident reports were used to find potential incidents. Two physician reviewers rated incidents as to the presence, preventability, and potential severity of harm of errors and associated factors.; Results: Overall data were collected for 147 days, including 150 hours of direct observation. One hundred forty-two recovered medical errors were found, including 61% (86/142) during direct observations. Most errors (69%; 98/142) were intercepted before reaching the patients. Errors that reached patients included 13% that were mitigated before resulting in harm and 18% that were ameliorated before more severe harm could occur.; Discussion: Protecting patients from the potentially dangerous consequences of medical errors is one of the many ways critical care nurses improve patient safety. Interventions designed to increase the ability of nurses to recover and promptly report errors have the potential to improve patient outcomes. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1259,
      author={J. M. Rothschild and A. C. Hurley and C. P. Landrigan and J. W. Cronin and K. Martell-Waldrop and C. Foskett and E. Burdick and C. A. Czeisler and D. W. Bates},
      year={2006},
      month={02//},
      title={Recovery from medical errors: the critical care nursing safety net },
      journal={Joint Commission journal on quality & patient safety},
      volume={32},
      number={2},
      pages={63-72},
      note={id: 246; Language: English. Entry Date: 20060317. Publication Type: journal article; glossary; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Health Services Administration; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Critical Care; Patient Safety; Quality Assurance. No. of Refs: 49 ref. NLM UID: 101238023. Email: jrothschild@partners.org. },
      abstract={Background: Safety initiatives have primarily focused on physicians despite the fact that nurses provide the majority of direct inpatient care. Patient surveillance and preventing errors from harming patients represent essential nursing responsibilities but have received relatively little study.; Methods: The study was conducted between July 2003 and July 2004 in a 10-bed academic coronary care unit. Direct observation of nursing care and solicited and institutional incident reports were used to find potential incidents. Two physician reviewers rated incidents as to the presence, preventability, and potential severity of harm of errors and associated factors.; Results: Overall data were collected for 147 days, including 150 hours of direct observation. One hundred forty-two recovered medical errors were found, including 61% (86/142) during direct observations. Most errors (69%; 98/142) were intercepted before reaching the patients. Errors that reached patients included 13% that were mitigated before resulting in harm and 18% that were ameliorated before more severe harm could occur.; Discussion: Protecting patients from the potentially dangerous consequences of medical errors is one of the many ways critical care nurses improve patient safety. Interventions designed to increase the ability of nurses to recover and promptly report errors have the potential to improve patient outcomes. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Critical Care Nursing; Health Care Errors--Prevention and Control; Academic Medical Centers; Adult; Adverse Health Care Event; Aged; Coronary Care Units; Diaries; Female; Fisher's Exact Test; Incident Reports; Inpatients; Interviews; Kappa Statistic; Male; Medication Errors; Middle Age; Nurse-Patient Ratio; Observational Methods; Patient Safety; Record Review; Summated Rating Scaling; T-Tests; Voluntary Reporting; Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test},
      isbn={1553-7250}
    }

  • Santell, J. P.. (2006). Reconciliation failures lead to medication errors . Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety, 32(4), 225-229.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Poor communication of medical information at transition points of care–at admission, transfer, and discharge–often results in medication errors, but various strategies can reduce the likelihood of error. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1263,
      author={J. P. Santell},
      year={2006},
      month={Apr},
      title={Reconciliation failures lead to medication errors },
      journal={Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety},
      volume={32},
      number={4},
      pages={225-229},
      note={id: 419; LR: 20061004; PUBM: Print; JID: 101238023; ppublish },
      abstract={Poor communication of medical information at transition points of care--at admission, transfer, and discharge--often results in medication errors, but various strategies can reduce the likelihood of error. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Documentation; Humans; Interdisciplinary Communication; Medication Errors/prevention & control; Patient Admission; Patient Transfer/organization & administration; United States},
      isbn={1553-7250},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Shojania, K. G., Fletcher, K. E., & Saint, S.. (2006). Graduate medical education and patient safety: a busy–and occasionally hazardous–intersection . Annals of internal medicine, 145(8), 592-598.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    A patient admitted to a teaching hospital with a mild episode of acute pancreatitis initially improved, but then her condition deteriorated and she subsequently died. The initial deterioration probably reflected bowel obstruction, as shown on an abdominal radiograph that an on-call intern forgot to review. This diagnostic delay was compounded by poor communication that resulted in a medical student inserting a feeding tube–rather than a nasogastric tube–to decompress the bowel, followed by failure to recognize how ill the patient had become. The case highlights the hazards of patient handoffs as well as the importance of clear communication techniques and knowing when to ask for help. The discussion also shows the vicious circle that results when attending physicians fail to provide effective supervision: Not only is safety compromised but trainees lose the experience of being supervised. Consequently, trainees have no models of effective supervision on which to draw when they become supervisors. They then fall into the same trap as those who taught them, busying themselves with direct patient care and providing supervision only as time allows.

    @article{RefWorks:1268,
      author={K. G. Shojania and K. E. Fletcher and S. Saint},
      year={2006},
      month={Oct 17},
      title={Graduate medical education and patient safety: a busy--and occasionally hazardous--intersection },
      journal={Annals of internal medicine},
      volume={145},
      number={8},
      pages={592-598},
      note={id: 1078; LR: 20070514; PUBM: Print; GR: DK67451/DK/NIDDK; JID: 0372351; CIN: Ann Intern Med. 2007 May 1;146(9):685-6; author reply 686. PMID: 17470839; CIN: Ann Intern Med. 2007 May 1;146(9):685; author reply 686. PMID: 17470840; CIN: Ann Intern Med. 2007 May 1;146(9):686; author reply 686. PMID: 17470842; ppublish },
      abstract={A patient admitted to a teaching hospital with a mild episode of acute pancreatitis initially improved, but then her condition deteriorated and she subsequently died. The initial deterioration probably reflected bowel obstruction, as shown on an abdominal radiograph that an on-call intern forgot to review. This diagnostic delay was compounded by poor communication that resulted in a medical student inserting a feeding tube--rather than a nasogastric tube--to decompress the bowel, followed by failure to recognize how ill the patient had become. The case highlights the hazards of patient handoffs as well as the importance of clear communication techniques and knowing when to ask for help. The discussion also shows the vicious circle that results when attending physicians fail to provide effective supervision: Not only is safety compromised but trainees lose the experience of being supervised. Consequently, trainees have no models of effective supervision on which to draw when they become supervisors. They then fall into the same trap as those who taught them, busying themselves with direct patient care and providing supervision only as time allows. },
      keywords={Aged, 80 and over; Communication; Education, Medical, Graduate/standards; Female; Hospitals, Teaching/organization & administration/standards; Humans; Internship and Residency/standards; Medical Errors; Patient Care/standards; Patient Care Team/organization & administration/standards},
      isbn={1539-3704},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Wolf, Z. R., Hicks, R., & Serembus, J. F.. (2006). Characteristics of medication errors made by students during the administration phase: a descriptive study . Journal of professional nursing, 22(1), 39-51.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Faculty concentrate on teaching nursing students about safe medication administration practices and on challenging them to develop skills for calculating drug dose and intravenous flow rate problems. In spite of these efforts, students make medication errors and little is known about the attributes of these errors. Therefore, this descriptive, retrospective, secondary analysis study examined the characteristics of medication errors made by nursing students during the administration phase of the medication use process as reported to the MEDMARX, a database operated by the United States Pharmacopeia through the Patient Safety Program. Fewer than 3% of 1,305 student-made medication errors occurring in the administration process resulted in patient harm. Most were omission errors, followed by errors of giving the wrong dose (amount) of a drug. The most prevalent cause of the errors was students’ performance deficits, whereas inexperience and distractions were leading contributing factors. The antimicrobial therapeutic class of drugs and the 10 subcategories within this class were the most commonly reported medications involved. Insulin was the highest-frequency single medication reported. Overall, this study shows that students’ administration errors may be more frequent than suspected. Faculty might consider curriculum revisions that incorporate medication use safety throughout each course in nursing major courses. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1281,
      author={Z. R. Wolf and R. Hicks and J. F. Serembus},
      year={2006},
      month={01//2006 Jan-Feb},
      title={Characteristics of medication errors made by students during the administration phase: a descriptive study },
      journal={Journal of professional nursing},
      volume={22},
      number={1},
      pages={39-51},
      note={id: 245; Language: English. Entry Date: 20060512. Publication Type: journal article; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Education; Patient Safety. No. of Refs: 49 ref. PMID: 16459288 NLM UID: 8511298. },
      abstract={Faculty concentrate on teaching nursing students about safe medication administration practices and on challenging them to develop skills for calculating drug dose and intravenous flow rate problems. In spite of these efforts, students make medication errors and little is known about the attributes of these errors. Therefore, this descriptive, retrospective, secondary analysis study examined the characteristics of medication errors made by nursing students during the administration phase of the medication use process as reported to the MEDMARX, a database operated by the United States Pharmacopeia through the Patient Safety Program. Fewer than 3% of 1,305 student-made medication errors occurring in the administration process resulted in patient harm. Most were omission errors, followed by errors of giving the wrong dose (amount) of a drug. The most prevalent cause of the errors was students' performance deficits, whereas inexperience and distractions were leading contributing factors. The antimicrobial therapeutic class of drugs and the 10 subcategories within this class were the most commonly reported medications involved. Insulin was the highest-frequency single medication reported. Overall, this study shows that students' administration errors may be more frequent than suspected. Faculty might consider curriculum revisions that incorporate medication use safety throughout each course in nursing major courses. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Medication Errors; Students, Nursing; Convenience Sample; Databases; Descriptive Research; Descriptive Statistics; Drug Administration--Education; Drugs, Prescription--Classification; Incident Reports; Medication Errors--Classification; Medication Errors--Etiology; Retrospective Design; Secondary Analysis; Voluntary Reporting},
      isbn={8755-7223}
    }

