Simulation Evaluation

Brenda Wiles, MEd, MSN, RN.  Xavier University.

The purpose of simulation evaluation varies.  It can be used to evaluate the simulation experience itself, student behaviors, student learning, and/or outcomes (Adamson, 2013).  The table below provides resources on some of the most current best practices for simulation evaluation.


Author Topic Findings/Observations
Adamson, Kardong-Edgren, & Willhaus, 2013 Review of evaluation instruments N/A
Elfrink-Cordi, Leighton, Ryan-Wenger, & Doyle, 2012 Simulation Effectiveness Tool (SET) Reliable tool; tool included in article
Barry, M., Bradshaw, C.,  Noonan, Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (OSCE) Use of this type of tool captures professional skills which cannot be captured by just using a skills checklist
Bogossian, F., et. al., 2014 Use of four different measures:  Multiple Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), OSCE, Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM), Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) Focuses on recognizing and responding to patient deterioration.  Recognition and response is difficult for senior level nursing students
Kuiper, Heinrich, Matthias, Graham, & Bell-Kotwall, 2008 Outcome Present State Test (OPT) model debriefing tool Promising tool, but further testing is needed; tool provided in article
Lasater, 2007 Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) Several subsequent studies have shown this to be a valid and reliable tool; rubric included in article
Radhakrishnan, 2007 Clinical Simulation Evaluation Tool (CSET) Used in a two patient simulation scenario to capture students’ ability to accurately identify patients and obtain vital signs; further testing needed; tool included in article
Todd, Hawkins, Hercinger, Manz, & Tracy, 2014  Creighton Competency Evaluation Instrument        (C-CEI) Valid and reliable; tool available on-line
Gantt, 2010 Clark-Sweeney clinical simulation evaluation rubric Developed for obstetric simulation; uses Bloom’s taxonomy and Benner’s novice to expert; rubric  included in article
Luetke and Bembenek, 2012 QSEN rubric Promising, needs further testing; tool available in power point



Adamson, K., A., Kardong-Edgren, S., & Willhaus, J. (2013). An updated review of published simulation

evaluation instruments. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9, e393-e400. doi:


Barry, M., Bradshaw, C., Noonan, M. (2013). Improving the content and face validity of OSCE

Assessment marking criteria on an undergraduate midwifery programme:  A quality initiative.

    Nurse Education in Practice,13, 477-480.  doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2012.11.006

Bogossian, F., Cooper, S., Cant R., Beauchamp, A., Porter, J., Kaina, V., Bucknall, T., Phillips, N., & The

FIRST2ACT™ Research Team. (2014). Undergraduate nursing students’ performance in

recognising and responding to sudden patient deterioration in high psychological fidelity

simulated environments: An Australian multi-centre study. Nurse Education Today, 34, 691-696.

doi:  10.1016/j.nedt.2013.09.015

Elfrink-Cordi, V., L., Leighton, K., Ryan-Wenger, N., & Doyle, T., J. (2012). History and

development of the simulation effectiveness tool (SET). Clinical Simulation in Nursing,

     8, e199-e210. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2011.12.001

Gantt, L. (2010). Using the Clark simulation evaluation rubric with associate degree and baccalaureate

nursing students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 31, 2, 101-105.

Kuiper, R., A., Heinrich, C., Matthias, A., Graham, M., J., & Bell-Kotwall, L. (2008). Debriefing

with the OPT model of clinical reasoning during high fidelity patient simulation.

    International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 5, 1, 2-14. Retrieved from

Lasater, K., (2007). Clinical judgment development: Using simulation to create an assessment rubric.

    Journal of Nursing Education, 46, 11, 496-503. Retrieved from

Luetke, R., & Bembenek, B., D. (2012).  Simulation evaluation: A comparison of two

simulation evaluation rubrics.  Presented at the 2012 QSEN conference.  Retrieved from

Todd, M., Hawkins, K., Hercinger, M., Manz, J., & Tracy, M. (2014). Creighton Competency Evaluation

Instrument.  Creighton University School of Nursing.  Retrieved from

Radhakrishnan, K., Roche, J., Cunningham, H. (2007). Measuring clinical practice parameters with

human patient simulation: A pilot study. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship,

     4, 1, Article 8, 4-11. Retrieved from