2005

  • Barnsteiner, J. H.. (2005). Medication Reconciliation: Transfer of medication information across settings-keeping it free from error . The American journal of nursing, 105(3 Suppl), 31-36.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This article describes the scope of the problem of inaccuracy of medication lists and reviews innovations that improve the transfer of medication information within the hospital. (Source: QSEN Team)

    @article{RefWorks:1175,
      author={J. H. Barnsteiner},
      year={2005},
      month={Mar},
      title={Medication Reconciliation: Transfer of medication information across settings-keeping it free from error },
      journal={The American journal of nursing},
      volume={105},
      number={3 Suppl},
      pages={31-36},
      note={id: 323; PUBM: Print; JID: 0372646; ppublish },
      abstract={This article describes the scope of the problem of inaccuracy of medication lists and reviews innovations that improve the transfer of medication information within the hospital. (Source: QSEN Team) },
      isbn={0002-936X},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Bartels, J. E., & Bednash, G.. (2005). Answering the call for quality nursing care and patient safety: a new model for nursing education . Nursing administration quarterly, 29(1), 5-13.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Current discussion on the need to dramatically change nursing education and practice is based on clear concerns about the changing nature of healthcare. The increasingly complex healthcare system of our nation provides sophisticated interventions yet concerns about quality persist. A new model of education and practice is proposed and this model is being implemented through a groundbreaking partnership to prepare a master’s educated, entry-level, generalist nursing clinician to lead and guide care at the point of care. The competencies associated with this new clinician are discussed and future implications for evaluation and monitoring are shared. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1176,
      author={J. E. Bartels and G. Bednash},
      year={2005},
      month={Jan-Mar},
      title={Answering the call for quality nursing care and patient safety: a new model for nursing education },
      journal={Nursing administration quarterly},
      volume={29},
      number={1},
      pages={5-13},
      note={id: 253; PUBM: Print; JID: 7703976; ppublish },
      abstract={Current discussion on the need to dramatically change nursing education and practice is based on clear concerns about the changing nature of healthcare. The increasingly complex healthcare system of our nation provides sophisticated interventions yet concerns about quality persist. A new model of education and practice is proposed and this model is being implemented through a groundbreaking partnership to prepare a master's educated, entry-level, generalist nursing clinician to lead and guide care at the point of care. The competencies associated with this new clinician are discussed and future implications for evaluation and monitoring are shared. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Education, Nursing; Humans; Models, Educational; Nursing/organization & administration; Nursing, Supervisory; Quality of Health Care; Safety Management; United States},
      isbn={0363-9568 (Print)},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Biddle, C. J.. (2005). Patient safety vignettes: preliminary observations on a novel use of an old methodology . Internet journal of allied health sciences & practice, 3(1), 7p-7p.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Problems arise when clinicians or educators encounter situations that are error-prone, complex, or distracting. Trigger films (TF) are 2-4 minute vignettes simulating real-life situations that finish abruptly, stimulating participants to analyze situations in a safe environment. We report on a natural evolution of the TF, the patient safety vignette (PSV), a multimedia tool that advantages the human characteristic of vicariousness by inviting stakeholders into an unfolding patient misadventure. PSVs are produced in our high fidelity simulation lab and are based on actual patient events. We have previously demonstrated the validity and reliability of the approach in the healthcare setting, a multidimensional, dynamic and stressful environment where complex, critical, and risky decision making and interventions occur. PSVs offer a systematic approach to facilitating patient safety activity by engaging clinicians in a range of complex scenarios in what we term the "living laboratory." Initial outcome measures examining efficacy and clinician acceptance are reported. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:1178,
      author={C. J. Biddle},
      year={2005},
      month={01//},
      title={Patient safety vignettes: preliminary observations on a novel use of an old methodology },
      journal={Internet journal of allied health sciences & practice},
      volume={3},
      number={1},
      pages={7p-7p},
      note={id: 240; Language: English. Entry Date: 20050826. Publication Type: journal article; case study; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Allied Health; Blind Peer Reviewed; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Online; Peer Reviewed; USA. No. of Refs: 16 ref. Email: CBiddle@hsc.vcu.edu. },
      abstract={Problems arise when clinicians or educators encounter situations that are error-prone, complex, or distracting. Trigger films (TF) are 2-4 minute vignettes simulating real-life situations that finish abruptly, stimulating participants to analyze situations in a safe environment. We report on a natural evolution of the TF, the patient safety vignette (PSV), a multimedia tool that advantages the human characteristic of vicariousness by inviting stakeholders into an unfolding patient misadventure. PSVs are produced in our high fidelity simulation lab and are based on actual patient events. We have previously demonstrated the validity and reliability of the approach in the healthcare setting, a multidimensional, dynamic and stressful environment where complex, critical, and risky decision making and interventions occur. PSVs offer a systematic approach to facilitating patient safety activity by engaging clinicians in a range of complex scenarios in what we term the "living laboratory." Initial outcome measures examining efficacy and clinician acceptance are reported. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Patient Safety--Education; Teaching Materials; Vignettes; Descriptive Statistics; Health Personnel--Education; Multimedia; Treatment Errors--Prevention and Control},
      isbn={1540-580X},
      url={http://ijahsp.nova.edu/articles/vol3num1/biddle.htm}
    }

  • Carayon, P., & Gurses, A. P.. (2005). A human factors engineering conceptual framework of nursing workload and patient safety in intensive care units . Intensive & critical care nursing : the official journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses, 21(5), 284-301.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In this paper, we review the literature on nursing workload in intensive care units (ICUs) and its impact on patient safety and quality of working life of nurses. We then propose a conceptual framework of ICU nursing workload that defines causes, consequences and outcomes of workload. We identified four levels of nursing workload (ICU/unit level, job level, patient level, and situation level), and discuss measures associated with each of the four levels. A micro-level approach to ICU nursing workload at the situation level is proposed and recommended in order to reduce workload and mitigate its negative impact. Performance obstacles are conceptualized as causes of ICU nursing workload at the situation level. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1182,
      author={P. Carayon and A. P. Gurses},
      year={2005},
      month={Oct},
      title={A human factors engineering conceptual framework of nursing workload and patient safety in intensive care units },
      journal={Intensive & critical care nursing : the official journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses},
      volume={21},
      number={5},
      pages={284-301},
      note={id: 411; LR: 20061115; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20050224; JID: 9211274; RF: 96; 2004/08/26 [received]; 2004/12/10 [revised]; 2004/12/17 [accepted]; 2005/02/24 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={In this paper, we review the literature on nursing workload in intensive care units (ICUs) and its impact on patient safety and quality of working life of nurses. We then propose a conceptual framework of ICU nursing workload that defines causes, consequences and outcomes of workload. We identified four levels of nursing workload (ICU/unit level, job level, patient level, and situation level), and discuss measures associated with each of the four levels. A micro-level approach to ICU nursing workload at the situation level is proposed and recommended in order to reduce workload and mitigate its negative impact. Performance obstacles are conceptualized as causes of ICU nursing workload at the situation level. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Attitude to Health; Health Services Needs and Demand; Human Engineering/methods/psychology; Humans; Intensive Care Units/organization & administration; Job Satisfaction; Medical Errors/methods/nursing/prevention & control/psychology; Models, Nursing; Models, Organizational; Nurse's Role; Nursing Administration Research/organization & administration; Nursing Staff, Hospital/organization & administration/psychology; Occupational Health; Outcome Assessment (Health Care)/organization & administration; Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration; Quality of Health Care; Quality of Life; Safety Management/organization & administration; Workload/psychology; Workplace/organization & administration/psychology},
      isbn={0964-3397},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Duthie, E., Favreau, B., Ruperto, A., Mannion, J., Flink, E., & Leslie, R.. (2005). Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Medication Errors: The New York Experience. Advances in Patient Safety: From Research to Implementation, Vol.1 . Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Objectives: In June 2000, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) expanded its New York Patient Occurrence Reporting and Tracking System (NYPORTS) mandatory adverse event reporting system to include the reporting of medication errors. The errors included were those that resulted in a severity of patient harm that met the National Coordinating Council Medication Error Reporting Program (NCC MERP) criteria for categories G (resulting in permanent patient harm), H (resulting in a near-death event) and I (resulting in patient death). Root cause analyses (RCA) that examine systems issues and identify mechanisms for future prevention of these events were studied. Methods: A panel of 11 multidisciplinary professionals performed a quantitative and qualitative analysis of 24 months of medication errors reports submitted to the NYPORTS system. NYPORTS requires that the 249 hospitals in New York State (NYS) electronically notify the NYSDOH of reportable errors within 24 hours of occurrence detection and that a RCA for that occurrence be submitted within 30 days. Results: Qualitative analysis of the RCAs included findings related to lessons learned, emergent themes, and use of system fixes instead of punitive fixes or inappropriate/incomplete system fixes. The quantitative analysis examined several variables. These included where in the process the error occurred, what disciplines were involved, the error distribution, the occurrence type, the medication or medication classes involved, and the breakdown by patient outcome. Conclusions: Mandatory medication error reporting can provide useful information about systems contributing to errors, strategies for prevention, and evidence-based information about patient safety concepts. This information is important for hospitals to consider both when analyzing medication errors and when implementing systems to improve safety. This report is intended to help guide public policy and provide guidance to other states interested in establishing mandatory reporting systems. (Source: Publisher)

    @book{RefWorks:767,
      author={E. Duthie and B. Favreau and A. Ruperto and J. Mannion and E. Flink and R. Leslie},
      year={2005},
      title={Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Medication Errors: The New York Experience. Advances in Patient Safety: From Research to Implementation, Vol.1 },
      publisher={Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality},
      address={Rockville, MD},
      note={id: 3741},
      abstract={Objectives: In June 2000, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) expanded its New York Patient Occurrence Reporting and Tracking System (NYPORTS) mandatory adverse event reporting system to include the reporting of medication errors. The errors included were those that resulted in a severity of patient harm that met the National Coordinating Council Medication Error Reporting Program (NCC MERP) criteria for categories G (resulting in permanent patient harm), H (resulting in a near-death event) and I (resulting in patient death). Root cause analyses (RCA) that examine systems issues and identify mechanisms for future prevention of these events were studied. Methods: A panel of 11 multidisciplinary professionals performed a quantitative and qualitative analysis of 24 months of medication errors reports submitted to the NYPORTS system. NYPORTS requires that the 249 hospitals in New York State (NYS) electronically notify the NYSDOH of reportable errors within 24 hours of occurrence detection and that a RCA for that occurrence be submitted within 30 days. Results: Qualitative analysis of the RCAs included findings related to lessons learned, emergent themes, and use of system fixes instead of punitive fixes or inappropriate/incomplete system fixes. The quantitative analysis examined several variables. These included where in the process the error occurred, what disciplines were involved, the error distribution, the occurrence type, the medication or medication classes involved, and the breakdown by patient outcome. Conclusions: Mandatory medication error reporting can provide useful information about systems contributing to errors, strategies for prevention, and evidence-based information about patient safety concepts. This information is important for hospitals to consider both when analyzing medication errors and when implementing systems to improve safety. This report is intended to help guide public policy and provide guidance to other states interested in establishing mandatory reporting systems. (Source: Publisher) },
      url={http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/advances/vol1/Duthie.pdf}
    }

  • Henneman, E. A., & Cunningham, H.. (2005). Using clinical simulation to teach patient safety in an acute/critical care nursing course . Nurse educator, 30(4), 172-177.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    High-fidelity simulation using lifelike mannequins has been used to teach medical and aviation students, but little is known about using this method to educate nurses. The process and methods authors used to develop, implement, and evaluate high-fidelity simulation experiences in an acute/critical care elective for senior nursing students are described. Authors share their insight, experiences, and lessons learned, along with practical information and a framework, in developing simulations and debriefing. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1208,
      author={E. A. Henneman and H. Cunningham},
      year={2005},
      month={Jul-Aug},
      title={Using clinical simulation to teach patient safety in an acute/critical care nursing course },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={30},
      number={4},
      pages={172-177},
      note={id: 251; PUBM: Print; JID: 7701902; ppublish },
      abstract={High-fidelity simulation using lifelike mannequins has been used to teach medical and aviation students, but little is known about using this method to educate nurses. The process and methods authors used to develop, implement, and evaluate high-fidelity simulation experiences in an acute/critical care elective for senior nursing students are described. Authors share their insight, experiences, and lessons learned, along with practical information and a framework, in developing simulations and debriefing. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Acute Disease; Attitude of Health Personnel; Clinical Competence/standards; Critical Care/standards; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration; Health Services Needs and Demand; Humans; Manikins; Models, Educational; Models, Nursing; Nursing Education Research; Organizational Innovation; Patient Simulation; Program Development; Program Evaluation; Safety Management/organization & administration; Students, Nursing/psychology; Videotape Recording},
      isbn={0363-3624 (Print)},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Maxfield, D., Grenny, J., & McMillan, R.. (2005). Silence Kills: The Seven Crucial Conversations for Healthcare .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) commissioned VitalSmarts to conduct a study exploring communication difficulties experienced by health care personnel that may contribute to medical error. Areas of concern include broken rules, mistakes, lack of support, incompetence, poor teamwork, disrespect, and micromanagement. (Source: Publisher)

    @techreport{RefWorks:1236,
      author={D. Maxfield and J. Grenny and R. McMillan},
      year={2005},
      title={Silence Kills: The Seven Crucial Conversations for Healthcare },
      note={id: 1041},
      abstract={The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) commissioned VitalSmarts to conduct a study exploring communication difficulties experienced by health care personnel that may contribute to medical error. Areas of concern include broken rules, mistakes, lack of support, incompetence, poor teamwork, disrespect, and micromanagement. (Source: Publisher) },
      url={http://www.aacn.org/aacn/pubpolcy.nsf/Files/SilenceKills/$file/SilenceKills.pdf}
    }

  • Pape, T. M., Guerra, D. M., Muzquiz, M., Bryant, J. B., Ingram, M., Schranner, B., Alcala, A., Sharp, J., Bishop, D., Carreno, E., & Welker, J.. (2005). Innovative approaches to reducing nurses’ distractions during medication administration . Journal of continuing education in nursing, 36(3), 108-116.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Background: Contributing factors to medication errors include distractions, lack of focus, and failure to follow standard operating procedures. The nursing unit is vulnerable to a multitude of interruptions and distractions that affect the working memory and the ability to focus during critical times. Methods that prevent these environmental effects on nurses can help avert medication errors.; Methods: A process improvement study examined the effects of standard protocols and visible signage within a hospital setting. The project was patterned after another study using similar techniques. Rapid Cycle Testing was used as one of the strategies for this process improvement project. Rapid Cycle Tests have become a part of the newly adopted Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control steps at this particular hospital.; Results: As a result, a medication administration check-list improved focus and standardized practice. Visible signage also reduced nurses’ distractions and improved focus.; Conclusion: The results provide evidence that protocol checklists and signage can be used as reminders to reduce distractions, and are simple, inexpensive tools for medication safety. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1249,
      author={T. M. Pape and D. M. Guerra and M. Muzquiz and J. B. Bryant and M. Ingram and B. Schranner and A. Alcala and J. Sharp and D. Bishop and E. Carreno and J. Welker},
      year={2005},
      month={05//2005 May-Jun},
      title={Innovative approaches to reducing nurses' distractions during medication administration },
      journal={Journal of continuing education in nursing},
      volume={36},
      number={3},
      pages={108-116},
      note={id: 238; Language: English. Entry Date: 20050729. Revision Date: 20060106. Publication Type: journal article; CEU; exam questions; pictorial; protocol; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Education; Patient Safety; Quality Assurance. No. of Refs: 14 ref. PMID: 16022030 NLM UID: 0262321. },
      abstract={Background: Contributing factors to medication errors include distractions, lack of focus, and failure to follow standard operating procedures. The nursing unit is vulnerable to a multitude of interruptions and distractions that affect the working memory and the ability to focus during critical times. Methods that prevent these environmental effects on nurses can help avert medication errors.; Methods: A process improvement study examined the effects of standard protocols and visible signage within a hospital setting. The project was patterned after another study using similar techniques. Rapid Cycle Testing was used as one of the strategies for this process improvement project. Rapid Cycle Tests have become a part of the newly adopted Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control steps at this particular hospital.; Results: As a result, a medication administration check-list improved focus and standardized practice. Visible signage also reduced nurses' distractions and improved focus.; Conclusion: The results provide evidence that protocol checklists and signage can be used as reminders to reduce distractions, and are simple, inexpensive tools for medication safety. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Distraction; Medication Errors--Prevention and Control; Nursing Staff, Hospital; Protocols--Utilization; Stress, Occupational; Work Redesign; Adult; Descriptive Statistics; Education, Continuing (Credit); Female; Male; Middle Age; Professional Compliance--Evaluation; Quality Improvement; Self Report; Surveys; Teamwork},
      isbn={0022-0124}
    }

  • Rice, J. N., & Bell, M. L.. (2005). Using dimensional analysis to improve drug dosage calculation ability . The Journal of nursing education, 44(7), 315-318.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Confidence and accuracy in medication calculation ability continue to be problematic among nursing students. This deficiency has been attributed to poor basic mathematical skills, inconsistent teaching methods, and inconsistent or incorrect use of multiple mathematical formulas. This article provides evidence of the value of dimensional analysis as an effective teaching strategy for calculating drug dosages. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1258,
      author={J. N. Rice and M. L. Bell},
      year={2005},
      month={Jul},
      title={Using dimensional analysis to improve drug dosage calculation ability },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={44},
      number={7},
      pages={315-318},
      note={id: 400; PUBM: Print; JID: 7705432; ppublish },
      abstract={Confidence and accuracy in medication calculation ability continue to be problematic among nursing students. This deficiency has been attributed to poor basic mathematical skills, inconsistent teaching methods, and inconsistent or incorrect use of multiple mathematical formulas. This article provides evidence of the value of dimensional analysis as an effective teaching strategy for calculating drug dosages. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Adult; Attitude of Health Personnel; Clinical Competence/standards; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Drug Therapy/nursing/standards; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods/standards; Female; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Services Needs and Demand; Humans; Male; Mathematics; Medication Errors/nursing/prevention & control; Middle Aged; Nursing Education Research; Pharmacology/education; Pilot Projects; Problem Solving; Self Efficacy; Students, Nursing/psychology; Teaching/methods/standards},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Salas, E., Wilson, K. A., Burke, C. S., & Priest, H. A.. (2005). Using simulation-based training to improved patient safety: what does it take? . Joint Commission journal on quality & patient safety, 31(7), 363-371.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    BACKGROUND: Through simulations health care workers can learn by practicing skills taught and experiencing mistakes before interacting with an actual patient. A number of areas within the health care industry are currently using simulation-based training to help individuals and teams improve patient safety. WHAT IS SIMULATION-BASED TRAINING? The key components of simulation-based training are as follows: performance history/skill inventory, tasks/competencies, training objectives, events/exercises, measures/metrics, performance diagnosis, and feedback and debrief. WHAT DOES IT TAKE FOR SIMULATION-BASED TRAINING TO BE EFFECTIVE? To be effective, simulation-based training must be implemented appropriately. The guidelines are as follows: understand the training needs and requirements; instructional features, such as performance measurement and feedback, must be embedded within the simulation; craft scenarios based on guidance from the learning outcomes; create opportunities for assessing and diagnosing individual and/or team performance within the simulation; guide the learning; focus on cognitive/psychological simulation fidelity; form a mutual partnership between subject matter experts and learning experts; and ensure that the training program worked. CONCLUSION: The health care community can gain significantly from using simulation-based training to reduce errors and improve patient safety when it is designed and delivered appropriately. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1260,
      author={E. Salas and K. A. Wilson and C. S. Burke and H. A. Priest},
      year={2005},
      month={07//},
      title={Using simulation-based training to improved patient safety: what does it take? },
      journal={Joint Commission journal on quality & patient safety},
      volume={31},
      number={7},
      pages={363-371},
      note={id: 235; Language: English. Entry Date: 20060120. Publication Type: journal article; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Health Services Administration; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Patient Safety; Quality Assurance. No. of Refs: 68 ref. NLM UID: 101238023. Email: esalas@ist.ucf.edu. },
      abstract={BACKGROUND: Through simulations health care workers can learn by practicing skills taught and experiencing mistakes before interacting with an actual patient. A number of areas within the health care industry are currently using simulation-based training to help individuals and teams improve patient safety. WHAT IS SIMULATION-BASED TRAINING? The key components of simulation-based training are as follows: performance history/skill inventory, tasks/competencies, training objectives, events/exercises, measures/metrics, performance diagnosis, and feedback and debrief. WHAT DOES IT TAKE FOR SIMULATION-BASED TRAINING TO BE EFFECTIVE? To be effective, simulation-based training must be implemented appropriately. The guidelines are as follows: understand the training needs and requirements; instructional features, such as performance measurement and feedback, must be embedded within the simulation; craft scenarios based on guidance from the learning outcomes; create opportunities for assessing and diagnosing individual and/or team performance within the simulation; guide the learning; focus on cognitive/psychological simulation fidelity; form a mutual partnership between subject matter experts and learning experts; and ensure that the training program worked. CONCLUSION: The health care community can gain significantly from using simulation-based training to reduce errors and improve patient safety when it is designed and delivered appropriately. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Patient Safety--Education; Personnel, Health Facility--Education; Simulations; Feedback; Health Care Errors--Prevention and Control; Staff Development},
      isbn={1553-7250}
    }

  • Schumacher, D. L.. (2005). Teaching tips. Do your CATS PRRR?: A mnemonic device to teach safety checks for administering intravenous medications . Journal of continuing education in nursing, 36(3), 104-106.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This column describes a mnemonic device that can be used as a safety strategy to help nurses avoid IV medication errors. Before they hang or push a medication, it prompts nurses to think about compatabilities, allergies, tubing, site, pump, right rate, release, and return and reassess. (Source: QSEN Team)

    @article{RefWorks:1265,
      author={D. L. Schumacher},
      year={2005},
      month={05//2005 May-Jun},
      title={Teaching tips. Do your CATS PRRR?: A mnemonic device to teach safety checks for administering intravenous medications },
      journal={Journal of continuing education in nursing},
      volume={36},
      number={3},
      pages={104-106},
      note={id: 237; Language: English. Entry Date: 20050729. Revision Date: 20060106. Publication Type: journal article; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Education; Patient Safety. No. of Refs: 9 ref. PMID: 16022029 NLM UID: 0262321. },
      abstract={This column describes a mnemonic device that can be used as a safety strategy to help nurses avoid IV medication errors. Before they hang or push a medication, it prompts nurses to think about compatabilities, allergies, tubing, site, pump, right rate, release, and return and reassess. (Source: QSEN Team) },
      keywords={Infusions, Intravenous--Nursing; Intravenous Therapy; Medication Errors--Prevention and Control; Teaching Methods, Clinical; Memory; Nursing Skills--Education; Stress, Occupational--Prevention and Control},
      isbn={0022-0124}
    }

  • Sweitzer, S. C., & Silver, M. P.. (2005). Learning from unexpected events: a root cause analysis training program . Journal for Healthcare Quality: Promoting Excellence in Healthcare, 27(5), 11-19.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Staff members need appropriate training before the investigation and causal analysis of accidents in any complex system. Otherwise results will be incomplete and will be focused on the least manageable contributors, such as the unsafe acts of frontline operators. This article outlines an incident investigation and root cause analysis workshop developed to address this training need in a spectrum of healthcare settings and reviews feedback from participants. (Source:PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1273,
      author={S. C. Sweitzer and M. P. Silver},
      year={2005},
      month={09},
      title={Learning from unexpected events: a root cause analysis training program },
      journal={Journal for Healthcare Quality: Promoting Excellence in Healthcare},
      volume={27},
      number={5},
      pages={11-19},
      note={id: 1168; Language: English. Entry Date: 20050930. Publication Type: journal article; CEU; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Blind Peer Reviewed; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Health Services Administration; Online/Print; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Patient Safety; Quality Assurance. No. of Refs: 28 ref. NLM UID: 9202994. },
      abstract={Staff members need appropriate training before the investigation and causal analysis of accidents in any complex system. Otherwise results will be incomplete and will be focused on the least manageable contributors, such as the unsafe acts of frontline operators. This article outlines an incident investigation and root cause analysis workshop developed to address this training need in a spectrum of healthcare settings and reviews feedback from participants. (Source:PubMed) },
      keywords={Administrative Personnel--Education; Adverse Health Care Event--Education; Health Personnel--Education; Root Cause Analysis--Education; Course Content; Education, Continuing; Education, Continuing (Credit); Information Needs; Interviews; Nevada; Program Evaluation; Program Planning; Seminars and Workshops; Teaching Methods; Utah}
    }

  • Thompson, P. A., Navarra, M. B., & Antonson, N.. (2005). Patient safety: the four domains of nursing leadership . Nursing economic$, 23(6), 331-333.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The role of the nurse leader in patient safety can be characterized as follows: to establish the right culture; to infuse that culture with shared leadership so that the expert voice at the bedside is really defining the work; to possess the competencies necessary to coordinate and advance this complex initiative; and to forge both internal and external partnerships, because we will not be able to do this work alone. To further the work on this topic, nurse leaders who participated in the Nursing Leadership Congress are committed to identifying additional resources to help nurse leader colleagues drive patient safety efforts throughout their organizations. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1274,
      author={P. A. Thompson and M. B. Navarra and N. Antonson},
      year={2005},
      month={Nov-Dec},
      title={Patient safety: the four domains of nursing leadership },
      journal={Nursing economic$},
      volume={23},
      number={6},
      pages={331-333},
      note={id: 420; PUBM: Print; JID: 8404213; ppublish },
      abstract={The role of the nurse leader in patient safety can be characterized as follows: to establish the right culture; to infuse that culture with shared leadership so that the expert voice at the bedside is really defining the work; to possess the competencies necessary to coordinate and advance this complex initiative; and to forge both internal and external partnerships, because we will not be able to do this work alone. To further the work on this topic, nurse leaders who participated in the Nursing Leadership Congress are committed to identifying additional resources to help nurse leader colleagues drive patient safety efforts throughout their organizations. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={American Nurses' Association; Awards and Prizes; Cooperative Behavior; Credentialing; Humans; Interprofessional Relations; Leadership; Models, Nursing; Nurse Administrators/organization & administration/psychology; Nurse's Role/psychology; Nursing Service, Hospital/standards; Nursing, Supervisory/organization & administration; Organizational Culture; Organizational Objectives; Professional Competence/standards; Safety Management/organization & administration; United States},
      isbn={0746-1739},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Wakefield, A., Attree, M., Braidman, I., Carlisle, C., Johnson, M., & Cooke, H.. (2005). Patient safety: do nursing and medical curricula address this theme? . Nurse education today, 25(4), 333-340.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In this literature review, we examine to what extent patient safety is addressed within medical and nursing curricula. Patient safety is the foundation of healthcare practice and education both in the UK and internationally. Recent research and policy initiatives have highlighted this issue. The paper highlights the significance of this topic as an aspect of study in its own right by examining not only the fiscal but also the human costs such events invite. If healthcare educational curricula were to recognise the value of learning from errors, such events could become part of a wider educational resource enabling both students and facilitators to prevent threats to patient safety. For this reason, the paper attempts to articulate why patient safety should be afforded greater prominence within medical and nursing curricula. We argue that learning how to manage errors effectively would enable trainee practitioners to improve patient care, reduce the burden on an overstretched health care system and engage in dynamic as opposed to defensive practice. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1277,
      author={A. Wakefield and M. Attree and I. Braidman and C. Carlisle and M. Johnson and H. Cooke},
      year={2005},
      month={May},
      title={Patient safety: do nursing and medical curricula address this theme? },
      journal={Nurse education today},
      volume={25},
      number={4},
      pages={333-340},
      note={id: 252; LR: 20051116; PUBM: Print-Electronic; DEP: 20050408; JID: 8511379; RF: 50; 2004/06/25 [received]; 2005/02/18 [accepted]; 2005/04/08 [aheadofprint]; ppublish },
      abstract={In this literature review, we examine to what extent patient safety is addressed within medical and nursing curricula. Patient safety is the foundation of healthcare practice and education both in the UK and internationally. Recent research and policy initiatives have highlighted this issue. The paper highlights the significance of this topic as an aspect of study in its own right by examining not only the fiscal but also the human costs such events invite. If healthcare educational curricula were to recognise the value of learning from errors, such events could become part of a wider educational resource enabling both students and facilitators to prevent threats to patient safety. For this reason, the paper attempts to articulate why patient safety should be afforded greater prominence within medical and nursing curricula. We argue that learning how to manage errors effectively would enable trainee practitioners to improve patient care, reduce the burden on an overstretched health care system and engage in dynamic as opposed to defensive practice. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Clinical Competence/standards; Curriculum/standards; Education, Medical, Undergraduate/standards; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/standards; Great Britain; Guidelines; Health Policy; Humans; Medical Errors/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Needs Assessment; Nursing Education Research; Risk Assessment; Safety Management/organization & administration; State Medicine/organization & administration},
      isbn={0260-6917 (Print)},
      language={eng}
    }

2004

  • Aspden, P., Corrigan, J. M., Wolcott, J., Erickson, S. M., & on for Safety, I. C. D. S. P.. (2004). Patient safety: Achieving a new standard for care . Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Americans should be able to count on receiving health care that is safe. To achieve this, a new health care delivery system is needed a system that both prevents errors from occurring, and learns from them when they do occur. The development of such a system requires a commitment by all stakeholders to a culture of safety and to the development of improved information systems for the delivery of health care. This national health information infrastructure is needed to provide immediate access to complete patient information and decision-support tools for clinicians and their patients. In addition, this infrastructure must capture patient safety information as a by-product of care and use this information to design even safer delivery systems. Health data standards are both a critical and time-sensitive building block of the national health information infrastructure. Building on the Institute of Medicine reports To Err Is Human and Crossing the Quality Chasm, Patient Safety puts forward a road map for the development and adoption of key health care data standards to support both information exchange and the reporting and analysis of patient safety data. (Source: Publisher)

    @book{RefWorks:1172,
      author={P. Aspden and J. M. Corrigan and J. Wolcott and S. M. Erickson and IOM Committee on Data Standards for Patient Safety},
      year={2004},
      title={Patient safety: Achieving a new standard for care },
      publisher={National Academies Press},
      address={Washington, DC},
      note={id: 421},
      abstract={Americans should be able to count on receiving health care that is safe. To achieve this, a new health care delivery system is needed a system that both prevents errors from occurring, and learns from them when they do occur. The development of such a system requires a commitment by all stakeholders to a culture of safety and to the development of improved information systems for the delivery of health care. This national health information infrastructure is needed to provide immediate access to complete patient information and decision-support tools for clinicians and their patients. In addition, this infrastructure must capture patient safety information as a by-product of care and use this information to design even safer delivery systems. Health data standards are both a critical and time-sensitive building block of the national health information infrastructure. Building on the Institute of Medicine reports To Err Is Human and Crossing the Quality Chasm, Patient Safety puts forward a road map for the development and adoption of key health care data standards to support both information exchange and the reporting and analysis of patient safety data. (Source: Publisher) },
      url={http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10863.html}
    }

  • Ebright, P. R., Urden, L., Patterson, E., & Chalko, B.. (2004). Themes surrounding novice nurse near-miss and adverse-event situations . The Journal of nursing administration, 34(11), 531-538.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    OBJECTIVE: The study purpose was to identify human performance factors that characterized novice nurse near-miss/adverse-event situations in acute-care settings. BACKGROUND: Increased focus on recruitment and retention of newly graduated registered nurses (RNs) in light of patient safety improvement goals will challenge healthcare educators and administrators. What we are beginning to learn about human performance issues during real work situations from patient safety research provides information related to human performance in complex environments that may guide education and system supports for novice RNs. METHODS: Data collected during 8 retrospective interviews of novice RNs about details surrounding their individual near-miss or adverse event were analyzed for common themes. RESULTS: Nine themes were identified. Seven themes were present in at least 7 of the 8 cases and included environmental and social issues, as well as novice lack of expertise. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that support for novice nurses in acute care environments requires attention to the following: consistent availability of expertise in light of workload unpredictability, the social climate regarding expectations of novice performers, realistic expectations of novice decision-making ability during complex situations even up to a year after graduation, and strategies to recognize and intervene when novices are at risk for error. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1194,
      author={P. R. Ebright and L. Urden and E. Patterson and B. Chalko},
      year={2004},
      month={Nov},
      title={Themes surrounding novice nurse near-miss and adverse-event situations },
      journal={The Journal of nursing administration},
      volume={34},
      number={11},
      pages={531-538},
      note={id: 254; PUBM: Print; JID: 1263116; ppublish },
      abstract={OBJECTIVE: The study purpose was to identify human performance factors that characterized novice nurse near-miss/adverse-event situations in acute-care settings. BACKGROUND: Increased focus on recruitment and retention of newly graduated registered nurses (RNs) in light of patient safety improvement goals will challenge healthcare educators and administrators. What we are beginning to learn about human performance issues during real work situations from patient safety research provides information related to human performance in complex environments that may guide education and system supports for novice RNs. METHODS: Data collected during 8 retrospective interviews of novice RNs about details surrounding their individual near-miss or adverse event were analyzed for common themes. RESULTS: Nine themes were identified. Seven themes were present in at least 7 of the 8 cases and included environmental and social issues, as well as novice lack of expertise. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that support for novice nurses in acute care environments requires attention to the following: consistent availability of expertise in light of workload unpredictability, the social climate regarding expectations of novice performers, realistic expectations of novice decision-making ability during complex situations even up to a year after graduation, and strategies to recognize and intervene when novices are at risk for error. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Adult; Attitude of Health Personnel; Child; Clinical Competence; Communication; Decision Making; Education, Nursing, Continuing; Employee Performance Appraisal; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Interviews; Malpractice; Nurse's Role; Nursing Staff/education/psychology/standards; Peer Group; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Stress; Time Factors; Workload},
      isbn={0002-0443 (Print)},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Hoff, T., Jameson, L., Hannan, E., & Flink, E.. (2004). A review of the literature examining linkages between organizational factors, medical errors, and patient safety . Medical care research and review : MCRR, 61(1), 3-37.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The potential role of organizational factors in enhanced patient safety and medical error prevention is highlighted in the systems approach advocated for by the Institute of Medicine and others. However, little is known about the extent to which these factors have been shown empirically to be associated with these favorable outcomes. The present study conducted an intensive review of the clinical and health services literatures in order to explore this issue. The results of this review support the general conclusion that there is little evidence for asserting the importance of any individual, group, or structural variable in error prevention or enhanced patient safety at the present time. Two major issues bearing on the development of future research in this area involve strengthening the theoretical foundations of organizational research on patient safety and overcoming definitional and observability problems associated with error-focused dependent variables. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1212,
      author={T. Hoff and L. Jameson and E. Hannan and E. Flink},
      year={2004},
      month={Mar},
      title={A review of the literature examining linkages between organizational factors, medical errors, and patient safety },
      journal={Medical care research and review : MCRR},
      volume={61},
      number={1},
      pages={3-37},
      note={id: 414; LR: 20061115; PUBM: Print; JID: 9506850; RF: 42; ppublish },
      abstract={The potential role of organizational factors in enhanced patient safety and medical error prevention is highlighted in the systems approach advocated for by the Institute of Medicine and others. However, little is known about the extent to which these factors have been shown empirically to be associated with these favorable outcomes. The present study conducted an intensive review of the clinical and health services literatures in order to explore this issue. The results of this review support the general conclusion that there is little evidence for asserting the importance of any individual, group, or structural variable in error prevention or enhanced patient safety at the present time. Two major issues bearing on the development of future research in this area involve strengthening the theoretical foundations of organizational research on patient safety and overcoming definitional and observability problems associated with error-focused dependent variables. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Humans; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Organizational Culture; Safety Management/organization & administration; United States},
      isbn={1077-5587},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Kennedy, D.. (2004). Analysis of sharp-end, frontline human error: beyond throwing out "bad apples" . Journal of nursing care quality, 19(2), 116-122.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Sharp-end, frontline human error occurs close to the delivery of patient care. The purpose of this article is to examine the mechanism of human error and cognition, and to explore the antecedents, attributes, and consequences of frontline human error. Fallible decision-making and actions leading to patient injury are explicated in a case study. The discussion includes strategies for preventing patient injury by refining system flaws. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1222,
      author={D. Kennedy},
      year={2004},
      month={Apr-Jun},
      title={Analysis of sharp-end, frontline human error: beyond throwing out "bad apples" },
      journal={Journal of nursing care quality},
      volume={19},
      number={2},
      pages={116-122},
      note={id: 255; LR: 20051116; PUBM: Print; JID: 9200672; RF: 29; ppublish },
      abstract={Sharp-end, frontline human error occurs close to the delivery of patient care. The purpose of this article is to examine the mechanism of human error and cognition, and to explore the antecedents, attributes, and consequences of frontline human error. Fallible decision-making and actions leading to patient injury are explicated in a case study. The discussion includes strategies for preventing patient injury by refining system flaws. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Cognition; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Decision Making; Humans; Medical Errors/methods/prevention & control/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Quality Assurance, Health Care/methods; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Safety Management/methods; Systems Analysis; Workload},
      isbn={1057-3631 (Print)},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Marin, H. F.. (2004). Improving patient safety with technology . International journal of medical informatics, 73(7-8), 543-546.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This special issue congregates 15 papers related to the use of technology to facilitate and assure the quality of care and patient safety, most of them through the nursing lens. (Source: QSEN Team)

    @article{RefWorks:1234,
      author={H. F. Marin},
      year={2004},
      month={Aug},
      title={Improving patient safety with technology },
      journal={International journal of medical informatics},
      volume={73},
      number={7-8},
      pages={543-546},
      note={id: 416; PUBM: Print; JID: 9711057; ppublish },
      abstract={This special issue congregates 15 papers related to the use of technology to facilitate and assure the quality of care and patient safety, most of them through the nursing lens. (Source: QSEN Team) },
      keywords={Curriculum; Education, Nursing; Forecasting; Humans; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Medical Informatics; Nursing/standards; Patient Care/standards; Quality of Health Care; Risk Assessment},
      isbn={1386-5056},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Potter, P., Boxerman, S., Wolf, L., Marshall, J., Grayson, D., Sledge, J., & Evanoff, B.. (2004). Mapping the nursing process: a new approach for understanding the work of nursing . The Journal of nursing administration, 34(2), 101-109.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The work of nursing is nonlinear and involves complex reasoning and clinical decision making. The use of human factors engineering (HFE) as a sole means for analyzing the work of nursing is problematic. Combining HFE analysis with qualitative observation has created a new methodology for mapping the nursing process. A cognitive pathway offers a new perspective for understanding the work of nursing and analyzing how disruptions to the nursing process may contribute to errors in the acute care environment. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1252,
      author={P. Potter and S. Boxerman and L. Wolf and J. Marshall and D. Grayson and J. Sledge and B. Evanoff},
      year={2004},
      month={Feb},
      title={Mapping the nursing process: a new approach for understanding the work of nursing },
      journal={The Journal of nursing administration},
      volume={34},
      number={2},
      pages={101-109},
      note={id: 256; LR: 20041117; PUBM: Print; JID: 1263116; ppublish },
      abstract={The work of nursing is nonlinear and involves complex reasoning and clinical decision making. The use of human factors engineering (HFE) as a sole means for analyzing the work of nursing is problematic. Combining HFE analysis with qualitative observation has created a new methodology for mapping the nursing process. A cognitive pathway offers a new perspective for understanding the work of nursing and analyzing how disruptions to the nursing process may contribute to errors in the acute care environment. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Acute Disease/nursing; Attention; Clinical Competence/standards; Cognition; Data Collection/methods/standards; Decision Support Techniques; Human Engineering; Humans; Logic; Medical Errors/methods/psychology; Models, Nursing; Models, Psychological; Nonlinear Dynamics; Nurse's Role; Nurses' Aides/organization & administration/psychology; Nursing Methodology Research/methods; Nursing Process; Nursing Staff, Hospital/organization & administration/psychology; Problem Solving; Qualitative Research; Research Design; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Time and Motion Studies},
      isbn={0002-0443 (Print)},
      language={eng}
    }

2003

  • Greiner, A. C., Knebel, E., & of on the Summitt, I. M. C. H. P. E.. (2003). Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality . Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    On June 17-18, 2002 over 150 leaders and experts from health professions education, regulation, policy, advocacy, quality, and industry attended the Health Professions Education Summit to discuss and help the committee develop strategies for restructuring clinical education to be consistent with the principles of the 21st-century health system. The report says that doctors, nurses, pharmacists and other health professionals are not being adequately prepared to provide the highest quality and safest medical care possible, and there is insufficient assessment of their ongoing proficiency. Educators and accreditation, licensing and certification organizations should ensure that students and working professionals develop and maintain proficiency in five core areas: delivering patient-centered care, working as part of interdisciplinary teams, practicing evidence-based medicine, focusing on quality improvement and using information technology. (Source: Publisher)

    @book{RefWorks:1205,
      author={A. C. Greiner and E. Knebel and Institute of Medicine Committee on the Health Professions Education Summitt},
      year={2003},
      title={Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality },
      publisher={National Academies Press},
      address={Washington, D.C.},
      note={id: 389},
      abstract={On June 17-18, 2002 over 150 leaders and experts from health professions education, regulation, policy, advocacy, quality, and industry attended the Health Professions Education Summit to discuss and help the committee develop strategies for restructuring clinical education to be consistent with the principles of the 21st-century health system. The report says that doctors, nurses, pharmacists and other health professionals are not being adequately prepared to provide the highest quality and safest medical care possible, and there is insufficient assessment of their ongoing proficiency. Educators and accreditation, licensing and certification organizations should ensure that students and working professionals develop and maintain proficiency in five core areas: delivering patient-centered care, working as part of interdisciplinary teams, practicing evidence-based medicine, focusing on quality improvement and using information technology. (Source: Publisher) },
      url={http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10681.html}
    }

  • Nieva, V. F., & Sorra, J.. (2003). Safety culture assessment: a tool for improving patient safety in healthcare organizations . Quality & safety in health care, 12 Suppl 2, ii17-23.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Increasingly, healthcare organizations are becoming aware of the importance of transforming organizational culture in order to improve patient safety. Growing interest in safety culture has been accompanied by the need for assessment tools focused on the cultural aspects of patient safety improvement efforts. This paper discusses the use of safety culture assessment as a tool for improving patient safety. It describes the characteristics of culture assessment tools presently available and discusses their current and potential uses, including brief examples from healthcare organizations that have undertaken such assessments. The paper also highlights critical processes that healthcare organizations need to consider when deciding to use these tools. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1243,
      author={V. F. Nieva and J. Sorra},
      year={2003},
      month={Dec},
      title={Safety culture assessment: a tool for improving patient safety in healthcare organizations },
      journal={Quality & safety in health care},
      volume={12 Suppl 2},
      pages={ii17-23},
      note={id: 417; LR: 20041117; PUBM: Print; JID: 101136980; ppublish },
      abstract={Increasingly, healthcare organizations are becoming aware of the importance of transforming organizational culture in order to improve patient safety. Growing interest in safety culture has been accompanied by the need for assessment tools focused on the cultural aspects of patient safety improvement efforts. This paper discusses the use of safety culture assessment as a tool for improving patient safety. It describes the characteristics of culture assessment tools presently available and discusses their current and potential uses, including brief examples from healthcare organizations that have undertaken such assessments. The paper also highlights critical processes that healthcare organizations need to consider when deciding to use these tools. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Awareness; Benchmarking; Delivery of Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence/organization & administration/standards; Humans; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Organizational Culture; Safety Management/organization & administration; United States},
      isbn={1475-3898},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Papastrat, K., & Wallace, S.. (2003). Teaching baccalaureate nursing students to prevent medication errors using a problem-based learning approach . The Journal of nursing education, 42(10), 459-464.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    An objective of the baccalaureate nursing curriculum at Thomas Jefferson University, Jefferson College of Health Professions is to facilitate nursing students’ transfer of medication error knowledge into preventive action in the clinical unit. Using a problem-based learning approach, first-semester students are exposed to situations that reflect the real-world scope and complexity of medication administration and errors. Using the frameworks of Failure Mode Analysis and Human Error Mode and Effects Analysis, student groups identify hypotheses, devise solutions, and develop continuous quality improvement processes to prevent errors and facilitate error reporting. Problem-based learning is used in subsequent clinical experiences throughout the curriculum. This reinforcement, combined with a focus on increasingly complex pharmacological agents and medication calculations, enables students to employ critical thinking skills and develop the confidence necessary for safe, professional practice. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1248,
      author={K. Papastrat and S. Wallace},
      year={2003},
      month={Oct},
      title={Teaching baccalaureate nursing students to prevent medication errors using a problem-based learning approach },
      journal={The Journal of nursing education},
      volume={42},
      number={10},
      pages={459-464},
      note={id: 418; LR: 20051116; PUBM: Print; JID: 7705432; CIN: J Nurs Educ. 2003 Oct;42(10):431-2. PMID: 14577727; RF: 15; ppublish },
      abstract={An objective of the baccalaureate nursing curriculum at Thomas Jefferson University, Jefferson College of Health Professions is to facilitate nursing students' transfer of medication error knowledge into preventive action in the clinical unit. Using a problem-based learning approach, first-semester students are exposed to situations that reflect the real-world scope and complexity of medication administration and errors. Using the frameworks of Failure Mode Analysis and Human Error Mode and Effects Analysis, student groups identify hypotheses, devise solutions, and develop continuous quality improvement processes to prevent errors and facilitate error reporting. Problem-based learning is used in subsequent clinical experiences throughout the curriculum. This reinforcement, combined with a focus on increasingly complex pharmacological agents and medication calculations, enables students to employ critical thinking skills and develop the confidence necessary for safe, professional practice. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Attitude of Health Personnel; Clinical Competence/standards; Curriculum/standards; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods/standards; Humans; Medication Errors/prevention & control; Nursing Education Research; Problem-Based Learning/standards; Quality Assurance, Health Care; Students, Nursing; United States},
      isbn={0148-4834},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Polifroni, E. C., McNulty, J., & Allchin, L.. (2003). Medication errors: more basic than a system issue . Journal of nursing education, 42(10), 455-458.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The Institute of Medicine’s 2000 report drew attention to both U.S. health care agencies and the medication errors that occur within them. However, this attention focused on a more basic and fundamental issue within the medication error concern: nurses’ mathematical skills and competence. This article describes a nationwide study assessing processes to validate mathematical skills for medication administration. Practices within educational and acute care institutions are explored, and recommendations for future action are noted with a call for 100% accuracy on all mathematical examinations for medication administration. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1251,
      author={E. C. Polifroni and J. McNulty and L. Allchin},
      year={2003},
      month={10//},
      title={Medication errors: more basic than a system issue },
      journal={Journal of nursing education},
      volume={42},
      number={10},
      pages={455-458},
      note={id: 242; Language: English. Entry Date: 20031128. Publication Type: journal article. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Editorial Board Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Education. No. of Refs: 10 ref. PMID: 14577732 NLM UID: 7705432. Email: carolpolifroni@aol.com. },
      abstract={The Institute of Medicine's 2000 report drew attention to both U.S. health care agencies and the medication errors that occur within them. However, this attention focused on a more basic and fundamental issue within the medication error concern: nurses' mathematical skills and competence. This article describes a nationwide study assessing processes to validate mathematical skills for medication administration. Practices within educational and acute care institutions are explored, and recommendations for future action are noted with a call for 100% accuracy on all mathematical examinations for medication administration. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Drug Administration; Education, Nursing; Mathematics; Medication Errors; Medication Errors--Prevention and Control; Nursing Skills--Evaluation; Professional Competence--Evaluation; Registered Nurses; Hospital Policies; Mathematics--Education; Questionnaires; School Policies; Schools, Nursing; Stratified Random Sample; Surveys; Test Taking; United States},
      isbn={0148-4834}
    }

  • Smith, J., & Crawford, L.. (2003). The link between perceived adequacy of preparation to practice, nursing error, and perceived difficulty of entry-level practice . JONA’s healthcare law, ethics & regulation, 5(4), 100-103.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The article reports on a survey conducted by the National League of Nursing (NLN) regarding pre-licensure registered nurse clinical nursing education. The 51 item survey was designed to describe current practices in clinical nursing education and it was developed by Dr. Marilyn Oermann. The respondents vary from administrators to faculty who teach in the pre-licensure registered nurse programs. Expert nurse educators who serve on the NLN advisory councils and task groups also participated in answering the survey . Some of the findings of the survey were also presented. (Source: Publisher)

    @article{RefWorks:1271,
      author={J. Smith and L. Crawford},
      year={2003},
      month={12//},
      title={The link between perceived adequacy of preparation to practice, nursing error, and perceived difficulty of entry-level practice },
      journal={JONA's healthcare law, ethics & regulation},
      volume={5},
      number={4},
      pages={100-103},
      note={id: 241; Language: English. Entry Date: 20040312. Publication Type: journal article; research; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Core Nursing; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Administration. No. of Refs: 2 ref. PMID: 14660941 NLM UID: 100888423. },
      abstract={The article reports on a survey conducted by the National League of Nursing (NLN) regarding pre-licensure registered nurse clinical nursing education. The 51 item survey was designed to describe current practices in clinical nursing education and it was developed by Dr. Marilyn Oermann. The respondents vary from administrators to faculty who teach in the pre-licensure registered nurse programs. Expert nurse educators who serve on the NLN advisory councils and task groups also participated in answering the survey . Some of the findings of the survey were also presented. (Source: Publisher) },
      keywords={Clinical Competence--Standards; Education, Nursing, Associate--Standards; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate--Standards; Education, Nursing, Diploma Programs--Standards; Health Care Costs; Nurse Attitudes; Self-Efficacy; Staff Nurses--Education; Staff Nurses--Psychosocial Factors; Adult; Chi Square Test; Comparative Studies; Curriculum--Standards; Descriptive Statistics; Education Research; Licensure, Nursing; P-Value; Practical Nursing--Standards; Questionnaires; Statistical Significance; Stratified Random Sample; Surveys},
      isbn={1520-9229}
    }

  • VanGeest, J. B., & Cummins, D. S.. (2003). Educational needs assessment for improving patient safety: Results of a national study of physicians and nurses . Chicago, IL: National Patient Safety Foundation.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In 2002, the National Patient Safety Foundation® conducted a needs assessment as part of its “Improving patient safety through web-based education” project. A major objective of this project is to develop patient safety educational curriculum for physicians and nurses. The two-phased needs assessment sought to explore each group’s experiences with error in medicine, to understand their attitudes and knowledge with regards to patient safety, and to identify key informational needs. In the first phase, NPSF convened focus groups to discuss and determine the origins of, and ways to reduce, healthcare error. NPSF conducted a self-administered mail survey to identify patient safety educational and training needs. This report summarizes the key findings. (Source: Publisher)

    @book{RefWorks:1276,
      author={J. B. VanGeest and D. S. Cummins},
      year={2003},
      title={Educational needs assessment for improving patient safety: Results of a national study of physicians and nurses },
      publisher={National Patient Safety Foundation},
      address={Chicago, IL},
      note={id: 423},
      abstract={In 2002, the National Patient Safety Foundation® conducted a needs assessment as part of its “Improving patient safety through web-based education” project. A major objective of this project is to develop patient safety educational curriculum for physicians and nurses. The two-phased needs assessment sought to explore each group’s experiences with error in medicine, to understand their attitudes and knowledge with regards to patient safety, and to identify key informational needs. In the first phase, NPSF convened focus groups to discuss and determine the origins of, and ways to reduce, healthcare error. NPSF conducted a self-administered mail survey to identify patient safety educational and training needs. This report summarizes the key findings. (Source: Publisher) },
      url={http://www.npsf.org/download/EdNeedsAssess.pdf}
    }

2002

  • Gosbee, J.. (2002). Human factors engineering and patient safety . Quality & safety in health care, 11(4), 352-354.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The case study and analyses presented here illustrate the crucial role of human factors engineering (HFE) in patient safety. HFE is a framework for efficient and constructive thinking which includes methods and tools to help healthcare teams perform patient safety analyses, such as root cause analyses. The literature on HFE over several decades contains theories and applied studies to help to solve difficult patient safety problems and design issues. A case study is presented which illustrates the vulnerabilities of human factors design in a transport monitor. The subsequent analysis highlights how to move beyond the more obvious contributing factors like training to design problems and the establishment of informal norms. General advice is offered to address these issues and design issues specific to this case are discussed. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1200,
      author={J. Gosbee},
      year={2002},
      month={Dec},
      title={Human factors engineering and patient safety },
      journal={Quality & safety in health care},
      volume={11},
      number={4},
      pages={352-354},
      note={id: 412; LR: 20041117; PUBM: Print; JID: 101136980; ppublish },
      abstract={The case study and analyses presented here illustrate the crucial role of human factors engineering (HFE) in patient safety. HFE is a framework for efficient and constructive thinking which includes methods and tools to help healthcare teams perform patient safety analyses, such as root cause analyses. The literature on HFE over several decades contains theories and applied studies to help to solve difficult patient safety problems and design issues. A case study is presented which illustrates the vulnerabilities of human factors design in a transport monitor. The subsequent analysis highlights how to move beyond the more obvious contributing factors like training to design problems and the establishment of informal norms. General advice is offered to address these issues and design issues specific to this case are discussed. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Equipment and Supplies, Hospital; Human Engineering; Humans; Medical Errors/prevention & control; Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation; Organizational Case Studies; Safety Management/organization & administration; Systems Analysis; United States},
      isbn={1475-3898},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Sokol, P., & Cummins, D. S.. (2002). Patient safety. A needs assessment for patient safety education: focusing on the nursing perspective . Nursing economic$, 20(5), 245-248.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    A focus group, composed of professional nurses, addressed issues related to reducing health care errors.; Issues included the system and culture of tolerance, barriers to reporting and resolving error, breaking down the barriers, education and training.; A Web-based patient safety education module for nurses will be created to raise competencies related to these and other issues. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1272,
      author={P. Sokol and D. S. Cummins},
      year={2002},
      title={Patient safety. A needs assessment for patient safety education: focusing on the nursing perspective },
      journal={Nursing economic$},
      volume={20},
      number={5},
      pages={245-248},
      note={id: 244; Language: English. Entry Date: 20030103. Revision Date: 20050414. Publication Type: journal article; tables/charts. Journal Subset: Blind Peer Reviewed; Core Nursing; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; USA. Special Interest: Nursing Administration. No. of Refs: 1 ref. PMID: 12382546 NLM UID: 8404213. },
      abstract={A focus group, composed of professional nurses, addressed issues related to reducing health care errors.; Issues included the system and culture of tolerance, barriers to reporting and resolving error, breaking down the barriers, education and training.; A Web-based patient safety education module for nurses will be created to raise competencies related to these and other issues. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Patient Safety--Education; Needs Assessment; Health Care Errors; Focus Groups; Voluntary Reporting},
      isbn={0746-1739}
    }

2001

  • Lester, H., & Tritter, J. Q.. (2001). Medical error: a discussion of the medical construction of error and suggestions for reforms of medical education to decrease error . Medical education, 35(9), 855-861.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    INTRODUCTION: There is a growing public perception that serious medical error is commonplace and largely tolerated by the medical profession. The Government and medical establishment’s response to this perceived epidemic of error has included tighter controls over practising doctors and individual stick-and-carrot reforms of medical practice. DISCUSSION: This paper critically reviews the literature on medical error, professional socialization and medical student education, and suggests that common themes such as uncertainty, necessary fallibility, exclusivity of professional judgement and extensive use of medical networks find their genesis, in part, in aspects of medical education and socialization into medicine. The nature and comparative failure of recent reforms of medical practice and the tension between the individualistic nature of the reforms and the collegiate nature of the medical profession are discussed. CONCLUSION: A more theoretically informed and longitudinal approach to decreasing medical error might be to address the genesis of medical thinking about error through reforms to the aspects of medical education and professional socialization that help to create and perpetuate the existence of avoidable error, and reinforce medical collusion concerning error. Further changes in the curriculum to emphasize team working, communication skills, evidence-based practice and strategies for managing uncertainty are therefore potentially key components in helping tomorrow’s doctors to discuss, cope with and commit fewer medical errors. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1225,
      author={H. Lester and J. Q. Tritter},
      year={2001},
      month={Sep},
      title={Medical error: a discussion of the medical construction of error and suggestions for reforms of medical education to decrease error },
      journal={Medical education},
      volume={35},
      number={9},
      pages={855-861},
      note={id: 415; LR: 20041117; PUBM: Print; JID: 7605655; RF: 44; ppublish },
      abstract={INTRODUCTION: There is a growing public perception that serious medical error is commonplace and largely tolerated by the medical profession. The Government and medical establishment's response to this perceived epidemic of error has included tighter controls over practising doctors and individual stick-and-carrot reforms of medical practice. DISCUSSION: This paper critically reviews the literature on medical error, professional socialization and medical student education, and suggests that common themes such as uncertainty, necessary fallibility, exclusivity of professional judgement and extensive use of medical networks find their genesis, in part, in aspects of medical education and socialization into medicine. The nature and comparative failure of recent reforms of medical practice and the tension between the individualistic nature of the reforms and the collegiate nature of the medical profession are discussed. CONCLUSION: A more theoretically informed and longitudinal approach to decreasing medical error might be to address the genesis of medical thinking about error through reforms to the aspects of medical education and professional socialization that help to create and perpetuate the existence of avoidable error, and reinforce medical collusion concerning error. Further changes in the curriculum to emphasize team working, communication skills, evidence-based practice and strategies for managing uncertainty are therefore potentially key components in helping tomorrow's doctors to discuss, cope with and commit fewer medical errors. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Education, Medical/methods/standards; England; Humans; Medical Errors/prevention & control/standards; Professional Competence/standards},
      isbn={0308-0110},
      language={eng}
    }

  • Maddox, P. J., Wakefield, M., & Bull, J.. (2001). Patient safety and the need for professional and educational change . Nursing outlook, 49(1), 8-13.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Questionable quality of health care delivered in the United States has become a front-line issue, taking a strong place alongside more traditional concerns such as increasing costs and access to care. Given that nurses comprise the largest component of the health care workforce, safety and error reduction in health care are central concerns for the profession. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1229,
      author={P. J. Maddox and M. Wakefield and J. Bull},
      year={2001},
      month={Jan-Feb},
      title={Patient safety and the need for professional and educational change },
      journal={Nursing outlook},
      volume={49},
      number={1},
      pages={8-13},
      note={id: 257; LR: 20051116; PUBM: Print; JID: 0401075; RF: 26; ppublish },
      abstract={Questionable quality of health care delivered in the United States has become a front-line issue, taking a strong place alongside more traditional concerns such as increasing costs and access to care. Given that nurses comprise the largest component of the health care workforce, safety and error reduction in health care are central concerns for the profession. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Clinical Competence; Education, Nursing; Facility Regulation and Control/organization & administration; Guidelines; Humans; Institute of Medicine (U.S.); Medical Errors/legislation & jurisprudence/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Nursing Care/standards; Nursing Service, Hospital/standards; Organizational Culture; Organizational Innovation; Patient Advocacy; Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Safety Management/organization & administration; United States/epidemiology},
      isbn={0029-6554 (Print)},
      language={eng}
    }

2000

  • Owen, B. D.. (2000). Teaching students safer methods of patient transfer . Nurse educator, 25(6), 288-293.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Lifting patients is a major contributor to back injuries. The commonly used method for lifting patients, the under-axilla grasp method, exceeds the level of force that can safely be exerted to the lumbar-sacral area of the spine. Using assistive devices decreases the injury rate. The author discusses how student nurses can be taught to use assistive devices and thus avoid the under-axilla grasp method of transfer. (Source: PubMed)

    @article{RefWorks:1245,
      author={B. D. Owen},
      year={2000},
      month={Nov-Dec},
      title={Teaching students safer methods of patient transfer },
      journal={Nurse educator},
      volume={25},
      number={6},
      pages={288-293},
      note={id: 408; PUBM: Print; JID: 7701902; RF: 24; ppublish },
      abstract={Lifting patients is a major contributor to back injuries. The commonly used method for lifting patients, the under-axilla grasp method, exceeds the level of force that can safely be exerted to the lumbar-sacral area of the spine. Using assistive devices decreases the injury rate. The author discusses how student nurses can be taught to use assistive devices and thus avoid the under-axilla grasp method of transfer. (Source: PubMed) },
      keywords={Activities of Daily Living; Attitude of Health Personnel; Back Injuries/etiology/prevention & control; Biomechanics; Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Services Needs and Demand; Human Engineering; Humans; Lifting/adverse effects; Occupational Health; Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology; Precipitating Factors; Safety Management/methods; Self-Help Devices; Teaching/methods; Transportation of Patients/methods; Weight-Bearing},
      isbn={0363-3624},
      language={eng}
    }